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Roman Theatre and its Surroundings and the "Triumphal Arch" of Orange

Roman Theatre and its Surroundings and the "Triumphal Arch" of Orange

Situated in the Rhone valley, the ancient theatre of Orange, with its 103-m-long facade, is one of the best preserved of all the great Roman theatres. Built between A.D. 10 and 25, the Roman arch is one of the most beautiful and interesting surviving examples of a provincial triumphal arch from the reign of Augustus. It is decorated with low reliefs commemorating the establishment of the Pax Romana.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Théâtre antique et ses abords et « Arc de Triomphe » d'Orange

Dans la vallée du Rhône, le théâtre antique d'Orange, avec son mur de façade de 103 m de long, est l'un des mieux conservés des grands théâtres romains. Construit entre 10 et 25, l'arc de triomphe romain d'Orange est l'un des plus beaux et des plus intéressants arcs de triomphe provinciaux d'époque augustéenne qui nous soit parvenu, avec des bas-reliefs qui retracent l'établissement de la Pax Romana.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

مسرح قديم وضواحيه وقوس النصر في مقاطعة أورانج

يُعتبر مسرح أورانج القديم الذي يقع في وادي نهر الرون بواجهة جداره التي تبلغ طولها 103 أمتار من أكثر المسارح الرومانية الكبيرة التي تمّ الحفاظ عليها. ويُعتبر قوص النصر الروماني في أورانج الذي تمّ تشييده بين العامين 10 و25 من أجمل أقواس النصر العائدة للحقبة الأغسطينية التي بلغت إلينا وأكثرها إثارةً، بنتوءاته التي تُعيد استتباب باكس رومانا أي السلام الروماني.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

奥朗日古罗马剧场和凯旋门

奥朗日古剧场坐落在隆河河谷(Rhone valley),正面长103米,是所有古罗马剧场中保存最完好的剧场之一。罗马凯旋门建造于公元10至25年,是从奥古斯都统治时期保存下来的外省凯旋门中最精美、最有意义的一个,上面刻有浅浮雕,用以纪念罗马帝国统治下的和平与繁荣。

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Древнеримский театр с окружением и триумфальная арка в городе Оранж

Расположенный в долине реки Роны, античный театр Оранжа с фасадом длиной 103 м является одним из наиболее хорошо сохранившихся среди всех крупнейших древнеримских театров. Древнеримская арка Оранжа, построенная между 10 и 25 гг. н.э. при правлении Августа, признана одной из самых красивых и примечательных среди всех провинциальных триумфальных арок, дошедших до наших дней. Она украшена барельефами, увековечивающими достижения древнеримского мира (Pax Romana).

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Teatro romano y sus alrededores y “Arco de Triunfo” de Orange

Situada en el valle del Ródano, la ciudad de Orange posee uno de los grandes teatros romanos mejor conservados del mundo, con una fachada escénica de 103 metros de anchura. Asimismo, cuenta con un arco de triunfo construido entre los años 10 y 25 de nuestra era, que es uno de los más bellos ejemplos subsistentes de los monumentos romanos provinciales de este tipo erigidos en la época de Augusto. Sus bajorrelieves representan el establecimiento de la “pax romana”.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

オランジュのローマ劇場とその周辺及び
紀元前1世紀、ローマのカエサルがフランス南部のローヌ川左岸にあるオランジュを支配下におさめて建設した植民都市。貴重なローマ遺跡群のなかでも、ローマ劇場は保存状態がよく、音響効果も優れているため、現在も毎年夏には国際的なオペラ公演が行われている。

source: NFUAJ

Romeins theater en omgeving en de ‘Triomfboog’ van Orange

Het oude theater van Orange, met zijn 103 meter lange gevel, ligt in de Rhône vallei en behoort tot de best bewaarde van alle grote Romeinse theaters. De Romeinse boog werd gebouwd tussen 10 en 25 na Christus. Het is een van de mooiste en meest interessante overgebleven voorbeelden van een provinciale triomfboog uit de regeringsperiode van Augustus. Hij is versierd met lage reliëfs ter herinnering aan de vestiging van de Pax Romana (Romeinse Vrede). De boog is later door Tiberius gereconstrueerd en bevat een inscriptie uit het jaar 27, ter ere van hem.

Source: unesco.nl

Roman Theatre and its Surroundings and the "Triumphal Arch" of Orange (France) © Editions Gelbart
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Situated in the Rhône Valley, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur region, the ancient theatre of Orange, with its 103 m long and 37 m high facade, is one of the best preserved of all the great Roman theatres. Built in the beginning of the Christian era, the ancient theatre presents all the components of the Latin Theatre according to Vitruvius: the cavea (semicircular tiers), the lateral accesses and the surprisingly preserved stage wall flanked by parascenia. Columns and numerous statues in niches originally decorated the stage. Only a few vestiges remain of this original decoration, including the statue of Augustus displaced to the large central niche. Closed by Imperial decree in 391, the theatre was abandoned and, later, ransacked and looted by Barbarians. It was not until the 19th century that the ancient theatre was reborn thanks to the restoration work begun in 1825. Built between 10 and 25 AD, the Roman Triumphal arch of Orange is one of the most beautiful and interesting provincial triumphal arches of the Augustan Age that has come down to us, thanks to its low reliefs commemorating the establishment of the Pax Romana. On its north and south sides, Celtic weapons from the period of independence appear in fan shape on a wall; on its east and west sides, the Celts are represented in chains. In addition to this decoration, there are naval remains where prows, oars, anchors and aplustre, recall the control over the maritime world that the victory of Actium gave to Rome. Finally, on the upper attic, Roman and Celtic cavalrymen and infantrymen clash. Transformed into a fort in the 13th century, partially repaired in the 18th century, then restored in the 19th century, the Triumphal Arch of Orange remains one of the most remarkable monuments of Roman Gaul.

Criterion (iii): From the Augustan Age, the ancient Theatre of Orange is an exceptional example in the typology of Roman theatres.

Criterion (vi): The events referred to in the low reliefs carved on the north face of the Triumphal Arch of Orange (war against the Barbarians and establishment of the Pax Romana) are of universal significance.

Integrity

The property includes the entire Saint-Eutrope Hill which the theatre backs up against and where the known vestiges of the religious complex to which it belonged are located. The theatre, like these vestiges, and like the triumphal arch, are no longer in their original state. This is generally the case with ancient vestiges, but the elements preserved are spectacular and sufficient to demonstrate the value of the property.

Authenticity

The Roman monuments of Orange have come down to us as a result of several processes of appropriation that have adapted or transformed these buildings for other uses over the centuries. The triumphal arch was restored in 1824, one of the oldest interventions of this kind in France. From the 19th century onwards, clearing and restoration campaigns made it possible to consolidate these monuments. The additions made – among others those that restored the theatre to its former use - respected the ancient substance.

Protection and management requirements

The ancient theatre and the archaeological site bordering it have been listed as historic monuments since 1840. The specific features of their protection derive from the Heritage Code.  All work on historic monuments is subject to authorisation from the regional prefect after advice from the regional curator of historic monuments. In addition, these historic monuments generate protective perimeters in which all work is subject to authorisation by the architect of the Bâtiments de France. The buffer zone currently complies to these 500-metre limits. A Declaration of an Outstanding Heritage Site currently being drawn up will in the future allow the protection to be strengthened in an enlarged buffer zone. The St. Eutrope Hill has double protection as a historic monument: listing in 1919 and inscription in 1995.  It has been a listed site under the Environmental Code since 1935. Work authorisations are subject to ministerial authorisations.  The overall management is the responsibility of the city of Orange, the owner, and the State, which provides expertise and scientific and technical monitoring. The cultural events held in the ancient theatre are subject to strict controls to prevent any degradation. The work carried out to redevelop the Place de l’Arc de Triomphe made it possible to move the road away from the monument and improve pedestrian access. This development has received the approval of the National Commission for Heritage and Architecture.The property has a management plan which is regularly updated. The strengthening of consultation between the city of Orange and the State is an indispensable element in the long-term management of the Ancient Theatre and its surroundings and the “Triumphal Arch” of Orange.

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