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Collegiate Church, Castle and Old Town of Quedlinburg

Collegiate Church, Castle and Old Town of Quedlinburg

Quedlinburg, in the Land of Sachsen-Anhalt, was a capital of the East Franconian German Empire at the time of the Saxonian-Ottonian ruling dynasty. It has been a prosperous trading town since the Middle Ages. The number and high quality of the timber-framed buildings make Quedlinburg an exceptional example of a medieval European town. The Collegiate Church of St Servatius is one of the masterpieces of Romanesque architecture.

Collégiale, château et vielle ville de Quedlinburg

Quedlinburg, dans le Land de Saxe-Anhalt, fut une capitale du Saint Empire romain germanique à l'époque de la dynastie des Saxons-Ottoniens. Elle devint une ville commerçante et prospère dès le Moyen Âge. Par le nombre et la qualité de ses bâtiments à colombage, Quedlinburg est un exemple exceptionnel de ville européenne médiévale. Sa collégiale Saint-Servais est un chef-d'œuvre d'architecture romane.

الكنيسة المجمّعية والقصر والمدينة القديمة في كيدلينبورغ

كانت كفدلينبورغ، في منطقة "لاند دو ساكس- أنهالت"، عاصمة الأمبراطورية الرومانية الجرمانية المقدسة في عصر سلالة الساكسون – أتونيون. وأصبحت مدينة تجارية مزدهرة منذ القرون الوسطى. وتمثّل المدينة، بعدد مبانيها المبنية بالخشب ونوعيتها، مثالاً استثنائياً للمدينة الأوروبية في تلك الحقبة. أما مجمّعها المعروف بسان سيرفيه، فهو تحفة فنية للهندسة المعمارية الرومانية.

source: UNESCO/ERI

奎德林堡神学院、城堡和古城

位于萨克森-安哈尔特(Sachsen-Anhalt)地区的奎德林堡是萨克森-奥图大帝(Saxonian-Ottonian)统治期间,东法兰哥尼亚公国(the East Franconian German Empire)的首都,从中世纪开始就一直是一个繁荣的商贸小镇。大量高水平的木结构建筑使奎德林堡成为中世纪欧洲城市的杰出典范,城中圣瑟瓦修联合教堂(the Collegiate Church of St Servatius)则是罗马式建筑的杰作。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Коллегиатская церковь, замок и Старый город в Кведлинбурге

Кведлинбург, расположенный в земле Саксония-Ангальт, был столицей Восточно-Франконской части Германской империи во время правления Саксонской династии Оттонов. Начиная со Средних веков этот торговый город процветал. Значительное количество и высокое качество фахверковых домов делает Кведлинбург выдающимся примером средневекового европейского города. Коллегиатская церковь Св. Серватия является одним из шедевров романской архитектуры.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Colegiata, castillo y ciudad de Quedlinburgo

Ubicada en el Land de Sachsen-Anhalt, la ciudad de Quedlinburgo fue una de las capitales del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico en tiempos de la dinastía sajona de los Otones. Desde la Edad Media se convirtió en una próspera ciudad de mercaderes. El número, la calidad y el estado de conservación de sus edificios de entramado hacen de ella un ejemplo excepcional de ciudad europea medieval. La colegiata de San Servasio es una obra maestra de la arquitectura románica.

source: UNESCO/ERI

クヴェートリンブルクの聖堂参事会教会、城と旧市街
旧東ドイツ南東部ザクセン地方に位置する都市。10世紀ごろには東フランク王国時代の首都となり、中世から交易都市として繁栄した。旧市街には木造軸組の美しい建物が数多く残り、中世ヨーロッパの典型的な街並みを偲ばせる。なかでも、聖セルバティウス教会は重厚なロマネスク建築様式の傑作とされている。

source: NFUAJ

Stiftskerk, kasteel en oude binnenstad van Quedlinburg

Quedlinburg in het ‘Land’ van Sachsen-Anhalt, was een hoofdstad van het Oost-Frankische Duitse Rijk op het moment van de Saksisch-Ottoonse dynastie. De oude stad werd in de 12e eeuw te klein en er kwam een nieuwe stad. In 1330 werden ze samengevoegd, omgeven door een gemeenschappelijke muur. Quedlinburg is een welvarende handelsstad geweest sinds de middeleeuwen. De hoeveelheid (ongeveer 1.300 uit 6 eeuwen) en hoge kwaliteit van de vakwerkhuizen maken het een uitzonderlijk voorbeeld van een middeleeuwse Europese stad. De Stiftskerk van Sint Servatius is een van de meesterwerken van de Romaanse architectuur.

Source: unesco.nl

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Collegiate Church, Castle and Old Town of Quedlinburg © LimesMedia/Tim Schnarr
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Quedlinburg, in the State of Sachsen-Anhalt, was a capital of the East Franconian German Empire at the time of the Saxonian-Ottonian ruling dynasty (919 to 1024). It has been a prosperous trading town since the Middle Ages. The number and high quality of the timber-framed buildings make Quedlinburg an exceptional example of a medieval European town.

The extraordinary and worldwide cultural importance of Quedlinburg is based on the close link between its history and architecture, which is intertwined with that of the Saxonian-Ottonian ruling dynasty. Following the coronation of Henry I (876 to 936), the first German King from the Saxonian dynasty, the royal residence of Quedlinburg became the capital of the East Franconian German Empire, the "metropolis of the Reich" of the first German state. A visible testimony to this dynasty is the Collegiate Church dedicated to St Servatius, which was one of the most highly esteemed churches of the Empire during the Middle Ages. Its crypt, with cross vaults, capitals, tombs, and murals, constitutes one of the most significant monuments in the history of art from the 10th to the 12th century. The crypt of the original building is included in the impressive church, which was built on a basilica floor plan from 1070 to 1129.

Quedlinburg is of interest in a variety of ways. For medievalists, the town is an outstanding example of Middle Age history. It illustrates the typical development of a medieval town, originating from a castle village and several separate settlements. Its value as a monument of urban architecture is based on the preservation of the town wall of 1330, its surviving urban relations of the old parishes of St Aegidius, St Blasius, St Benedictus, and St Nicolas, and the urban building patterns with medieval and post-medieval timber-framed houses.

The splendour of the metropolis of Quedlinburg from the 10th to the 12th century can be seen in the buildings on the castle hill. The ground plan and very likely some original pieces inside the house have survived from the surrounding residential town of that time. The market settlement with merchants and craftsmen to the west, and later to the north, of the castle hill combined with smaller settlements to form the town of Quedlinburg. Its foundation and development until the 18th century under rule of the Imperial foundation contributed significantly to the town’s overall structure and appearance. Quedlinburg experienced an economic boom during and immediately after the Thirty Years' War, and as a result, more timber-framed houses were built from the period of 1620 to 1720 than any comparable town in the region. This was the heyday of this type of architecture in Quedlinburg, and a number of special building types developed during this time. 

Criterion (iv): Quedlinburg is an outstanding example of a European town with medieval foundations, which has preserved a high proportion of timber-framed buildings of exceptional quality. 

Integrity

The town plan and urban fabric maintain the essentially medieval townscape intact, preserving a significantly high proportion of timber-framed buildings of the Middle Ages and later periods. 

Authenticity

The authenticity of Quedlinburg is irrefutable. Many of the buildings, especially the timber-framed residential structures, have undergone little or no modification over the course of the centuries. The policy of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR), which favoured the use of industrially prefabricated structures to replace buildings demolished in the late 1980s, has resulted in elements within the town where all authenticity of material and construction has been lost. However, these elements represent a relatively small proportion of the total building stock; moreover, in details such as scale, volume and window lines the overall townscape has been respected. 

Protection and management requirements

The historic town area is protected as a monument by the Law of Monument Conservation of State of Sachsen-Anhalt of 21 October 1991; the last amendment of this law (article no. 2) was in 2005. In addition, 770 individual buildings are protected as historic buildings. Regulations relating to urban reconstruction in the inner town are included in the Construction Decree of 28 March 1991 in its textual setting of 20 December 2005. A conservation area, according to article 2 of the Law of Monument Conservation, has been allocated as buffer zone in order to ensure the important views and visual characteristics of the property. Community involvement is an integral part of the planning system.

The buildings included in the property vary in ownership among the local authority (Stadt Quedlinburg), the Church, and private individuals. Direct management of individual properties remains the responsibility of the respective owners. However, the Town Council of Quedlinburg has initiated a number of projects designed to improve the management and preservation of the historic quarters of the town. These include new evaluation and recording of monuments, as required by the State of Sachsen-Anhalt Law of 1991; urban architecture studies for the preservation and development of Quedlinburg; preparation of new regulations relating to the historic sections of Quedlinburg; as well as optimisation, assessment, and control of construction work in the historic part of the town.

The project objectives adhere in every detail to international standards, such as the Venice Charter of 1964, and to the principles enunciated in the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention. The stakeholders act in coordination with the regional and local historic monument conservation authorities.

A Management Plan guarantees the comprehensive and permanent protection of the historic monuments and the sustainable urban development of the World Heritage property. This plan is yearly checked and updated when required.

Long Description

The importance of Quedlinburg rests on three main elements: the preservation of the medieval street pattern; the wealth of urban vernacular buildings, especially timber-framed houses of the 16th and 17th centuries, and the important Romanesque collegiate church of St Servatius. The original urban layout is remarkably well preserved: it is a classic example of the growth of European medieval towns. The history of the medieval and early modern town is perfectly illustrated by the street pattern of the present-day town.

Situated in a hilly region to the north of the Harz Mountains, villa Quitilingaburg is first mentioned in 922 in an official document of Henry I (the Fowler), who was elected German King in 919. The town owes its wealth and importance during the Middle Ages to Henry I and his successors. On the death of Henry I in 936 his widow Mathilde remained in Quedlinburg at the collegiate church of St Servatius on the Castle Hill, founded by Henry's son and successor Otto I as a collegial establishment for unmarried daughters of the nobility.

Westendorf, the area around the Burgberg, quickly attracted a settlement of merchants and craftsmen, which was granted market rights in 994. Several other settlements also developed in what was to become the early town centre, which was granted special privileges by the Emperors Henry III and Lothar IV in the 11th and 12th centuries. A Benedictine monastery was founded in 946 on the second hill, the Münzenberg. The Quedlinburg merchants were given the right to trade without restriction or payment of duties from the North Sea to the Alps. The resulting prosperity led to a rapid expansion of the town. A new town (Neustadt) was founded in the 12th century on the eastern bank of the river Bode, laid out on a regular plan.

The two towns were merged in 1330 and were surrounded by a common city wall. The new, enlarged town joined the Lower Saxon Town Alliance (Städtebund) in 1384, and in 1426 it became a member of the Hanseatic League. Quedlinburg retained an important economic role, as evidenced by the many elaborate timber-framed houses from the 16th and 17th centuries. The protectorate (Vogtei) of the town was sold by its hereditary owner, the Elector of Saxony, to the House of Brandenburg-Prussia in 1698, and in 1802 its special free status as an imperial foundation came to an end when it was formally incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia.

The area comprises the historic town enclosed within the city walls, consisting of the old (10th century) and new (12th century) towns, the Westendorf district with the collegiate church and the buildings of the imperial foundation, St Wipert's Church, and the Münzenberg. The nucleus of the town is the castle hill, with its administrative and religious buildings, around which settlements of craftsmen and traders quickly grew up to service the requirements of the rulers and their households. As was so often the case in central Europe, an independent mercantile settlement with civic rights was founded on the opposite side of the river, which was to be merged after a short time with the original town to create a new administrative unit whose integrity was demonstrated with the construction of an encircling town wall. To this in turn were accreted new extra-mural suburbs.

The original collegiate church of St Servatius was built when Henry the Fowler established his residence on the castle hill. The first basilica, in the crypt of which Henry and his wife Mathilde were buried, was destroyed by a disastrous fire in 1070. The crypt was incorporated into the new structure, also basilican in plan, that was constructed between 1070 and 1129. The two western bays of the three-aisled crypt survive, with their remarkable Ottonian 'mushroom' capitals. The groined vaulting of the new, raised crypt, stucco capitals, imperial and other tombs, and wall paintings make this one of the key monuments of the history of art from the 10th to the 12th centuries. The twin-towered western facade was added at the time of the reconstruction. Much of the decoration is in northern Italian style, emphasizing the imperial connections of the church.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

Situated in a hilly region to the north of the Harz Mountains, the villa Quitilingaburg is first mentioned in 922 in an official document of Henry I (the Fowler), who was elected German King in 919. He built a castle on what became known as the Castle Hill (Burgberg), one of the two sandstone hills that overlook the Harz valley, and this became one of his favourite residences. It became the capital of the East Franconian German Empire and was the place where many important political and religious assemblies and festivals took place. The town owes its wealth and importance during the Middle Ages to Henry I and his successors. German Kings are known to have stayed at Quedlinburg on 69 occasions between 922 and 1207.

On the death of Henry I in 936 his widow Mathilde remained in Quedlinburg at the collegiate church of St Servatius on the Castle Hill, founded by Henry's son and successor Otto I as a collegial establishment for unmarried daughters of the nobility. It was to become one of the most influential foundations of its type in the Holy Roman Empire. From 944 the abbesses (many of whom were members of the Imperial family and were buried in the crypt of the church) had the right to mint coins at Quedlinburg.

Westendorf, the area around the Burgberg, quickly attracted a settlement of merchants and craftsmen, which was granted market rights in 994, and these were confirmed in 1040 and again in 1134. Several other settlements also developed in what was to become the early town centre, which was granted special privileges by the Emperors Henry Ill and Lothar IV in the 11th and 12th centuries. A Benedictine monastery was founded in 946 on the second hill, the Mtinzenberg.

The Quedlinburg merchants were given the right to trade without restriction or payment of duties from the North Sea to the Alps, being subject only to their own law-courts. The resulting prosperity led to a rapid expansion of the town. A new town (Neustadt) was founded in the 12th century on the eastern bank of the river Bode, laid out on a regular plan - a familiar pattern in medieval European towns. The two towns were merged in 1330 and were surrounded by a common city wall. Suburbs such as "Am neuen Weg" and "In den Gropem" quickly grew up outside the city walls.

The new, enlarged town joined the Lower Saxon Town Alliance (Stiidtebund) in 1384. and in 1426 it became a member of the Hanseatic League. It seemed destined to play a major role in 15th century Germany, but it joined the losing side in one of the many political and economic conflicts that characterized this period and as a result it lost its franchises and communal privileges in 1477. However, despite this setback Quedlinburg retained an important economic role, as evidenced by the many elaborate timber-framed houses from the 16th and 17th centuries.

The protectorate (Vogtei) of the town was sold by its hereditary owner, the Elector of Saxony, to the house of Brandenburg-Prussia in 1698, and in 1802 its special free status as an Imperial foundation came to an end when it was formally incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia. During the 19th and 20th centuries it developed steadily, with the addition of new residential and industrial areas and important administrative buildings.

 

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation