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Cocos Island National Park

Cocos Island National Park

Cocos Island National Park, located 550 km off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, is the only island in the tropical eastern Pacific with a tropical rainforest. Its position as the first point of contact with the northern equatorial counter-current, and the myriad interactions between the island and the surrounding marine ecosystem, make the area an ideal laboratory for the study of biological processes. The underwater world of the national park has become famous due to the attraction it holds for divers, who rate it as one of the best places in the world to view large pelagic species such as sharks, rays, tuna and dolphins.

Parc national de l'île Cocos

Le parc national de l'île Cocos, situé à 550 km au large de la côte pacifique du Costa Rica, est la seule île du Pacifique tropical oriental possédant une forêt tropicale humide. Son emplacement – au premier point de contact avec le contre-courant nord-équatorial – et la myriade d'interactions entre l'île et l'écosystème marin environnant font de ce parc un laboratoire idéal pour l'étude des processus biologiques. Le monde sous-marin du parc national est devenu célèbre et de nombreux plongeurs le considèrent comme le meilleur endroit au monde pour observer les grandes espèces pélagiques comme les requins, les raies, les thons et les dauphins.

منتزه جزيرة كوكوس الوطني

يُشكّل منتزه جزيرة كوكوس الوطني، الواقع على مسافة 550 كيلومترا في عرض ساحل كوستاريكا المتوسطي، الجزيرة الوحيدة للمحيط الهادئ الإستوائي الشرقي التي تنعم بغابة إستوائيّة رطبة. وبفضل موقعه عند أوّل نقطة تلاقي مع التيّار البحري الإستوائي الشمالي المضاد وتفاعله بين الجزيرة والنظام البيئي البحري المحيط، أصبح هذا المنتزه مختبراً مثالياً لدراسة العمليّات البيولوجيّة. وقد ذاع صيت عالم ما تحت البحار في هذا المنتزه الوطني الذي يعتبره العديد من الغطّاسين أفضل مكانٍ في العالم من أجل مراقبة الأصناف المحيطيّة الكبيرة مثل سمك القرش والشفنين والتنّ والدلفين.

source: UNESCO/ERI

科科斯岛国家公园

科科斯岛国家公园距哥斯达黎加太平洋海岸550公里,是热带东太平洋上唯一拥有热带雨林的岛屿,其位置最接近北赤道逆流,又是该岛和周围海洋生态系统全面相互影响的地方,因此这个地区是研究生物进程的理想实验室。公园的海底世界非常著名,吸引了众多的潜水员,因为这里被认为是世界上观看远洋生物的绝佳地点,鲨鱼、鳐鱼、金枪鱼以及海豚等随处可见。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Национальный парк Остров Кокос

Кокос, лежащий в 550 км от берегов Коста-Рики, является единственным островом в восточной части Тихого океана, который покрыт влажными тропическими лесами. Расположение Кокоса на пути экваториального противотечения, а также разнообразие природных взаимосвязей, связывающих остров и окружающую его морскую среду, делает его идеальным полигоном для исследования биологических процессов. Здешний подводный мир привлекает любителей водных погружений, которые расценивают данный район в качестве одного из лучших в мире мест для наблюдения за крупными морскими обитателями, такими как акулы, скаты, тунцы и дельфины.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Parque Nacional de la Isla del Coco

Situada a 550 km del litoral costarricense, la Isla del Coco es la única de la zona tropical del Pacífico Oriental que posee un bosque húmedo tropical. Es un laboratorio ideal para el estudio de los procesos biológicos, debido a su ubicación en el primer punto de contacto con la contracorriente norecuatorial y a sus múltiples interacciones con el ecosistema marino circundante. Los fondos marinos del parque nacional son famosos y muchos submarinistas estiman que son los mejores del mundo para observar especies pelágicas de grandes dimensiones, como tiburones, rayas, atunes y delfines.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ココ島国立公園

source: NFUAJ

Nationaal park Cocos eiland

Het nationaal park Cocos Eiland ligt 550 kilometer van de Pacifische kust van Costa Rica en is het enige eiland in de tropische oostelijke Stille Oceaan met een tropisch regenwoud. Het gebied is een ideaal onderzoeksgebied voor de bestudering van biologische processen. Ten eerste omdat het eiland het eerste contactpunt vormt met de noordelijke equatoriale tegenstroom. Ten tweede vanwege de talloze interacties die plaatsvinden tussen het eiland en het omringende mariene ecosysteem. De onderwaterwereld van het gebied is bekend geworden vanwege de populariteit bij duikers. Zij beschouwen de plek als een van de beste plaatsen ter wereld om haaien, roggen, tonijn en dolfijnen te bekijken.

Source: unesco.nl

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Cocos Island National Park © UNESCO
Justification for Inscription

The Committee inscribed Cocos Island National Park under natural criteria (ix) and (x) because of the critical habitats the site provides for marine wildlife including large pelagic species, especially sharks.

Long Description

Cocos Island National Park, located 550 km off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, includes the entire Isla del Coco and the marine ecosystems up to a distance of 15 km around the island. Is the only island in the tropical Eastern Pacific with a tropical rainforest. Its position as the first point of contact with the northern equatorial counter-current, and the myriad interactions between the island and the surrounding marine ecosystem, make the area an ideal laboratory for the study of biological processes. The underwater world of the national park has become famous due to the attraction it holds for divers, who rate it as one of the best places in the world to view large pelagic species such as sharks, rays, tuna and dolphins.

The island is of volcanic origin consisting of basaltic rock which presents a rugged relief characterized by an irregular coastline with cliffs rising almost vertically from a narrow shore to heights of 200m. There are two bays (Bahía Wafer and Bahía Chatham) with sandy beaches. Inland, the terrain is mountainous with numerous rivers and streams, many of which plunge over the peripheral cliffs in spectacular waterfalls.

The underwater profile of the island consists of stepwise shelves with almost no intertidal zone and a shallow submerged fringing reef, culminating in sand and Porites rubble at the edge of a several hundred metres deep trench. The most important reefs are located in Punta María, Punta Presidio, Punta Pacheco and some areas of the Iglesias, Chatham and Wafer Bays. The southern and south-western sectors show the greatest bathymetric variation in the area, with emergent small islands (such as Dos Amigos, Rafael and Juan Bautista), and a great number of submerged rocks.

As other oceanic islands, Isla del Coco presents an impoverished flora with respect to that of the continent, but with a high number of endemic species (at least 70 species of vascular plant). The vegetation is exuberant and owes its lushness to the heavy rainfalls and rugged relief, which favours condensation.

There is a rather low diversity of terrestrial fauna. Some 87 bird species have been recorded in the nominated site including three endemics: Cocos Island cuckoo; Cocos Island flycatcher and Cocos Island finch. Red-footed booby and brown booby, great frigate bird, white tern, and common noddy form breeding colonies on the surrounding small islands and rocks. Two species of endemic reptiles have also been identified, anolis lizard and gecko. Except for introduced pigs, goats and cats, there are no terrestrial mammals on the island.

Marine mammals include bottlenose dolphin and California sea lion. Hawksbill, green and olive ridley turtles inhabit the surrounding waters and use the beaches occasionally. The fish fauna is exceptionally rich and is moderately diverse, 300 fish species having been recorded. Vast migrations of hammerhead shark, and white-tip shark and fish pass close to the island. Whale shark and manta ray are also abundant.

There is no evidence indicating that Isla del Coco was occupied during pre-Columbian times. The island has been known to mariners and cartographers since the first half of the 16th century. However, its position was vaguely indicated and therefore, could only be located by experienced sailors. Fishermen, pirates, commercial sailors and scientific expeditions arrived at the island searching for fresh water and shelter.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC