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Sanctuary of Asklepios at Epidaurus

Sanctuary of Asklepios at Epidaurus

In a small valley in the Peloponnesus, the shrine of Asklepios, the god of medicine, developed out of a much earlier cult of Apollo (Maleatas), during the 6th century BC at the latest, as the official cult of the city state of Epidaurus. Its principal monuments, particularly the temple of Asklepios, the Tholos and the Theatre - considered one of the purest masterpieces of Greek architecture – date from the 4th century. The vast site, with its temples and hospital buildings devoted to its healing gods, provides valuable insight into the healing cults of Greek and Roman times.

Sanctuaire d'Asclépios en Epidaure

Dans une petite vallée du Péloponnèse, le sanctuaire d’Asclépios, le dieu de la médecine, issu du culte d’Apollon (Maléatas), prit forme au plus tard au VIe siècle avant notre ère et devint le culte officiel de la cité-état d’Epidaure. Ses principaux monuments, dont le temple d’Asclépios, le Tholos et le Théâtre - considéré comme l'un des plus purs chefs-d'œuvre de l'architecture grecque - datent du IVe siècle. L'ensemble du sanctuaire, avec ses temples et ses installations hospitalières consacrés aux dieux guérisseurs, offre un témoignage exceptionnel des cultes thérapeutiques du monde hellénique et romain.

موقع إبيدوريس الأثري

يندرج موقع إبيدوريس على مستويات عدة في تلة بيلوبونيز الصغيرة. وبدأت عبادة إله الطب أسكليبيوس في القرن السادس قبل الميلاد. إلا أنّ النصب الرئيسة تعود إلى القرن التاسع، لاسيما المسرح منها الذي اعتُبر أحد أبرز مآثر الهندسة اليونانية. ويوفّر الموقع بمجمله شهادةً رائعة على المراكز العلاجية في العالم الإغريقي-الروماني، بمعابده ومنشاءاته الاستشفائية المخصّصة للآلهة الشافية للأمراض.

source: UNESCO/ERI

埃皮达鲁斯考古遗址

埃皮达鲁斯遗址位于伯罗奔尼撒半岛的一个小山谷里,向上延伸好几层。公元前6世纪,阿斯克勒庇俄斯医药神的祭仪是首先从这里开始的,但其主要古迹,尤其是剧场,是到公元4世纪才出现的,被认为是希腊建筑最完美的杰作之一。这片广阔的遗址在希腊和罗马时代是祈祷康复之处,有献给上帝的神庙和医院。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Археологические памятники Эпидавра

В небольшой долине на полуострове Пелопоннес на нескольких уровнях расположены памятники Эпидавра. Культ Асклепия впервые сложился здесь в VI в. до н.э. Но основные памятники, и, прежде всего театр, считающийся одним из подлинных шедевров древнегреческой архитектуры, датируются IV в. до н.э. Обширная территория, где располагаются посвященные богам храмы и здания больниц, имеет отношение к культам врачевания древнегреческой и древнеримской эпох.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Santuario de Esculapio en Epidauro

Emplazado en un pequeño valle del Peloponeso, este sitio comprende un santuario dedicado al dios de la medicina Esculapio. Su culto, emanado del rendido antiguamente a Apolo Maleatas, cobró forma como muy tarde en el siglo VI a.C. y llegó ser el culto oficial de la ciudad-estado de Epidauro. Los principales monumentos del sitio, construidos en el siglo IV a.C., son el templo de Esculapio, el tholos y el teatro, que se considera una de las más puras obras maestras de la arquitectura griega. Con sus hospitales y templos consagrados a los dioses curadores, el conjunto del sitio aporta un testimonio excepcional sobre los cultos terapéuticos la Antigüedad grecorromana.

source: UNESCO/ERI

アスクレピオスの聖地エピダウロス

source: NFUAJ

Heiligdom van Asklepios in Epidaurus

Het heiligdom van Asklepios, de god van de geneeskunde, ligt in een kleine vallei in de Peloponnesos. Het ontwikkelde zich vanuit een veel vroegere cultus van Apollo (Maleatas) tot de officiële cultus van de stadstaat Epidaurus in de 6e tot de laatste eeuw voor Christus. De belangrijkste monumenten dateren uit de 4e eeuw. Vooral de tempel van Asklepios, de Tholos en het Theater worden beschouwd als voorbeelden van de meest zuivere meesterwerken van de Griekse architectuur. Het uitgestrekte gebied met zijn tempels en hospitalen gewijd aan de genezende goden, geeft een waardevol inzicht in de genezingscultus van de Griekse en Romeinse tijd.

Source: unesco.nl

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Long Description

In a small inner Argolid valley surrounded by rocky heights only thinly covered by the meagre vegetation of Mediterranean scrub, the archaeological site of Epidaurus sprawls over several levels. At an altitude of 430 m, the Sanctuary of Apollo Maleatas overlooks the rest of the ruins. Lower down, to the south-west, at approximately 360 m, is the Theatre. Finally, the Sanctuary of Asclepios and its various buildings - baths, gymnasium, palaestra, stadium and katagogeion (dormitories for patients) - stretch over a western shelf located at between 320 m and 330 m altitude.

This vast site (although only an area of 520,000 m2 is state property, construction has been forbidden throughout the entire valley from floor to crest) is a tribute to the healing gods of Epidaurus - Apollo, Asclepios, and Hygeia. Legend has it that Asclepios was the fruit of Apollo's love for a daughter of the king of Orchomenes. In the 6th century a cult dedicated to him was established at Epidaurus, where archaeological excavations uncovered a sanctuary dating from the much earlier Mycenaen period.

By the 5th century the sanctuary already enjoyed great renown, both for the miraculous cures that occurred there and for the games held every four years and the stadium dates from that time. Epidaurus entered its greatest period in the 4th century BC, when the Temple of Apollo Maneates and the great monuments of the Hieron were built. The Hieron includes the Temple of Asclepios, the Tholos, the Enkoimeterion, where the sick awaited their cures, the Baths of Asclepios, and above all the incomparable Theatre, rightfully considered one of the purest masterpieces of Greek architecture. Epidaurus continued to flourish during the Hellenistic period. Despite pillaging by Sulla in 87 BC and by Cilician pirates, the restored sanctuary prospered during the Roman period, as witnessed by the famous description by Pausanias in AD 150.

The group of buildings comprising the Sanctuary of Epidaurus bears exceptional testimony to the healing cults of the Hellenic and Roman worlds. The temples and the hospital facilities dedicated to the healing gods constitute a coherent and complete ensemble. . It exerted an influence on all the asclepieia in the Hellenic world, and later on all the Roman sanctuaries of Esculape. The emergence of modern medicine in a sanctuary originally reputed for the psychology-based miraculous healing of supposedly incurable patients is directly and tangibly illustrated by the functional evolution of the Hieron of Epidaurus and is strikingly described by the engraved inscription on the remarkable steles preserved in the Museum.

The Theatre, the Temples of Artemis and Asclepios, the Tholos, the Enkoimeterion, and the Propylaea make the Hieron of Epidaurus an eminent example of a Hellenic architectural ensemble of the 4th century BC. In particular, the theatre, an architectural masterpiece by Polycletes the Younger of Argos, represents a unique artistic achievement through its admirable integration into the site and the perfection of its proportions and acoustics.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC