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Verla Groundwood and Board Mill

Verla Groundwood and Board Mill

The Verla groundwood and board mill and its associated residential area is an outstanding, remarkably well-preserved example of the small-scale rural industrial settlements associated with pulp, paper and board production that flourished in northern Europe and North America in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Only a handful of such settlements survive to the present day.

Usine de traitement du bois et de carton de Verla

L’usine de bois de Verla et le secteur résidentiel associé sont un exemple exceptionnel et remarquablement bien conservé d’installation industrielle rurale de petite dimension consacrée à la fabrication de pâte à papier, de papier et de carton. Ce type d’installation qui prospéra en Europe du Nord et en Amérique du Nord au XIXe et au début du XXe siècle a presque totalement disparu aujourd’hui.

معمل فرلا لمعالجة الخشب والكرتون

يشكّل كل من معمل فرلا للخشب ومن القطاع السكني المرتبط به نموذجاً استثنائياً تمّ الحفاظ عليه بطريقة مذهلة للإنشاءات الصناعية الريفية ذات الحجم الصغير المختصة بصناعة الورق المقوَّى والورق والكرتون. إنّ هذا النوع من الإنشاءات الذي ازدهر في شمال أوروبا وأميركا الشمالية في القرن التاسع عشر وفي مطلع القرن العشرين قد زال اليوم بصورة شبه كلية.

source: UNESCO/ERI

韦尔拉磨木纸板厂

韦尔拉磨木纸板厂与其周边的居民住宅区一起构成了一个保存完好的农村小型工业基地范例,这种生产纸浆、纸张和纸板的小工业作坊在19世纪至20世纪初的欧洲和北美非常盛行,但只有很少一部分住区保留至今。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Деревоперерабатывающая фабрика в Верле

Деревоперерабатывающая фабрика в Верле и примыкающий к ней жилой район – это выдающийся и очень хорошо сохранившийся пример небольшого промышленного поселения в сельской местности. Производство древесной массы, целлюлозы, бумаги и досок процветало в Северной Европе и Северной Америке в XIX - начале XX вв. Только немногие из таких поселений сохранились до наших дней.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Fábrica de tratamiento de madera y cartón de Verla

Admirablemente bien conservadas, la fábrica de Verla y el área de viviendas conexa constituyen un ejemplo excepcional de instalación industrial rural de pequeñas dimensiones dedicada a la producción de pasta de papel, papel y cartón. Las manufacturas de este tipo proliferaron en Europa Septentrional y América del Norte durante el siglo XIX y comienzos del siglo XX, pero hoy en día han desaparecido casi por completo.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ヴェルラ砕木・板紙工場

source: NFUAJ

Hout- en kartonfabriek van Verla

De hout- en kartonfabriek van Verla en de bijbehorende woonwijk is een bijzonder en goed bewaard gebleven voorbeeld van kleinschalige landelijke industriële nederzettingen gelieerd aan pulp, papier en kartonproductie. In de 19e en het begin van de 20e eeuw bloeide deze industrie overal op in Noord-Europa en Noord-Amerika. Er zijn slechts een handjevol van dit soort nederzettingen bewaard gebleven. De eerste houtmolen werd in 1872 gebouwd op de westelijke oever van de stroomversnelling Verlankoski, maar moest sluiten vanwege financiële problemen en een brand in 1876. Een nieuwe, grotere molen werd in 1882 gebouwd, met een aangrenzende kartonfabriek.

Source: unesco.nl

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Verla Groundwood and Board Mill © Pöllö
Justification for Inscription

The Committee decided to inscribe the nominated property on the basis of cultural criterion (iv) considering that the Groundwood and Board Mill and its associated habitation is an outstanding and remarkably well preserved example of the small-scale rural industrial settlement associated with pulp, paper, and board production that flourished in northern Europe and North America in the 19th and early 20th centuries, of which only a handful survives to the present day.

Long Description

The Verla groundwood and board mill and its associated habitation are an outstanding and remarkably well-preserved example of the small-scale rural industrial settlement associated with pulp, paper and board production that flourished in northern Europe and North America in the 19th and early 20th centuries, of which only a handful survive

The 'Industrial Revolution' that reached the Kymi river valley in the first half of the 1870s is one of the most dramatic phenomena in the economic history of Finland. Over a very short time dozens of steam sawmills, groundwood mills and board mills were established, in many cases by foreign businessmen, especially from Norway and Germany. This process was encouraged by the favourable attitude of its Russian rulers towards the trading activities of the Grand Duchy created in 1809. The Kymi valley benefited in particular from the construction of timber-floating facilities and the introduction of cooperative floating, enabling logs from the virgin forests of central Finland to be brought to the processing facilities. At the same time a new social class of factory- and mill-workers emerged.

The first mill on the western bank of the Verlankoski Rapids was founded in 1872, but it encountered financial problems and closed down after a fire in 1876. A new, larger groundwood mill with adjoining board mills was built in 1882 by two master papermakers. A businessman of German descent from Viipuri, Friedrich Wilhelm Dippell, eventually became the major shareholder in the company. The new mill was again built entirely in wood, but set apart from the other buildings to minimize fire risk. The main section of the present owner's residence was completed in 1885, and the hostel for the workers in the following year (although most of the workers lived in cottages on either side of the rapids). When the board-drying section was destroyed by fire in 1892 it was replaced by an impressive ornamental building in red brick on four floors, designed by Carl Eduard Dippell, brother of the owner, who was also responsible for all the other main buildings that survive at Verla.

Although the Verla buildings are in the neo-Gothic style, which was already somewhat outmoded at the time of their construction, they were technically advanced for their time. For example, reinforced concrete floors, using the Hennebique technique only three years after it was patented, were installed in the groundwood mills.

The industrial installations, by contrast, were traditional and only slightly modified and updated between 1882 and 1920. Transport of finished products (principally to Russia, and later to Western Europe and the United States) was always an obstacle to. At first the groundwood had to be transported to a distant railway station by boat down a route with many rapids or in winter over the frozen river. When the railway was completed in 1889 the distance was reduced to 7 km, but transport by horse-drawn cart over poor roads remained a major problem. When Wilhelm Dippell died in 1906, Verla became a limited company, which was purchased by a small wood-processing company on the same waterway, which was in its turn bought two years later by the present-day Kymmene Corporation. Output gradually diminished in subsequent decades until it was closed down on 18 July 1964, when the last of the old workers retired. The Kymmene Corporation decided to preserve the entire Complex intact as an industrial heritage museum, just as it had been when the last worker left.

The prehistoric rock painting sited above the rapids on the Valkeala side depicts eight elks, three human figures and a geometric motif. They are considered to be some 6,000 years old, from the earliest period of Finnish rock art, the work of the Arctic Hunting Culture.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

The "industrial revolution" that reached the Kymi river valley in the first half Of the 1870s is one of the most dramatic phenomena in the economic history of Finland. In a very short period dozens of steam sawmills, groundwood mills, and board millS were established, in many cases by foreign businessmen, especially from Norway and Germany. This Process was encouraged by the favourable attitude of its Russian rulers towards the trading activities of the Grand Duchy created in 1809. The Kymi valley benefited in particular from the construction of timber-floating facilities and the introduction of cooperative floating, which enabled logs from the Virgin forests of central Finland to be brought to the Processing facilities. At the same time a new social class of factory and mill workers emerged here, as elsewhere in Finland.

The first mill on the western bank of the Verlankoski rapids was founded in 1872, but it encountered financial Problems and closed down after a fire in 1876. A new, larger groundwood mill with adjoining board mills was built in 1882 by two master papermakers, one Austrian and the Other German. One of the major shareholders was a businessman of German descent from Viipuri, Friedrich Wilhelm Dippell, who eventually became the major shareholder in the company. The new mill was again built entirely in wood, but set apart from the other buildings to minimize the fire risk. The main section of the present owner's residence was completed in 1885, and the seventeen-room hostel for the workers in the following year (although most of the workers lived in cottages on either side of the rapids). When the board-drying section was destroyed by fire in 1892 it was replaced by an impressive, ornamental building in red brick on four floors, designed by Carl Eduard Dippell, brother of the owner, who was also responsible for all the other main buildings that survive at Verla.

Although the Verla buildings are in the neo-Gothic style, which was already somewhat outmoded at the time of their construction, they were technically advanced for their time. For example, reinforced concrete floors, using the Hennebique technique only three years after it was patented, were installed in the groundwood mills. The industrial installations, by contrast, were traditional and only slightly modified and updated between 1882 and 1920.

Transport of finished Products (principally to Russia, and later to Western Europe and the USA) was always an obstacle to development at Verla. At first the bales of groundwood had to be transported to a distant railway station by boat down a route with many rapids or in winter over the frozen river. When the new railway was Completed in 1889 the distance was reduced to 7 km, but transport by horse-drawn cart over bad roads remained a major problem.

When Wilhelm Dippell died in 1906, Verla became a limited company, which was purchased by a Small wood-processing company on the same waterway, Öy Kissakoski Ab; this was in its turn bought two years later by the present-day Kymmene Corporation. Output gradually diminished in subsequent decades until it was closed down on 18 July 1964, when the last of the old workers retired. The Kymmene Corporation decided to preserve the entire Complex intact as an industrial heritage museum, just as it had been when the last worker left.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation