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Susa

Susa

Located in the south-west of Iran, in the lower Zagros Mountains, the property encompasses a group of archaeological mounds rising on the eastern side of the Shavur River, as well as Ardeshir’s palace, on the opposite bank of the river. The excavated architectural monuments include administrative, residential and palatial structures. Susa contains several layers of superimposed urban settlements in a continuous succession from the late 5th millennium BCE until the 13thcentury CE. The site bears exceptional testimony to the Elamite, Persian and Parthian cultural traditions, which have largely disappeared.

Suse

Situé dans le sud-ouest de l’Iran, dans la partie inférieure des monts Zagros, le bien comprend un ensemble archéologique s’élevant sur la rive orientale de la rivière Chaour, et le palais d’Ardeshir, sur la rive opposée du Chaour. Les monuments architecturaux révélés par les fouilles comprennent notamment des structures administratives, religieuses, résidentielles et palatiales. Suse présente plusieurs couches d’établissements urbains superposés, selon une succession continue s’étalant du Ve millénaire av. J.-C. au XIIIe siècle apr. J.-C. Le site apporte un témoignage exceptionnel sur les traditions culturelles élamite, perse et parthe, qui ont disparu en grande partie.

مدينة شوشان أو سوسة
يضم هذا الموقع الذي يقع جنوب غرب إيران، في الجانب الأسفل من جبال زاغروس، مجمعاً أثرياً بُني على الضفة الشرقية لنهر شاور، وقصر أردشير على الضفة المقابلة للنهر. وكانت من بين الآثار المعمارية التي كُشف عنها في إطار عمليات تنقيب منشآت إدارية ودينية وسكنية وقصور. وتضم مدينة شوشان سلسلة من المباني الحضرية المتداخلة التي بُنيت بلا انقطاع بين الألفية الخامسة قبل الميلاد والقرن الثالث عشر ميلادية. ويقدّم الموقع دليلاً استثنائياً على التقاليد الثقافية للعيلاميين والفرس والبارثيين، التي اندثر جزء كبير منها.

source: UNESCO/ERI

苏萨
这片遗址位于伊朗西南扎格罗斯山脉南部,包括迪兹弗尔河东岸的一片考古丘地和河对岸的大流士王宫殿,出土的建筑遗迹包括管理机构、住宅和宫殿等建筑物结构,苏萨遗址包括自公元前五世纪晚期至公元十三世纪的数层叠加的城市遗迹。这处遗址是大部分已经消失了的埃兰人、波斯人和帕提亚人文化传统的特殊见证。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Сузы
Объект, находящийся на юго-западе Ирана у подножия горной цепи Загрос, включает археологический комплекс, расположенный на восточном берегу реки Шаур, и дворец Арташира на противоположном берегу. Архитектурное наследие города Сузы, обнаруженное в результате раскопок, составляют административные и религиозные строения, жилые дома и дворцы. В археологическом отношении город Сузы представляет несколько слоев городских поселений, воздвигнутых в различные эпохи его существования с V тысячелетия до н.э. до XIII века н.э. Таким образом, объект является уникальным памятником почти полностью исчезнувших цивилизаций – эламской, персидской и парфянской.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Susa
Situado al sudoeste del Irán, en las faldas de los Montes Zagros, este bien cultural está integrado por el conjunto de vestigios arqueológicos que se hallan en la margen oriental del río Chaur, así como por el palacio de Ardeshir que se yergue en la margen opuesta de este curso de agua. Las estructuras arquitectónicas descubiertas gracias a las excavaciones corresponden a construcciones monumentales de diferente índole: palacios, edificios administrativos, templos y viviendas. El sitio arqueológico de Susa presenta una serie continua de capas superpuestas de asentamientos urbanos que abarcan un periodo muy vasto: desde el quinto milenio a.C. hasta el siglo XIII de nuestra era. Este bien cultural constituye un testimonio excepcional de las culturas elamita, persa y parta, hoy desaparecidas en gran parte.

source: UNESCO/ERI

スーサ

source: NFUAJ

Susa

Susa is gelegen in Zuidwest-Iran, in het lagere Zagros-gebergte. De site omvat een groep van archeologische terpen aan de oostelijke kant van de rivier Shavur, evenals het paleis van Ardeshir dat aan de overkant van de rivier ligt. De opgegraven architectonische overblijfselen bestaan uit resten van administratieve en residentiële gebouwen en van paleizen. Susa bevat verschillende lagen van bovenop elkaar gelegen stedelijke nederzettingen. Deze lagen volgen elkaar op contine wijze op van het late 5de millennium voor Christus tot de 13e eeuw na Christus. Het erfgoed is een uitzonderlijke getuige van de Elamitische, Perzische en Parthische culturele tradities, die grotendeels zijn verdwenen.

Source: unesco.nl

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Hadish © ICCHTO
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Located in the lower Zagros Mountains, in the Susiana plains between the Karkheh and Dez Rivers, Susa comprises a group of artificial archaeological mounds rising on the eastern side of the Shavur River, encompassing large excavated areas, as well as the remains of Artaxerxes' palace on the other side of the Shavur River. Susa developed as early as the late 5th millennium BCE as an important centre, presumably with religious importance, to soon become a commercial, administrative and political hub that enjoyed different cultural influences thanks to its strategic position along ancient trade routes. Archaeological research can trace in Susa the most complete series of data on the passage of the region from prehistory to history. Susa appears as the converging point of two great civilisations which reciprocally influenced each other: the Mesopotamian and the Iranian plateau civilisations. Susa’s long-lasting and prominent role in the region, either as the capital of the Elamites, or of the Achaemenid Empire, or as a strategic centre sought by neighbouring powers (e.g., Assyrian, Macedonian, Parthian, Sassanid) is witnessed by the abundant finds, of disparate provenance and of exceptional artistic or scientific interest, and by the administrative, religious, residential and palatial, as well as functional structures and traces of urban layout (e.g., the remains of the Haute Terrasse in the Acropolis, the Palace of Darius in the Apadana, the residential or production quarters, the Ardeshir Palace) that more than 150 years of archaeological investigations have revealed.

Criterion (i): Susa stands as one of the few ancient sites in the Middle East where two major social and cultural developments took place: the development of the early state, and urbanization. Susa is among the few sites in the Middle East where the dynamics and processes that led to these monumental human achievements has been documented, and still holds a huge body of important tangible evidence to understand better the early and mature stages of social, cultural and economic complexity. In its long history, Susa contributed to the development of urban planning and architectural design. The royal ensemble of the Palace of Darius and Apadana, with its tall hypostyle hall and porticos, lofty stone columns and gigantic capitals and column bases, and the orthostatic and ceramic wall decorations, together represent an innovative contribution to the creation of a new expression, characteristic of the Achaemenid Empire.

Criterion (ii): The proto-urban and urban site of Susa bears testimony, from the late 5th millennium BCE to the first millennium CE, to important interchanges of influences, resulting from ancient trade connections and cultural exchanges between different civilizations, namely the Mesopotamian and Elamite. Susa has been identified as the focal point of interaction and intersection between the nomadic and sedentary cultures. It played a key role in creating and expanding technological knowledge, and artistic, architectural and town planning concepts in the region. Through its sustained interaction with nearby regions, archaeological and architectural materials discovered at Susa exhibit a variety of styles and forms, shedding light on an international ancient city that both influenced and was imitated by its neighbours.

Criterion (iii): The remains of the ancient city of Susa bear exceptional testimony to successive ancient civilizations during more than six millennia, as well as having been the capital city of the Elamite and Achaemenid Empires. It contains 27 layers of superimposed urban settlements in a continuous succession from the late 5th millennium BCE until the 13th century CE. Susa is on the most ancient of the sites, where the processes of urbanization crystallized in the late 5th millennium BC. A decade of scientific excavations from 1968 to 1978, and philological works at Susa, also documented the development and changing character of this early urban centre throughout the millennia.

Criterion (iv): Susa is an outstanding and rare example of a type of urban settlement representing the beginnings of urban development in the proto-Elamite and Elamite periods, from the late fifth millennium BCE. Furthermore, from the sixth century BCE, as the administrative capital city of the Achaemenid Empire, Susa contributed to the creation of a new prototype of ceremonial architecture, which became a characteristic feature of the Iranian Plateau and its neighbouring lands.

Integrity

The excavated site of the ancient urban and architectural remains of Susa is included within the boundaries of the property. Even though many of the finds are today exhibited in museums, Susa still includes the essential elements to express its Outstanding Universal Value. The property covers the known part of the ancient city, which is now protected against adverse development. Due to the high archaeological potential of the area that surrounds Susa, continuing archaeological research and documentation sustains the integrity of the property. The recent haphazard urban development of modern Shush threatens the edges and immediate setting of the property; however, strict regulations have been elaborated, integrated into the planning system and enforced. Their stringent implementation is crucial to maintaining the integrity of the property.

Authenticity

More than 150 years of archaeological research and historical sources confirm that the property encompasses the site of the ancient city of Susa. The material and form of the architectural remains are historically authentic, although many of the decorative elements are now deposited in museums for protection. As a protected archaeological property, Susa is being conserved using scientific and philological methods and approaches. Therefore, the excavated remains have been stabilized and conserved respecting their architectural and planning design as well as their building materials. From its initial formation and in the course of its development until its final decline, Susa has always remained on its present site; its environmental setting has, however, changed, with the hydraulic works carried out upstream of the Karkheh and the Shavur Rivers; however, these changes do not prevent the understanding of the role played by the environmental setting in the long-lasting prominence of Susa.

Protection and management requirements

Susa is protected as a National monument and falls under the responsibility of the ICHHTO which protects and manages the property through its Susa Base. Regulations for the property and its buffer and landscape zones have been incorporated into the planning instruments as prevailing norms. Their stringent implementation is crucial to guaranteeing the adequate protection and preservation of Susa’s buried and unburied archaeological remains. Inter-institutional cooperation and coordination among existing instruments in the management of the property, and particularly of its immediate and wider setting, is fundamental to ensuring that urban growth respects the archaeological potential of the area and makes it an asset for a compatible and equitable development of Shush within its wider region.