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Crespi d'Adda

Crespi d'Adda

Crespi d'Adda in Capriate San Gervasio in Lombardy is an outstanding example of the 19th- and early 20th-century 'company towns' built in Europe and North America by enlightened industrialists to meet the workers' needs. The site is still remarkably intact and is partly used for industrial purposes, although changing economic and social conditions now threaten its survival.

Crespi d'Adda

Crespi d'Adda, à Capriate San Gervasio en Lombardie, est un exemple exceptionnel de ces « villages ouvriers » des XIXe et XXe siècles en Europe et aux États-Unis. Ils ont été construits par des industriels éclairés désireux de répondre aux besoins de leurs ouvriers. Le site est resté remarquablement intact et a partiellement conservé son usage industriel mais l'évolution des conditions économiques et sociales constitue une menace pour sa survie.

كريسبي دادا

يشكل موقع كريسبي دادا في كابرياتي سان جيرفازيو في لومبارديا مثلاً مميزًا عن تلك "القرى العمالية" في القرنين التاسع عشر والعشرين في أوروبا وفي الولايات المتحدة الأميركية. وقد بناها صناعيون منوَّرون راغبون في الاستجابة إلى حاجات عمالهم. وظلّ الموقع سليمًا بشكل مذهل وحافظ جزئيًا على جدواه الصناعية لكن تطور الظروف الاقتصادية والاجتماعية يشكل تهديدًا لبقائه.

source: UNESCO/ERI

阿达的克里斯匹

阿达的克里斯匹位于意大利伦巴底地区的卡普里亚特·圣·赫瓦西奥城(Capriate San Gervasio)。克里斯匹是19世纪和20世纪初欧洲和北美“公司城” (company towns)的著名典范,是那些有知识的工业家们为满足工人们的需要而修建的。尽管受到现代社会经济和社会环境的变化的威胁,这些场所仍然保存完好,并部分用于工业。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Фабричный поселок Креспи-д`Адда

Креспи-д`Адда в Каприате-Сан-Джервазио в Ломбардии является ярким примером фабричных поселков XIX - начала XX вв., строившихся просвещенными предпринимателями в Европе и Северной Америке для расселения рабочих. Поселок сохранился до наших дней и частично используется в целях продолжения производства, однако изменившиеся социально-экономические условия представляют ныне угрозу его сохранности.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Crespi d’Adda

Situada en Capriate San Gervasio (Lombardía), la localidad de Crespi d'Adda es un ejemplo excepcional de los “poblados obreros” construidos en los siglos XIX y XX en Europa y los Estados Unidos por industriales filantrópicos deseosos de satisfacer las necesidades de sus obreros. El sitio se ha conservado intacto y las actividades industriales se mantienen en parte, aunque la evolución de la situación socioeconómica supone una amenaza para su supervivencia.

source: UNESCO/ERI

クレスピ・ダッダ

source: NFUAJ

Crespi d'Adda

Crespi d'Adda in Lombardije is een goed voorbeeld van een 19e en vroeg 20e-eeuws bedrijfsdorp. Deze werden gebouwd in Europa en Noord-Amerika door verlichte industriëlen, om te voldoen aan de behoeften van hun arbeiders. De plek is intact en wordt gedeeltelijk gebruikt voor industriële doeleinden, hoewel haar voortbestaan momenteel wordt bedreigd door veranderende economische en sociale omstandigheden. De eerste bedrijfsdorpen werden gebouwd in België, Frankrijk, Duitsland en het Verenigd Koninkrijk om de grote personeelsaantallen van fabrieken te huisvesten. Pas na de oprichting van de nationale markt (na politieke eenwording) werden dergelijke dorpen opgericht in Italië. Crespi d’Adda is hiervan het meest kenmerkende en complete voorbeeld.

Source: unesco.nl

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© Valerio Li Vigni
Long Description

Crespi d'Adda is an outstanding example of the 19th- and early 20th-century phenomenon of the 'company town' in Europe and North America, which was an expression of the prevailing philosophy of enlightened industrialists towards their employees. It survives remarkably intact, and part is still in industrial use, although changing economic and social conditions inevitably pose a threat to its continued survival.

The first company towns were built in Europe in Belgium, France, Germany and the United Kingdom, to house the large workforces assembled by the new generation of entrepreneurs to work in their factories, which were established close to sources of raw materials, power, etc. It was not until the creation of the national market following political unification that they were set up in Italy. Crespi, in Capriate San Gervasio (Bergamo), is the most characteristic and complete of these.

In 1875 Cristoforo Benigno Crespi, a textile manufacturer from Busto Arsizio (Varese), bought the 1 km2 valley between the rivers Bembo and Adda, to the south of Capriate, with the intention of installing a cotton mill on the banks of the Adda. He built three-storey multi-family houses for his workers around the mill in the early months of 1878, following a European model. When his son, Silvio Benigno Crespi, took over the management in 1889 he completed and modified the project. He turned away from the large multiple-occupancy blocks in favour of the single-family house with its own garden, which he saw as conducive to harmony and a defence against industrial strife. From 1892 onwards there was no strike or other form of social disorder for 50 years. In addition to small houses, a hydroelectric power station to supply the workers with free electricity, public lavatories and wash-houses, a clinic, a consumer cooperative, a school and small theatre, a sports centre, a house for the local priest and doctor, and other common services were built. There were also buildings with a more symbolic value, such as the church, the castle (residence of the Crespi family), a new office complex, and houses for the owners to the south of those of the workers (the former two of these date from the 1890s and the two latter from the early 1920s).

The great depression of 1929 and the harsh fascist fiscal policy resulted in the Crespi family being obliged to sell the entire town to STI, the Italian textile enterprise, which transferred it to the Rossari e Varzi Company in 1970. It then passed to the Legler Company, which sold off most of the houses. It is currently in the hands of the Polli industrial group, which currently employs some 600 people, as compared with the 3,200 employed during the years of maximum activity.

The entire complex is laid out in a geometrically regular form, divided into two parts by the main road from Capriate. The factory, a single, compact block with medieval ornamentation, is situated to the right, on the left bank of the Adda; it contains the offices designed by Ernesto Pirovano, architect of much of the construction carried out during the time of Silvio Benigno Crespi. On the opposite side of the main road are the houses, constructed within a rectangular grid of roads in three lines. In the original plan these were two-storey buildings occupied by several families, each with four rooms. Nowadays each individual family house has a small garden and a vegetable garden, the latter separating the houses from the lavatories in the rear. The earlier houses can be clearly distinguished from the later ones on stylistic and layout grounds. There is considerable variation in the styles of house, which makes for a pleasing diversity in the townscape.

The church was designed by the architect Luigi Cavenaghi following Bramante's Temple of Santa Maria in Piazza in Busto Arsizio; construction began in 1891 and was completed two years later. It is at the north end of the town in a square which also includes in its surroundings the school and theatre. The castle is the work of Pirovano, and was completed in 1897. It is an admixture of neo-Gothic Lombard elements, sculptures, and paintings with Moorish elements from the Veneto. The ensemble recalls the Romantic Gothic period, an impression that is heightened by the use of heterogeneous buildings materials The Cemetery is dominated by the Crespi family mausoleum, an Art Nouveau structure, the work of Gaetano Moretti.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

The first company towns were built in Europe in Belgium, France, Germany, and Great Britain, to house the large workforces assembled by the new generation of entrepreneurs to work in their factories, which were established close to sources of raw materials, power, etc. It was not until the creation of the national market following political unification that they were set up in Italy. Crespi, in Capriate San Gervasio (Bergamo), is the most characteristic and complete of these; others were Leumann at Colegno (Turin) and Rossi at Schio (Vicenza).

In 1875 Cristoforo Benigno Crespi, a textile manufacturer from Busto Arsizio (Varese), bought the 1 km2 valley between the rlvers Bembo and Adda, to the south of Capriate, with the intention of installing a cotton mill on the banks of the Adda. He decided to build three-storev multi-family houses for his workers around the mill, and these were erected in the early months of 1878, following an established European model. When the founder's son, Silvio Benigno Crespi, took over the management of the enterprise in 1889 he completed and modified the project, on the basis of a different urbanistic approach and a clearer ideology. He turned away from the large multiple-occupancy blacks in favor of the single-family house, with its own garden, which he saw as conducive to harmony and a defense against industrial strife. He put this policy into practice in 1892 and the years that followed, with success, since there was no strike or other form of social disorder for the fifty years of Crespi management. In addition to small houses on the model that he advocated, he built a hydroelectrlc power station to supply his workers with free electricity, public lavatories and wash-houses, a clinic, a consumer cooperative, a school and small theatre, a sports centre, a house for the local priest and the local doctor, and other common services. Silvia Benigno Crespi aIso supplied his company town with buildings with a more symbolic value, such as the church, the castle (residence of the Crespi family), a new office complex within the factory, and houses for the owners to the south of those of the workers (tne former two of these date from the 18905 and the two latter from the early 1920s).

The great depression of 1929 and the harsh fascist fiscal policy resulted in the Crespi family being obliged to sell the entire town to STI, the Italian textile enterprise, which transferred it to the Rossari e Varzi company in 1970. It then passed to the Legler company, which sold off most of the houses. It is currently in the hands of the Polli industrial group, which currently employs some 600 people, as compared with the 3200 employed during the years of maximum activity.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation