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Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park

Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park

A concentration of largely unexcavated archaeological, historic and living cultural heritage properties cradled in an impressive landscape which includes prehistoric (chalcolithic) sites, a hill fortress of an early Hindu capital, and remains of the 16th-century capital of the state of Gujarat. The site also includes, among other vestiges, fortifications, palaces, religious buildings, residential precincts, agricultural structures and water installations, from the 8th to 14th centuries. The Kalikamata Temple on top of Pavagadh Hill is considered to be an important shrine, attracting large numbers of pilgrims throughout the year. The site is the only complete and unchanged Islamic pre-Mughal city.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Parc archéologique de Champaner-Pavagadh

Cet ensemble conjugue des sites archéologiques, en grande partie encore enfouis, et un patrimoine culturel vivant s’inscrivant dans un paysage spectaculaire qui comprend des sites préhistoriques (chalcolithique), la forteresse perchée sur une hauteur d’une ancienne capitale hindoue, et les vestiges de la ville qui fut au XVIe siècle la capitale de l’État du Gujarat. L’ensemble comprend également d’autres vestiges, dont des fortifications, des palais, des édifices religieux, des villas résidentielles, des structures agricoles et des installations hydrauliques, construits entre le VIIIe et le XIVe siècle. Le temple de Kalikamata, au sommet de la colline du Pavagadh, considéré comme un sanctuaire important, attire tout au long de l’année de nombreux pèlerins. C’est l’unique ville islamique prémoghole complète existante.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

منتزه شامبانر الأثري في بافاغاد

يضمّ هذه المجمّع مواقع أثرية ما زالت بمعظمها مطمورة وتراثاً ثقافياً حياً يتجلّى في منظر خلاب يضمّ مواقع تعود لفترة ما قبل التاريخ (حقبة عصر النحاس)، والقلعة القائمة على ارتفاع عاصمة هندوسية قديمة، وآثار المدينة التي كانت في القرن السادس عشر عاصمة ولاية غوجارات. ويشمل المجمّع كذلك آثاراً أخرى يُذكر منها تحصينات وقصور وأبنية دينية وبيوت سكنية وبُنى زراعية وإنشاءات مائية شُيّدت بين القرنين الثامن والرابع عشر. ويستقطب معبد كاليكاماتا الذي يقع على قمة تلة بافاغاد والذي يُعتبر معبدا هاماً، عدداً كبيراً من الحجاج طيلة أيام السنة. إنها المدينة الإسلامية الوحيدة العائدة لفترة ما قبل المغول التي لاتزال موجودة.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

尚庞–巴瓦加德考古公园

尚庞–巴瓦加德考古公园是一块古老的土地,这里集中着许多尚未挖掘的、具有悠久历史和极高考古价值的文化遗产。它的景致异常优美,包括史前(青铜时代)遗址,古代印度都城的高地堡垒,16世纪时古吉拉特王国首都的遗址,以及8世纪至14世纪古老的军事防御工程、宫殿、宗教性的建筑物,住宅区的排水系统,农业设施和供水装置。建立于巴瓦加德山丘上的卡力卡玛达寺,一直被认为是一个重要的圣地,终年吸引着大量的朝圣者。该遗址是莫卧儿王朝之前唯一一个完整的无变化的伊斯兰城市。

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Археологический парк Чампанер-Павагадх

Это место концентрации археологических (в основном еще не раскопанных), исторических и живых объектов культурного наследия, расположенных в окружении выразительного ландшафта. Среди них – доисторические (чалколитические) памятники, цитадель древней индуистской столицы и остатки столицы штата Гуджарат XVI в. Комплекс включает также укрепления, дворцы, культовые здания, жилые территории и водохозяйственные сооружения периода VIII-XIV вв. Это единственный цельный и не измененный мусульманский город, оставшийся с домогольского времени.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Parque Arqueológico de Champaner-Pavagadh

En este parque se hallan vestigios arqueológicos, inexplorados en su mayoría, y monumentos históricos enmarcados por un paisaje admirable. El sitio comprende una serie de sitios prehistóricos del Periodo Calcolítico, la fortaleza de una antigua capital hindú encaramada en una colina, y vestigios de una ciudad que fue capital del Estado de Gujarat en el siglo XVI. También comprende fortificaciones, palacios, edificios religiosos, casas de recreo e instalaciones hidráulicas que datan de los siglos VIII a XIV. En el área del parque se halla también el Templo de Kalikamata, un importante santuario situado en lo alto de la colina de Pavagadh, al que acude una gran cantidad de peregrinos a lo largo de todo el año. El sitio posee la única ciudad islámica completa del periodo anterior al Imperio Mogol.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

チャンパネール-パーヴァガドゥ遺跡公園
インド西部の遺跡公園で、大部分が未発掘のままの考古的、歴史的、文化的遺産が多数存在する地帯にある。先史(銅石器)時代の遺跡や初期ヒンドゥー文化に属する丘の上の要塞、そして15世紀のグジャラート州都の遺跡が、印象深い景観の中に散在する。この遺跡には、8~9世紀の要塞や宮殿、宗教的建造物、居住区および水道設備なども含まれている。またパーヴァガドゥ丘の頂上にあるカーリーカマタ寺院は重要な聖地とされ、通年、多くの巡礼者が訪れている。この遺跡は、イスラム系ムガル帝国に支配されている以前の都市としては、唯一完全な姿で残された遺跡である。

source: NFUAJ

Archeologisch park Champaner–Pavagadh

Champaner–Pavagadh bestaat uit een grote verzameling archeologische, historische en in gebruik zijnde erfgoedplaatsen, in een indrukwekkend landschap met prehistorische plaatsen uit de kopertijd. Zo zijn er een op een heuvel geplaatste vesting van een vroegere Hindoeïstische hoofdstad en 16e-eeuwse ruïnes in de staat Gujarat. Het archeologisch park herbergt verder forten, paleizen, religieuze gebouwen, woonruimtes, landbouwstructuren en waterinstallaties uit de 8e tot de 14e eeuw. De Kalikamata tempel bovenop de Pavagadh heuvel, wordt beschouwd als een belangrijk heiligdom dat jaarlijks een groot aantal pelgrims aantrekt. Champaner–Pavagadh vertegenwoordigt de enige, geheel intact en onveranderd gebleven islamitische stad uit het pre-Mogolse rijk.

Source: unesco.nl

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Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park (India) © -
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park, located in the Panchmahal District of Gujarat State in north-western India, features a concentration of archaeological, historical, and living cultural heritage properties cradled in an impressive landscape. Focused on Pavagadh Hill, a volcanic formation that rises 800 m above the surrounding plains, the property includes the remains of settlements dating from the prehistoric to medieval periods, the latter represented by a hill-fortress of an early (14th-century) Hindu capital and the remains of an Islamic state capital founded in the 15th century. The large property, comprised of 12 separate areas, contains the remains of fortifications, palaces, religious buildings, residential precincts, and water-retaining installations, as well as the living village of Champaner.

This area was conquered in the 13th century by the Khichi Chauhan Rajputs, who built their first settlement on top of Pavagadh Hill and fortification walls along the plateau below the hill. The earliest built remains from this period include temples, and amongst the important vestiges are water-retention systems. The Turkish rulers of Gujarat conquered the hill-fortress in 1484. With Sultan Mehmud Begda’s decision to make this his capital, the most important historic phase of this site began. The settlement of Champaner at the foot of the hill was rebuilt and remained the capital of Gujarat until 1536, when it was abandoned.

Except for the structural remains of the main buildings and forts, most parts of the capital city remain buried and unexcavated, though the planning and integration of the essential features of a city – royal estates, utilities, religious edifices, and spaces – can be seen and interpreted. Champaner-Pavagadh’s 14th-century temples and water-retaining installations, together with the later capital city’s religious, military, and agricultural structures, represent both Hindu and Muslim architecture. Champaner’s importance as a capital and residence of a sultan are best illustrated in the Great Mosque (Jama Masjid), which became a model for later mosque architecture in India. At Champaner, the land, the people, and the built heritage are each components of a complex, and dynamic process. The Brahmanical temple of Kalika Mata (the guardian goddess of the hill) atop Pavagadh Hill is an important living shrine, attracting a large number of pilgrims from Gujarat and other parts of the country throughout the year.

Criterion (iii): The Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park with its ancient architecture, temples and special water-retaining installations together with its religious, military and agricultural structures, dating back to the regional Capital City built by Mehmud Begda in the 16th century, represents cultures which have disappeared.

Criterion (iv): The structures represent a perfect blend of Hindu-Moslem architecture, mainly in the Great Mosque (Jama Masjid), which became a model for later mosque architecture in India. This special style comes from the significant period of regional sultanates.

Criterion (v): The Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park is an outstanding example of a very short living capital, making the best use of its setting, topography and natural features. It is quite vulnerable due to abandonment, forest takeover and modern life.

Criterion (vi): The Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park is a place of worship and continuous pilgrimage for Hindu believers.

Integrity

Within the boundaries of Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park are located all the known elements necessary to express the Outstanding Universal Value of the property, including the ensemble of prehistoric and early- and late-medieval period royal, sophisticated, and ordinary settlements and building complexes. The archaeological deposits are largely unexcavated. The 1328.89-ha property is of adequate size to ensure the complete representation of the features and processes that convey its significance. The property deals with small numbers of visitors at its centrally protected monuments, but with a large number of visitors at its Brahmanical religious shrine, the Kalika Mata temple, atop the hill. The landscape and buildings are well kept and complete despite considerable structural conservation work required. The preserved architecture blends flawlessly with the surrounding cityscape, underlying and overlooking the picturesque rim of nearby hillocks. There are no perceptible threats to the cultural relics, nor does the property suffer from adverse effects owing to development and/or neglect. There are buffer zones that total 2911.74 ha.

Authenticity

The property is fully authentic in terms of its location and setting, forms and designs, and materials and substances. Structural and chemical conservation of the protected monuments and sites has been undertaken, while other monuments and archaeological remains have been left largely as they were found in order to keep the possibility open for others to understand the original attributes and value of a given heritage ensemble, and especially for future generations to develop other interpretations along current scientific lines. In a limited number of cases where the stability of a monument was under threat, minimal restoration has been undertaken, clearly demarcating and documenting the scale of restoration. No change in design, workmanship or setting was made. The attributes that sustain the Outstanding Universal Value of the property – which is the only remaining complete and unchanged Islamic pre-Mughal city – are thus truthfully and credibly expressed, and fully convey the value of the property.

Protection and management requirements

Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park, whose multiple owners include the Archaeological Survey of India, the Gujarat State Forest Department, State Department of Archaeology, and State Revenue Department, Jai Kalika Temple Trust, Jain Temple Trusts, Fakir Sect Trust, and the private sector, is protected under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains (AMASR) Act (1958) and Rules (1959), amendments (1992), and Amendment and Validation Act (2010), Gujarat Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act (1965), and Champaner-Pavagadh World Heritage Area Management Authority Act (2006), as well as various Forest Acts and the Gujarat Panchayats Act (1961). Thirty-nine monuments and sites are individually protected.

A hierarchical framework of archaeologists and conservators at the federal as well as State levels is available to inform the conservation, preservation, and management of the property. The Archaeological Survey of India works with the Champaner-Pavagadh World Heritage Area Management Authority to manage the property. The latter has been formulated under the chairmanship of the Chief Secretary to the Government of Gujarat, and to which all stakeholders are members, including the Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India. An Integrated Management Plan, as recommended by the World Heritage Committee to underpin conservation decisions and interventions, has been developed and adopted. Sustaining the Outstanding Universal Value of the property over time will require continuing to monitor the state of conservation of the property and to assess the implementation of the legal and institutional tools and the Management Plan.