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Necropolis of Bet She’arim: A Landmark of Jewish Renewal

Necropolis of Bet She’arim: A Landmark of Jewish Renewal

Consisting of a series of catacombs, the necropolis developed from the 2nd century AD as the primary Jewish burial place outside Jerusalem following the failure of the second Jewish revolt against Roman rule. Located southeast of the city of Haifa, these catacombs are a treasury of artworks and inscriptions in Greek, Aramaic, Hebrew and Palmyrene. Bet She’arim bears unique testimony to ancient Judaism under the leadership of Rabbi Judah the Patriarch, who is credited with Jewish renewal after 135 AD.

Nécropole de Bet She’arim – Un haut lieu du renouveau juif

Cette nécropole, composée d’une série de catacombes, s’est développée à partir du IIe siècle apr. J.-C. en tant que principal lieu de sépulture juif en dehors de Jérusalem, après l’échec de la deuxième révolte juive contre la domination romaine. Situées au sud-est d’Haïfa, ces catacombes constituent un trésor d’œuvres d’art et d’inscriptions en grec, araméen, hébreu et palmyrénien. Il s’agit d’un témoignage unique sur le judaïsme ancien sous la direction de Rabbi Juda le Patriarche, auquel est attribué le renouveau juif après l’an 135 apr. J.-C.

مقبرة بيت شعاريم الكبيرة: مقام بارز في حركة التجدد اليهودي
يضم هذا الموقع سلسلة من سراديب المقابر وقد تطور اعتباراً من القرن الثاني ميلادية بوصفه المدفن اليهودي الرئيسي الواقع خارج القدس، وذلك بعد فشل حالة التمرد الثانية التي قادها اليهود ضد الهيمنة الرومانية. وتُعد سراديب المقابر هذه، الواقعة جنوب شرق حيفا، ثروة حقيقية بما تشمله من أعمال فنية وكتابات باللغات اليونانية والآرامية والعبرية. ويقدّم الموقع دليلاً فريداً على ماضي الديانة اليهودية في عهد الحاخام يهوذا الذي نُسبت إليه رؤية التجدد اليهودي بعد العام 135 ميلادية.

source: UNESCO/ERI

贝特沙瑞姆大型公墓—犹太复兴中心
这片由一系列墓穴组成的遗产地位于耶路撒冷城外。这里从公元前二世纪开始不断发展,在第二次犹太人反抗罗马统治的革命失败后,这里成为犹太人的主要墓葬地。这些位于海法东南部的墓穴是一个由希伯来语、亚拉姆语和希腊语铭文及其它艺术形式构成的艺术宝库。公元135年后,古犹太人在族长拉比犹大的领导下实现犹太复兴,这片遗产地正是这一时期历史的独特见证。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Некрополь Бейт Шеарим - символ еврейского возрождения
Некрополь образуют катакомбы к юго-востоку от города Хайфа, служившие основным местом захоронения евреев вне Иерусалима после подавления второго еврейского восстания против римского господства во II в. н.э. Катакомбы Бейт Шеарима хранят шедевры изобразительного искусства, а также большое количество надписей на греческом и арамейском языках, а также иврите. Некрополь Бейт Шеарим является уникальным памятником древнего иудаизма и еврейского возрождения, главной фигурой которого с 135 г. н.э. был Йегуда га-Наси (в другом написании Иехуда ха-Наси), также известный как Рабби («Учитель»).

source: UNESCO/ERI

Necrópolis de Bet She’arim – Sitio histórico de la renovación judía
Formado por una serie de catacumbas, este sitio cultural se convirtió desde el siglo II –a raíz del fracaso de la segunda rebelión judía contra la dominación de Roma– en el principal cementerio judaico fuera de Jerusalén. Situadas al sudeste de Haifa, esas catacumbas atesoran obras de arte e inscripciones en griego, arameo y hebreo, y además constituyen un testimonio excepcional del judaísmo antiguo, cuya renovación se llevó a cabo bajo la dirección de Rabí Judá el Patriarca a partir del año 135 de nuestra era.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ベート・シェアリムの墓地遺跡:ユダヤ再興を示すランドマーク

source: NFUAJ

Necropolis van Bet She’arim — een mijlpaal van Joodse vernieuwing

De necropolis is gelegen ten zuidoosten van de stad Haifa en ontwikkelde zich vanaf de tweede eeuw voor Christus tot de belangrijkste Joodse begraafplaats buiten Jerusalem, na het mislukken van de tweede Joodse opstand tegen de Romeinse overheersing. Bet She’arim bestaat uit vele catacomben die een schatkamer zijn van kunstuitingen en inscripties in het Grieks, Aramees en Hebreeuws. De dodenstad is een unieke uiting van het oude Jodendom onder leiding van rabbijn Judah de Patriarch, aan wie de Joodse vernieuwing vanaf 135 na Christus wordt toegeschreven.

Source: unesco.nl

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Catacomb 20 © Tsvika Tsuk
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Hewed into the limestone slopes of hills bordering the Vale of Jezre’el, a series of man-made catacombs was developed from the 2nd century AD as the necropolis of Bet She’arim. It became the primary Jewish burial place outside Jerusalem following the failure of the second Jewish revolt against Roman rule and the catacombs are a treasury of eclectic art works and inscriptions in Greek, Aramaic, Hebrew and Palmyrene. Bet She’arim is associated with Rabbi Judah the Patriarch, the spiritual and political leader of the Jewish people who composed the Mishna and is credited with Jewish renewal after 135 AD.

Criterion (ii): The catacombs of Bet She’arim show the influence of classical Roman art including human images, inscriptions and decorative details and include iconographic motifs and multi-language inscriptions testifying to cross-cultural interaction with  the Greco-Roman artistic cultural world of Europe, Asia Minor and Mesopotamia and the Jewish cultural world. The assimilation of burial types and artistic expression together with inscriptions indicating the origins of those buried in the cemetery testify to the wide dispersal of the Jewish people at that time and the incorporation into Jewish religious culture of influences from the surrounding populations. 

Criterion (iii): The necropolis of Bet She’arim constitutes exceptional testimony to ancient Judaism in its period of revival and survival under the leadership of Rabbi Judah the Patriarch. The extensive catacombs containing artwork showing classical and oriental influences illustrate the resilient Jewish culture that flourished here in the 2nd to 4th centuries AD.

Integrity

The property includes all elements necessary to convey the Outstanding Universal Value and is of adequate size to ensure the complete representation of the features and processes which convey its significance. The property does not suffer from adverse effects of development or neglect.

Authenticity

The catacombs themselves, preserved in-situ, retain authenticity in terms of location, setting, form and materials. In terms of use and function, the catacombs had ceased to be used for burial purposes by the 6th century, were abandoned and subsequently neglected. Today they are preserved as part of a national park with some open to the public.

Protection and management requirements

The property is protected as an Antiquities Site under the Antiquities Law 1978. No changes can be made without the approval of the Israel Antiquity Authority (IAA). The property and buffer zone are already protected under the National Parks, Nature Reserves, Heritage and National Sites Law, 1998. Paragraph 25 of the Law prohibits any activity, which could in the opinion of the Authority, hinder the designation of the area; it empowers the INPA to take steps against violations of that Law. The northern part of the property and the buffer zone within the jurisdiction of Qiryat Tiv’on Local Council is approved as a national park according to the statutory plan and will shortly be declared officially as a National Park. The southern part within the jurisdiction of Emek Yizreal Regional Council is currently designated as “approved national park at detailed planning” and will be officially declared as a National Park as soon as possible. Meanwhile the buffer zone is protected by Land Use statutory plans while the property and buffer zone are further protected and managed by the Israel Nature and Parks Authority (INPA) by virtue of the National Parks, Nature Reserves, Heritage and National Sites Law, 1998.A World Heritage Forum within INPA headed by INPA director general and the director of the Archaeology and Heritage department includes directors of the various divisions of INPA, directors of district offices of INPA and of nature reserves and national parks containing World Heritage sites. This Forum convenes every six months to discuss issues pertaining to these sites.