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Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi

Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi

Built in the early 13th century a few kilometres south of Delhi, the red sandstone tower of Qutb Minar is 72.5 m high, tapering from 2.75 m in diameter at its peak to 14.32 m at its base, and alternating angular and rounded flutings. The surrounding archaeological area contains funerary buildings, notably the magnificent Alai-Darwaza Gate, the masterpiece of Indo-Muslim art (built in 1311), and two mosques, including the Quwwatu'l-Islam, the oldest in northern India, built of materials reused from some 20 Brahman temples.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Qutb Minar et ses monuments, Delhi

Construit au début du XIIIe siècles à quelques kilomètres au sud de Delhi, le minaret de Qutb Minar est une tour de grès rouge haute de 72,5 m, d'un diamètre de 14,32 m à la base et de 2,75 m au sommet, avec des cannelures et des encorbellements de stalactites. La zone archéologique avoisinante comprend des tombeaux, le magnifique portail d'Alai-Darwaza, chef-d'œuvre de l'art indo-musulman bâti en 1311, et deux mosquées, dont celle de Quwwat-ul-Islam, la plus ancienne de l'Inde du Nord, faite de matériaux provenant d'une vingtaine de temples brahmaniques.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

نصب قطب مينار ، دلهي

إنّ منارة قطب مينار التي شُيّدت في بداية القرن الثالث عشر على بُعد كيلومترات من جنوب دلهي هي برج من الحجر الرملي الأحمر يبلغ ارتفاعه 72.5 متراً وقطر قاعدته 14.32 متراً وقمته 2.75 ذو ضلوع حجرية وخرجات في الرواسب الكلسية المتحجرة. تشمل المنطقة الأثرية المجاورة أضرحة، وبوابة عاليه دروازه وهي تُحفة الفن الهندي-المسلم التي شيّدت عام 1311، ومسجدين أحدهما يُطلق عليه اسم قوات الإسلام، المسجد الأقدم في الهند الشمالية المصنوع من مواد أولية مصدرها عشرات المعابد البرهمانية.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

德里的顾特卜塔及其古建筑

顾特卜塔位于德里南部几公里处,建于13世纪早期。这座红砂石尖塔高72.5米。基座直径14.32米,塔峰直径2.75米,从下往上逐渐变细,塔身棱角状和圆状的凹槽装饰穿插出现。周围的考古地区包括一些墓葬建筑:著名的有建于1311年的印度穆斯林艺术的精品阿拉伊-达尔瓦扎门;以及两座清真寺,其一是库瓦图伊斯兰清真寺。该寺是印度北部最古老的清真寺,其建筑材料取自20余座婆罗门寺庙。

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Башня Кутб-Минар и окружающие ее археологические памятники, Дели

Воздвигнутая в начале XIII в. в нескольких километрах к югу от Дели башня из красного песчаника Кутб-Минар имеет высоту 72,5 м, диаметр 2,75 м в верхней части и 14,32 м у подножья, и поверхность, орнаментированную выступами попеременно угловатой и закругленной формы. Прилегающая археологическая зона содержит бывшие ранее погребенными здания, к примеру, великолепные ворота Алаи-Дарваза, шедевр индо-мусульманского искусства (построенные в 1311 г.), и две мечети, включая Кувват-уль-Ислам – самую старую в северной Индии, построенную из материалов, взятых из примерно 20 разрушенных брахминских храмов.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Qutb Minar y sus monumentos (Delhi)

Construido a principios del siglo XIII, a unos kilómetros al sur de Delhi, el minarete de Qutb Minar es una torre de arenisca roja de 72,5 metros de altura, con un diámetro de 14,32 metros en su base y de 2,75 metros en su cúspide. Su pared exterior está ornamentada, alternativamente, con acanaladuras de aristas agudas y redondeadas. La zona arqueológica en la que se encuentra posee varias tumbas, la magnífica Puerta de Alai Darwaza, obra maestra del arte indomusulmán construida en 1311, y dos mezquitas. Una de ellas, la de Quwwat Ul Islam, es la más antigua de la India septentrional y fue construida con materiales procedentes de una veintena de templos brahmánicos.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

デリーのクトゥブ・ミナールとその建造物群

source: NFUAJ

Qutb Minar en monumenten, Delhi

Een paar kilometer ten zuiden van Delhi staat de rode zandstenen toren van Qutb Minar. De toren werd begin 13e eeuw bebouwd en is 72,5 meter hoog. Hij loopt taps toe van 2,75 meter doorsnede op haar hoogtepunt tot 14,32 meter aan de basis, afwisselend met hoekige en afgeronde groeven. Het omliggende archeologische gebied bevat funeraire gebouwen. Hieronder bevinden zich de prachtige Alai-Darwaza poort – een meesterwerk uit de Indo-islamitische architectuur – gebouwd in 1311 en twee moskeeën waarvan de Quwwatu'l-Islam de oudste is in noord India. De moskeeën werden gebouwd uit hergebruikte materialen van ongeveer 20 Brahmaanse tempels.

Source: unesco.nl

क़ुतुब मीनार और इसके स्मारक, दिल्ली

दिल्ली से कुछ किलोमीटर दक्षिण में, 13वीं सदी के प्रारंभ में लाल बलुआ पत्थर से निर्मित क़ुतुब मीनार की ऊंचाई 72.5 मीटर है तथा इसका आधार 14.32 मीटर है तथा शिखर पर 2.75 मीटर का व्यास है, इसमें एक के बाद एक कोणीय और गोलाकार धारियाँ है। आस-पास के पुरातत्वीय क्षेत्र में अंत्येष्टि इमारतें, विशेषकर भारतीय-मुस्लिम वास्तुकला की उत्कृष्ट कृति वाला आलीशान अलाई-दरवाज़ा (1311 में निर्मित) शामिल है, और उत्तर भारत की सबसे पुरनी मस्जिद कुव्वत-उल-इस्लाम मस्जिद सहित दो मस्जिदें भी शामिल हैं, जिन्हें लगभग 20 ब्राह्मण मंदिरों की सामग्री का पुनः उपयोग करके बनाया गया था।

Source: India

Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi (India) © UNESCO
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

The ensemble of mosques, minars, and other structures in the Qutb Minar complex is an outstanding testimony to the architectural and artistic achievements of Islamic rulers after they first established their power in the Indian subcontinent in the 12th century. The complex, located at the southern fringe of New Delhi, illustrates the new rulers’ aspiration to transform India from Dar-al-Harb to Dar-al-Islam with the introduction of distinctive building types and forms.

Referred to as the Qutb mosque, the Quwwatu’l-Islam, meaning the Might of Islam, introduced to India the classic model of Islamic architecture that had developed in western Asia. The mosque constituted a large rectangular courtyard enclosed by arcades having carved pillars on three sides and an imposing five-arched screen marking the west. Incorporating temple elements such as the carved pillars and cladding characteristic of Hindu and Jain temples, it was completed by subsequent rulers – Qutb ud din Aibak and Shamsu’d-Din Iltutmish. Drawing references from their Ghurid homeland, they constructed a minar (minaret) at the south-eastern corner of the Quwwatu’l-Islam between 1199 and 1503, thereby completing the vocabulary of a typical classic Islamic mosque. Built of red and buff sandstone and eloquently carved with inscriptional bands, the Qutb Minar is the tallest masonry tower in India, measuring 72.5 metres high, with projecting balconies for calling all Muadhdhin to prayer. An iron pillar in the courtyard gave the mosque a unique Indian aesthetic.

The 13th-century square tomb of Iltutmish in the north-western part of Quwwatu’l-Islam marks the beginning of the tradition of constructing royal tombs, a practice followed as late as the Mughal era in India. The tomb-chamber is profusely carved with inscriptions and geometrical and arabesque patterns associated with Saracenic tradition. Expansions made by Allaudin Khilji to the existing ensemble between 1296 and 1311 reflect the power wielded by the monarch. In his short reign, the emperor added a massive ceremonial gateway (Alai Darwaza) south of the Qutb Minar, and also added a madarsa (place of learning). The first storey of the incomplete Alai Minar, which was envisaged to be twice the scale of the Qutb Minar, stands 25 metres high.

Criterion (iv): The religious and funerary buildings in the Qutb Minar complex represent an outstanding example of the architectural and artistic achievements of early Islamic India.

Integrity

The boundary enveloping the remains of the Qutb and Alai minars, Quwwatu’l-Islam mosque with its extension, madarsa of Alauddin Khilji, tomb of Iltutmish, Alai Darwaza (ceremonial gateway), Iron Pillar, and other structures is of adequate size to ensure the complete representation of the features and processes that convey the property’s significance, including the aspiration and vision of the Ghurid clans to establish their rule and religion in India. The state of conservation is stable and the property does not suffer from adverse effects of development and/or neglect.

The peripheral area of the property has mixed land use, a large tract of green area (Mehrauli Archaeological Park), and facilities to support visitor movement. No threats to the integrity of the property have been identified by the State Party.

Authenticity

The Qutb Minar and its Monuments complex is substantially authentic in terms of its location, forms and designs, and materials and substance. The attributes that sustain the Outstanding Universal Value of the property are truthfully and credibly expressed, and fully convey the value of the property. To maintain the state of conservation of the property, repairs undertaken have respected the original construction, architectural, and ornamentation systems that demonstrate the Outstanding Universal Value of the property. Works periodically undertaken to ensure the property’s structural and material sustainability are reversible.

Protection and management requirements

The Qutb Minar and its Monuments complex is owned by the Government of India and managed by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). Its peripheral area is managed by multiple stakeholders, including the ASI, Delhi Development Authority, Municipal Corporation of Delhi, and Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi. The overall administration of the property and its peripheral area is governed by the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act (1958) and its Rules (1959), Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains (Amendment and Validation) Act (2010), Delhi Municipal Corporation Act (1957), Land Acquisition Act (1894), Delhi Urban Art Commission Act (1973), Urban Land (Sealing and Regulation) Act (1976), Environmental Pollution Control Act (1986), Indian Forest Act (1927), Forest Conservation Act (1980), and Delhi Development Act (1957). Annual funds are provided by the Central Government for the overall conservation, maintenance, and management of the property.

The Qutb Minar and its Monuments complex is maintained, monitored, and managed by the ASI Acts and Rules through an annual conservation and development plan. To strengthen the plan, training, researchers, and experts are engaged to ensure high-quality conservation that respects the authenticity of the property. Although there is a proposal to prepare a management plan for the property that includes conservation, integrated development, visitor management, and interpretation, in the meantime the property is protected under a well-established management system.

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