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Hubei Shennongjia

Hubei Shennongjia

Located in Hubei Province, in central-eastern China, the site consists of two components: Shennongding/Badong to the west and Laojunshan to the east. It protects the largest primary forests remaining in Central China and provides habitat for many rare animal species, such as the Chinese Giant Salamander, the Golden or Sichuan Snub-nosed Monkey, the Clouded Leopard, Common Leopard and the Asian Black Bear. Hubei Shennongjia is one of three centres of biodiversity in China. The site features prominently in the history of botanical research and was the object of international plant collecting expeditions in the 19th and 20th centuries. 

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Shennongjia au Hubei

Situé dans la province du Hubei, au centre-est de la Chine, le site est formé de deux éléments : Shennongding/Badong à l’ouest, et Laojunshan à l’est. Il abrite les plus grandes forêts primaires qui subsistent en Chine centrale et sert d’habitat à de nombreuses espèces animales rares comme la salamandre géante de Chine, le rhinopithèque de Roxellane, la panthère nébuleuse, le léopard ou l’ours à collier. Shennongjia au Hubei est l’un des trois centres de biodiversité de la Chine. Le site, qui a fait l’objet d’expéditions internationales de collectes de plantes aux XIXe et XXe siècles, occupe une place importante dans l’histoire de la recherche botanique. 

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

غابات شينونجيا في هوبي
تقع هذه الغابات في مقاطعة هوبي وسط الصين. ويتألف هذا الموقع من قسمين هما: شينوندينغ/بادونج في الجزء الغربي من الغابات، ولاجونشان في الجزء الشرقي منها. وتعد هذه الغابات من أكبر الغابات الأولية في الصين الوسطى وتعدّ موطناً لمجموعة متنوّعة من الحيوانات النادرة مثل السلمندر الصيني العملاق، والنمر الملطخ، والنمور والدببة السود الآسيوية. ويعتبر هذا الموقع واحداً من مراكز التنوع البيولوجي الثلاثة الموجودة في الصين. وكان الموقع واحداً من أهم وجهات الرحلات الاستكشافيّة العالميّة لعالم النبات في القرنين التاسع عشر والعشرين. هذا ويشغل الموقع في الوقت الحاضر مكانة كبيرة في تاريخ أبحاث النباتات.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

湖北神农架

神农架位于中国中东部湖北省。这处遗产地由两部分构成:西边的神农顶/巴东和东边的老君山。这里有中国中部地区最大的原始森林,是中国大蝾螈、川金丝猴、云豹、金钱豹、亚洲黑熊等许多珍稀动物的栖息地。湖北神农架是中国三大生物多样性中心之一,在19和20世纪期间曾是国际植物收集探险活动的目的地,在植物学研究史上占据重要地位。

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Шэньнунцзя в провинции Хубэй

Этот объект, расположенный в центрально-восточном Китае, в провинции Хубэй, состоит из двух частей: Бадонг на западе и Лаоджуншань на востоке. На территории Шэньнунцзя находятся крупнейшие девственные леса Центрального Китая, которые служат средой обитания для редких видов животных, таких как китайская исполинская саламандра, рокселланов ринопитек, дымчатый барс, леопард и гималайский медведь. Шэньнунцзя в провинции Хубэй является одним из трех центров биоразнообразия Китая. Этот лесной район, ставший объектом международных экспедиций по коллекционированию растений в XIX и XX веках, занимает важное место в истории ботанических исследований.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Shennongjia de Hubei
Situado hacia la parte oriental del centro de China, en la Provincia de Hubei, este sitio consta de dos zonas: Shennongding/Badong, al oeste, y Laojunshan, al este. En ellas se encuentran los bosques primarios más vastos del centro del país, donde tienen su hábitat numerosas especies animales raras como la salamandra gigante china, el rinopiteco dorado, la pantera nebulosa, el oso de collar y el leopardo. El sitio, que es uno de los tres centros de diversidad biológica existentes en China, ocupa un puesto destacado en la historia de las investigaciones botánicas y fue explorado por expediciones internacionales de recolección de plantas en los siglos XIX y XX.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

湖北省の神農架
'植物の完全な垂直分布を内包する原生林。中国中東部の湖北省に広がる、2ヵ所の原生林からなる。亜熱帯と温帯の境界に位置し、山麓の常緑広葉樹林から高山の草原まで、世界で最も完全な植物の垂直分布が見られる場所。古くから生き残っている動植物や固有種も多く、19世紀から研究が進められてきている。神農架にある森林は生物多様性がきわめて豊かで、3600種以上の維管束植物が生育するほか、キンシコウを始め、チュウゴクオオサンショウウオ、ウンピョウ、ツキノワグマなど多くの希少動物の生息地にもなっている。

source: NFUAJ

Hubei Shennongjia

Deze werelderfgoedsite is gelegen in de provincie Hubei, in het centrale deel van Oost-China en bestaat uit twee componenten: Shennongding/Badong in het westen en Laojunshan in het oosten. Het omvat het grootste nog aanwezige oerbos in Centraal-China waar vele zeldzame diersoorten leven, zoals de Chinese reuzensalamander, de gouden of stompneusaap, de nevelpanter, de luipaard en de Aziatische zwarte beer. Hubei Shennongjia is een van drie centra van grote biodiversiteit in China. Het gebied speelde een hoofdrol in de geschiedenis van het botanisch onderzoek en was voor internationale plantenverzamelexpedities een belangrijk object van studie in de 19e en 20e eeuw.

Source: unesco.nl

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Hubei Shennongjia. Cave for swiftlets © Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Science
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Hubei Shennongjia is located in the Shennongjia Forestry District and Badong County in China’s Hubei Province. Shennongjia is on the ecotone from the plains and foothill regions of eastern China to the mountainous region of central China. It is also situated along a zone of climate transition, where the climate shifts from the subtropical zone to warm temperate zone, and where warm and cold air masses from north and south meet and are controlled by the Subtropical Gyre.

The property covers 73,318 ha and consists of two components, the larger Shennongding/Badong component in the west and the smaller Laojunshan component to the east. A buffer zone of 41,536 ha surrounds the property. Hubei Shennongjia includes 11 types of vegetation which are characterized by a diversity of altitudinal gradients. The Shennongjia region is considered to be one of three centres of endemic plant species in China, a reflection of its geographical transitional position which has shaped its biodiversity, ecosystems and biological evolution. Hubei Shennongjia exhibits globally impressive levels of species richness and endemism especially within its flora, 3,767 vascular plant species have been recorded including a remarkable 590 temperate plant genera. In addition, 205 plant species and 2 genera are endemic to the property, and 1,793 species endemic to China. Among the fauna, more than 600 vertebrate species have been recorded including 92 mammal, 399 bird, 55 fish, 53 reptile and 37 amphibian species. 4,365 insect species have been identified. The property includes numerous rare and endangered species such as the Golden or Sichuan Snub-nosed Monkey, Clouded Leopard, Common Leopard, Asian Golden Cat, Dhole, Asian Black Bear, Indian Civet, Musk Deer, Chinese Goral and Chinese Serow, Golden Eagle, Reeve’s Pheasant and the world’s largest amphibian the Chinese Giant Salamander.

Shennongjia has been a place of significant scientific interest and its mountains have featured prominently in the history of botanical inquiry. The site has a special status for botany and has been the object of celebrated international plant collecting expeditions conducted in the 19th and 20th centuries. From 1884 to 1889 more than 500 new species were recorded from the area. Shennongjia is also the global type location for many species.

Criterion (ix): Hubei Shennongjia protects the largest primary forests in Central China and is one of three centres of endemic plant species in China. The property includes 11 types of vegetation and an intact altitudinal vegetation spectrum across six gradients including evergreen broad-leaved forest, mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest, deciduous broad-leaved forest, mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest, coniferous forest, and bush/meadow. With 874 species of deciduous woody plants, belonging to 260 genera, the tree species and genus richness of the site is unparalleled for a deciduous broadleaf forest type worldwide and within the Northern Hemisphere’s evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forests, Hubei Shennongjia contains the most complete altitudinal natural belts in the world. Hubei Shennongjia is situated in the Daba Mountains Evergreen Forests ecoregion and also within a priority ecoregion, the Southwest China Temperate Forest both of which are not yet represented on the World Heritage List. It also protects the Shennongjia regional centre of plant diversity which has been identified as a gap on the World Heritage List. In association with its floral diversity the property protects critical ecosystems for numerous rare and endangered animal species.

Criterion (x): Hubei Shennongjia’s unique terrain and climate has been relatively little affected by glaciation and thus creates a haven for numerous rare, endangered and endemic species, as well as many of the world’s deciduous woody species. The property exhibits high levels of species richness, especially among vascular plants, and remarkably contains more than 63% of the temperate genera found across all of China, a megabiodiverse country with the world’s greatest diversity of temperate plant genera. The property includes 12.9% of the country’s vascular plant species. The mountainous terrain also contains critical habitat for a range of flagship animal species. 1,550 Golden or Sichuan Snub nosed Monkeys are recorded in the property. The Golden Snub-nosed Monkeys in Shennongjia are the most endangered of the 3 sub-species in China and are entirely restricted to the property. Other important species include Clouded Leopard, Common Leopard, Asian Golden Cat, Dhole, Asian Black Bear, Indian Civet, Musk Deer, Chinese Goral, Chinese Serow, Golden Eagle, Reeve’s Pheasant and the world’s largest amphibian the Chinese Giant Salamander. The property has extremely rich biodiversity, contains a large number of type species, and hosts numerous rare species which have been introduced into horticulture worldwide. Internationally, Shennongjia holds a special place for the study of plant systematics and horticultural science.

Integrity

The property covers 73,318 ha and is coincident with the majority of the Shennongjia National Nature Reserve in Shennongjia Forestry District. The larger Shennongding/Badong component in the west is 62,851 ha and includes the northern section of the Yanduhe Provincial Nature Reserve in adjoining Badong County. The Laojunshan component at 10,467 ha lies in the east. A buffer zone of 41,536 ha surrounds the property. The property is large enough to encompass all the essential components that form the unique biodiversity, biological and ecological values of the Shennongjia in Hubei. The boundaries are designated and clearly demarcated on the ground.

The property remains in good condition and threats are generally not of significant concern. However, the division of the site by National Highway 209 and the associated 10 km wide corridor is a cause for concern as it impedes wildlife movements and ecological connectivity. The implementation of an effective conservation connectivity strategy involving wildlife corridors, stepping stones or arrays of small patches of habitat, wildlife road crossings and the removal of fences is therefore essential to facilitate ecological connectivity for mobile wildlife, especially those species which normally require sizable habitat ranges.

Protection and management requirements

All of the property is owned by the state and has national or provincial protection status. Hubei Shennongjia is subject to a range of national, provincial and local laws and regulations which ensure long term strict protection. A multi-level management system has been established to manage the property. The property is subject to a number of plans and has a specific Hubei Shennongjia Management Plan tailored to World Heritage requirements and aimed at safeguarding the site’s Outstanding Universal Value. The management plan needs to be updated to cover management of the Yanduhe Provincial Nature Reserve in Badong County. The management plan should in addition elaborate on measures to integrate different areas of management expertise in a coordinated way across the different protected areas and other national and international designations. The management plan should be a forward-thinking tool that supports adaptive management. Zoning systems should be reviewed to account for the specific habitat and spatial needs of key species.

The property enjoys widespread support among all levels of Government, local people and other stakeholders. The property requires long-term, active management of the buffer zone to ensure that any developments are of an appropriate scale and design according to the values of the property. Furthermore, that surrounding land uses are sympathetic to the values of the property and generate sustainable benefits to local communities. Increased attention and capacity is needed to manage issues within the buffer zone.

A concern stems from the potential of tourism use at the property to increase significantly. Significant improvements to transport infrastructure, most notably the opening of the nearby Shennongjia Airport in 2014, has the potential to dramatically increase visitation and consequent impact. Tourism planning, management and monitoring need to anticipate increasing demand and mitigate negative impacts.

Other threats relate to buffer zone developments and activities. Developments and encroaching land use such as for tea cultivation need ongoing monitoring. Attention should be given to integrated conservation and community development initiatives in the buffer zones to foster stronger community stewardship of the World Heritage property.