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Archaeological Site of Philippi

Archaeological Site of Philippi

The remains of this walled city lie at the foot of an acropolis in north-eastern Greece, on the ancient route linking Europe and Asia, the Via Egnatia. Founded in 356 BC by the Macedonian King Philip II, the city developed as a “small Rome” with the establishment of the Roman Empire in the decades following the Battle of Philippi, in 42 BCE. The vibrant Hellenistic city of Philip II, of which the walls and their gates, the theatre and the funerary heroon (temple) are to be seen, was supplemented with Roman public buildings such as the Forum and a monumental terrace with temples to its north. Later the city became a centre of the Christian faith following the visit of the Apostle Paul in 49-50 CE. The remains of its basilicas constitute an exceptional testimony to the early establishment of Christianity.  

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Site archéologique de Philippes

Les vestiges de cette cité fortifiée se trouvent au pied d’une acropole située au nord-est de la Grèce, sur l’ancienne route reliant l’Europe à l’Asie, la Via Egnatia. Fondée en 356 av. J.-C. par le roi macédonien Philippe II, la ville s'est ensuite développée comme une « petite Rome », avec la création l’établissement de l’Empire romain dans les décennies qui ont suivi la bataille de Philippes, en 42 av. J.-C. La dynamique cité hellénistique de Philippe II, dont les murs et les portes, le théâtre et l’hérôon funéraire (temple) sont encore visibles, sont alors complétés, dans sa partie nord, par des édifices publics romains comme le forum et la terrasse monumentale surmontée de temples. La ville devint ensuite un centre de la foi chrétienne après la visite de l’apôtre Paul en 49-50 de notre ère. Les vestiges de ses églises sont constituent un témoignage exceptionnel de l’établissement primitif précoce du christianisme.  

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

مدينة فيلبي الأثريّة
تمتد آثار هذه المدينة المحصّنة في سفح الحصن الواقع في منطقة مقدونيا الشرقية وتراقيا على الطريق القديم الذي يصل بين أوروبا وآسيا. ويذكر أن هذه المدينة أنشأت عام 356 قبل الميلاد على زمن الملك المقدوني فيليب الثاني وأخذت المدينة بعد ذلك هيئة "روما المصغّرة" مع إنشاء الامبراطورية الرومانيّة بعد معركة فيليبي سنة 42 قبل الميلاد. وعليه تم إكمال بناء الآثار الهلينية مثل المسرح الكبير والمعابد بتصاميم ومباني رومانيّة. وبعد ذلك، تتحوّل هذه المدينة إلى مركزاُ للإيمان المسيحي وذلك بعد زيارة بولس الرسول للمدينة عام 49-50 بعد الميلاد. وتشهد آثار الكنائس في مدينة فيلبي على بدايات الديانة المسيحيّة.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Археологический комплекс Филиппы

Руины города-крепости Филиппы расположены у подножия акрополя в районе современной Восточной Македонии и Фракии, на древней Эгнатиевой дороге, некогда соединявшей Европу и Азию. Город был основан в 365 году до н.э., в период правления царя Македонии Филиппа II. С возникновением Римской империи, спустя десятилетия после битвы при Филиппах в 42 году до н.э, город стал принимать облик «маленького Рима». Наряду с памятниками эллинистической эпохи, такими как большой театр и погребальный храм, в городе были построены подобные римским сооружения, в частности, форум. После того, как апостол Павел посетил Филиппы в 49-50 году н.э., город стал центром христианства. Руины городских церквей того времени являются уникальным свидетельством становления раннего христианства.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Sitio arqueológico de Filipos

Fundada en 356 a.C. durante el reinado de Filipo II de Macedonia, los vestigios de esta ciudad fortificada se extienden al pie de una acrópolis situada en la actual región griega de Macedonia Oriental y Tracia, por la que pasaba la antigua vía romana Egnatia que unía Europa con Asia. En tiempos del Imperio Romano, en los decenios subsiguientes a la batalla de Filipos (42 a.C.), vinieron a añadirse a los anteriores monumentos de la época helenística –el gran teatro y el templo funerario– importantes construcciones como el foro que hicieron de la ciudad una “pequeña Roma”. Después de la visita del apóstol San Pablo a Filipos en los años 49 a 50 de nuestra era común, la ciudad se convirtió en un centro de propagación del cristianismo. Los vestigios de sus iglesias constituyen un testimonio excepcional del asentamiento de los primeros cristianos.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

フィリピの古代遺跡
ヨーロッパとアジアを結ぶ要衝の都市遺跡。ギリシャ北東部、ヨーロッパとアジアをつなぐ古代のエグナティア街道上にある城壁都市の遺構。紀元前356年にマケドニア王フィリッポス2世によって建設され、前42年のフィリピの戦いまで、小ローマとしてローマ帝国の発展とともに栄えた。この活気あるヘレニズム都市では、今も城壁、門、劇場や葬祭殿を見ることができる。都市の北側には、公共広場、寺院の記念碑的なテラスといったローマ時代の公共建物が加えられた。その後、この都市はキリスト教信仰の中心地となったことでも重要である。

source: NFUAJ

Archeologische site van Philippi

De overblijfselen van deze ommuurde stad liggen aan de voet van een acropolis in de tegenwoordige regio Oost-Macedonië en Thracië. De stad werd in 356 v.Chr. gesticht door de Macedonische koning Philip II, langs de antieke route die Europa en Azië verbindt, de Via Egnatia. De stad ontwikkelde zich tot een ‘kleine versie van Rome’, na de vestiging van het Romeinse Rijk in de decennia na de slag om Philippi, in 42 v.Chr. Het Hellistische theater en de graftempel (heroön) werden aangevuld met Romeinse bouwwerken zoals het forum. Later werd de stad een centrum van het christelijk geloof na het bezoek van de apostel Paulus in 49-50 n.Chr. De overblijfselen van diverse basilieken getuigen op bijzondere wijze van de vroege stichting van het christendom.

Source: unesco.nl

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Archaeological Site of Philippi: The Theater © Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

The Archaeological Site of Philippi is lying at the foot of an acropolis in north-eastern Greece on the ancient route linking Europe with Asia, the Via Egnatia. The city of Philippi, re-founded by Philip II on a former colony of Thasians in 356 BCE, was reshaped by the Romans into a "small Rome" with its elevation to a Colonia Augusta of the Roman Empire in the decades following the Battle of Philippi. The vibrant Hellenistic city of Philip II, of which the walls and their gates, the theatre and the funerary heroon (temple) are to be seen, was adorned and transformed with Roman public buildings including the Forum and a monumental terrace with temples to its north. Later the city became a centre of Christian faith and pilgrimage deriving from the visit of the Apostle Paul in 49/50 CE and the remains of Christian basilicas and the octagonal church testify to its importance as a metropolitan see.

Criterion (iii): Philippi is an exceptional testimony to the incorporation of regions into the Roman Empire as demonstrated by the city’s layout and architecture as a colony resembling a “small Rome”. The remains of its churches are exceptional testimony to the early establishment and growth of Christianity.

Criterion (iv): The monuments of Philippi exemplify various architectural types and reflect the development of architecture during the Roman and Early Christian period. The Forum stands out as an example of such a public space in the eastern Roman provinces. The Octagon Church, the transept Basilica, and the domed Basilica stand out as types of Early Christian architecture.

Integrity

The walled city includes all elements necessary to convey its values, and is not subject to development or neglect. The modern asphalted road, closed in 2014, which essentially follows the route of the ancient Via Egnatia, will be dismantled east of the west entrance to the site near the Museum.

Authenticity

The walled city was subject to major destruction in the earthquake of 620 CE. Many stones and elements of the buildings including inscriptions and mosaic and opus sectile floors remain in situ from that time, although some stones were subsequently reused in later buildings. Modern constructions and interventions at the site have been generally limited to archaeological investigations and necessary measures for the protection and enhancement of the site. For the most part the principle of reversibility has been respected and the walled city can be considered authentic in terms of form and design, location and setting.

Protection and management requirements

The property and buffer zone are protected at the highest level under the antiquities Law 3028/2002 ‘On the Protection of Antiquities and Cultural Heritage in General’ as re-designated in 2012, and as protected zone A in 2013. This covers both State and privately-owned land and, except for the buffer zone extension in the south-east corner which covers part of the adjacent town, is a ‘non-construction’ zone. The area of the adjacent town is covered by planning requirements to report archaeological finds during works. The boundaries of the property and buffer zone are clearly defined on the maps and the property will be fully fenced in the near future.

The property is managed at the local level by the Ephorate of Antiquities, the Regional Service of the General Directorate of Antiquities and Cultural Heritage, within the Ministry of Culture and Sports. The Management Plan was drafted in 2014 and will be implemented by a seven-member committee including representatives of government and municipal agencies and co-ordinated by the Head of the local Ephorate of Antiquities. A conservation strategy aimed at unifying and upgrading the property and identifying the priority projects and funding sources will be included in the Management Plan, together with a co-ordinated archaeological research plan aimed at better understanding and interpretation of the site and an overall database as a basis for monitoring and conservation.