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Mountain Resort and its Outlying Temples, Chengde

Mountain Resort and its Outlying Temples, Chengde

The Mountain Resort (the Qing dynasty's summer palace), in Hebei Province, was built between 1703 and 1792. It is a vast complex of palaces and administrative and ceremonial buildings. Temples of various architectural styles and imperial gardens blend harmoniously into a landscape of lakes, pastureland and forests. In addition to its aesthetic interest, the Mountain Resort is a rare historic vestige of the final development of feudal society in China.

Résidence de montagne et temples avoisinants à Chengde

La résidence de montagne, palais d'été de la dynastie Qing dans la province du Hebei, fut construite de 1703 à 1792. C'est un vaste ensemble de palais et de bâtiments administratifs et cérémoniels, de temples aux architectures très variées et de jardins impériaux s'intégrant subtilement à un paysage de lacs, de pâturages et de forêts. Outre son intérêt esthétique, la résidence de montagne est un témoignage historique précieux sur le développement final de la société féodale en Chine.

مقرّ جبلي ومعابد على مقربة من تشينغده

بُني المقرّ الجبلي والقصر الصيفي لسلالة كينغ في مقاطعة هباي بين عامي1703 و1792. إنه مجمّع كبير من القصور والمباني الإداريّة والاحتفاليّة والمعابد المتنوّعة من حيث الهندسة والحدائق الملكيّة المتشابكة مع منظر غنّاء من بحيرات ومراعٍ وغابات. إضافةً إلى أهميّته الجماليّة، يشكّل المقر الجبلي خير برهانٍ تاريخيٍّ قيّمٍ على التطوّر النهائي لمجتمع الصين الإقطاعي.

source: UNESCO/ERI

承德避暑山庄及其周围寺庙

承德避暑山庄,是清王朝的夏季行宫,位于河北省境内,修建于公元1703年至1792年,是由众多的宫殿以及其他处理政务、举行仪式的建筑构成的一个庞大的建筑群。建筑风格各异的庙宇和皇家园林同周围的湖泊、牧场和森林巧妙地融为一体。避暑山庄不仅具有极高的美学研究价值,而且还保留着中国封建社会发展末期的罕见历史遗迹。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Горная императорская резиденция и окружающие его храмы в Чэндэ

Горная резиденция, летний дворец династии Цинн в провинции Хэйбэй, была построена между 1703 и 1792 гг. Это обширный комплекс дворцов, административных и церемониальных зданий. Храмы, выполненные в различных архитектурных стилях, и императорские сады гармонично вписаны в ландшафт озер, пастбищ и лесов. Помимо эстетической ценности, горная резиденция является редким историческим памятником последнего этапа развития феодального общества в Китае.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Residencia de montaña y templos vecinos en Chengde

Esta residencia de montaña, palacio de verano de la dinastí­a Qing en la provincia de Hebei, fue edificada entre 1703 y 1792. Es un vasto conjunto de edificios palaciegos, administrativos y ceremoniales, de templos de arquitectura muy diversa, y de jardines imperiales sutilmente armonizados con un paisaje de lagos, praderas y bosques. Ademí¡s de su interés estético, la residencia de montaña de Chengde constituye un importante testimonio histórico sobre la última etapa del desarrollo de la sociedad feudal en China.

source: UNESCO/ERI

承徳の避暑山荘と外八廟

source: NFUAJ

Bergverblijf en bijbehorende verder weg gelegen tempels, Chengde

Het bergverblijf in Chengde (het zomerpaleis van de Qing dynastie) ligt in de provincie Hebei en werd gebouwd tussen 1702 en 1792. Om de controle over de Mongoolse regio te versterken en de noordelijke grenzen van het land te verdedigen, werd het Mulan jachtgebied opgezet op de Mongoolse graslanden, 350 kilometer van Beijing. Elk jaar ging de keizer met zijn ministers, troepen, familie en concubines naar Mulan om te jagen. Op het jachtgebied werden 21 tijdelijke paleizen gebouwd, waar het bergverblijf met z’n afgelegen tempels er een van is. Het verblijf is een zeldzaam historisch overblijfsel van de laatste ontwikkeling van de feodale maatschappij in China.

Source: unesco.nl

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Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

The Mountain Resort of palaces and gardens at Chengde with its Outlying Temples is the largest existing imperial palace-garden and temple complex in China, covering a total area of 611.2ha. Built between 1703 and 1792 as the Qing emperors’ detached summer palace near the imperial Mulan hunting ground 350 kilometres from Beijing, it was a base from which to strengthen administration in the border regions. The 12 outlying imperial temples, some built in the architectural styles of the ethnic minorities, are distributed across the eastern and northern hills outside the palace and garden area. They fostered relations with the ethnic minorities and helped to safeguard the Mountain Resort. Every summer and autumn, emperors of the Qing dynasty including Kangxi and Qianlong handled military and government affairs of the country and received leaders of ethnic minority groups and diplomatic envoys from foreign countries here, and went north from here to hold the Mulan Autumn Hunting. Important historical events of the Qing dynasty took place here, and the historical sites and objects have witnessed the consolidation and development of China as a unitary multi-ethnic state.

The Mountain Resort and its Outlying Temples, Chengde is a classic masterpiece of Chinese palace architecture, gardening art and religious architecture.The landscape of the Mountain Resort is designed following the topography of natural hills and water. As an outstanding example of Chinese natural landscape gardens and palaces, it inherits and carries forward China’s imperial gardening tradition. By integrating elements of Han, Mongolian and Tibetan architectural art and culture the Outlying Temples crystallize the achievements of cultural exchanges and integration among different ethnic groups in the course of development of Chinese architecture.

The manmade landscape of the Mountain Resort and its Outlying Temples perfectly integrates with the special natural environment of Chengde, such as the danxia landform. Its natural and harmonious layout is a successful practice of the traditional Chinese geomantic culture (fengshui). As a representative of ancient Chinese garden design, it once exerted influence in Europe, and has played an important role in the history of 18th century landscape garden design worldwide.

Criterion (ii): The landscape of the Mountain Resort and its Outlying Temples is an outstanding example of Chinese integration of buildings into the natural environment, which had and continues to have a profound influence on landscape design.

Criterion (iv): The Mountain Resort and its Outlying Temples represent in material form the final flowering of feudal society in China.

Integrity

The Mountain Resort and its Outlying Temples have a high degree of integrity. Within the 611.2 ha. area covered by the property, the historic layout and natural system of hills and water since the 18th century are basically integrally preserved, with all main historical relics, information and corresponding important values preserved intact, demonstrating China’s multi-ethnic cultures, including Han, Manchu, Mongolian and Tibetan, and the integration of Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism and other religions.

Authenticity

The layout of the 18th century, with all the attributes, including buildings, sites, stone sculptures, wall paintings and Buddhist statues are fundamentally preserved. It authentically presents the classic artistic achievement of gardening and temple architecture of China in the 18th century, and genuinely preserves the historic and physical testimony of the unity, consolidation and development of China as a multi-ethnic country. Therefore it enjoys a high level of authenticity. 

Protection and management requirements

At the national level, the Mountain Resort and its Outlying Temples at Chengde is a State Priority Protected Site, owned by the state and protected by the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Cultural Relics, with the boundary of the property area and buffer zone delimited and proclaimed. The People’s Standing Committee of Hebei Province has promulgated the Regulations on the Protection of Chengde Mountain Resort and its Outlying Temples and the Hebei provincial government has approved the Conservation Plan for the Historically and Culturally Famous City of Chengde.

The Conservation Master Plan of Chengde Mountain Resort and its Outlying Temples has been formulated and submitted for approval following pertinent procedures, with conservation, management and monitoring on the property and its settings strengthened. This provides an overall framework and direction for the protection and management of the property. With clear responsibility, fairly adequate staff and a comprehensive management regime, the conservation and management institution for the property provides a firm legal, systematic and management framework for the protection of the integrity and authenticity of the property. A strong professional team has been established to ensure the protection, maintenance, research and security of the property. The governments at all levels have attached great importance to the protection of the property, with increasing funds allocated to site conservation. Relevant regulations and plans are strictly followed, which safeguards the integrity and authenticity of the Mountain Resort and its Outlying Temples, Chengde. The property is in good condition at present.

Long Description

The landscape of the Mountain Resort and its Outlying Temples is an outstanding example of Chinese integration of buildings into the natural environment, which had and continues to have a profound influence on landscape design. The Mountain Resort was the Qing dynasty's garden-type Imperial Palace and so has rich social, political and historical significance. The site represents in material form, moreover, the final flowering of feudal society in China.

In order to strengthen its control of the Mongolian region and the defence of the country's northern borders, the Qing government established the Mulan Hunting Ground on the Mongolian grasslands, over 350 km from Beijing. Each year the Emperor would bring his ministers and his Eight Standard Royal troops, along with his family and concubines, to hunt at Mulan. To accommodate this entourage of several thousand people, 21 temporary palaces were built, among them the Mountain Resort (also known as the Rehe Temporary Imperial Palace) and its Outlying Temples.

Building began in 1703 and the last project was completed in 1792, covering the reigns of three successive emperors of the Qing dynasty. The work was carried out in two stages: from 1703 to 1714 opening up the lake area, construction of islets and dykes preparatory to building of palaces, pavilions and palace walls; and from 1741 to 1754 addition of further palaces and scenic gardens. Between 1713 and 1780 the Outlying Temples were also being built. With the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911 the resort was abandoned; restoration work began after the foundation of the People's Republic of China.

The Mountain Resort consists of the palace area and the landscape. The palace area, which covers 102,000 m2 , is in the south part of the resort, and this was the area where the Qing emperors lived, handled administrative matters and held ceremonies. It originally consisted of four groups of buildings, including the Main Hall, Songhe Hall, Wanhe Songfeng Palace and East Palace; the buildings are in traditional simple Chinese style, but with imperial solemnity.

The Lake Area, which covers 496,000 m2 in the south-eastern part of the resort, is laid out in accordance with traditional Chinese garden design, based on Chinese mythology. There are eight lakes and several groups of buildings which create a landscape similar to that of the region to the south of the Yangtze River.

The Plain Area, to the north of the Resort, covers 607,000 m2 and is divided into two parts - the western grasslands and the eastern forests. The former was used for horse-racing and the latter (also known as the Ten Thousand Tree Garden) was a political centre, used for receiving distinguished visitors. In the western part of the Ten Thousand Tree Garden is Wenjin Hall, one of the largest imperial libraries. Many other buildings are dotted around the landscape.

The Mountain Area, in the north-west of the resort, covers over 4 million m2 and consists of four large ravines: Zhengzi, Songlin, Lishu and Songyun. Only the ruins survive of the 40 groups of halls, pavilions, temples and monasteries that were once located in this area. The Outlying Temples were built to appease the ethnic minority peoples (Mongolians, Tibetans and others) and to strengthen the administration of the border regions. They consist of twelve lamaseries in different architectural styles.

The combination of the Han and Tibetan styles of architecture is a major feature of the other Outlying Temples (Punin, Puyou, Anyuan and Pule). The front parts of the temples are in Han style and the rear in Tibetan style. They are especially notable for the technological and artistic skills in the images that they house, such as the Shanglewang Buddha in the Pule Temple and the Goddess of Mercy in the Puning Temple.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

In order to strengthen its control of the Mongolian region and the defence of the country's northern borders, the Qing government established the Mulan Hunting Ground on the Mongolian grasslands, over 350 km from Beijing. Each year the Emperor would bring his ministers and his eight Standard Royal troops, along with his family and concubines, to hunt at Mulan. To accommodate this entourage of several thousand people, 21 temporary palaces were built, among them the Mountain Resort (also known as the Rehe Temporary Imperial Palace) and its Outlying Temples.

Building began in 1703 and the last project was completed in 1792, covering the reigns of three successive Emperors of the Qing Dynasty (Kang Xi, Yong Zheng, and Qian Long). The work was carried out in two stages:

1703-14 Opening up of the lake area, construction of islets and dykes, preparatory to building of palaces, pavilions, and palace walls.

1741-54 Addition of further palaces and scenic gardens. Between 1713 and 1780 the Outlying Temples were also being built. With the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in 1911the resort was abandoned; restoration work

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation