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Historic Centre of the Town of Olinda

Historic Centre of the Town of Olinda

Founded in the 16th century by the Portuguese, the town’s history is linked to the sugar-cane industry. Rebuilt after being looted by the Dutch, its basic urban fabric dates from the 18th century. The harmonious balance between the buildings, gardens, 20 Baroque churches, convents and numerous small passos (chapels) all contribute to Olinda’s particular charm.

Centre historique de la ville d'Olinda

La ville a été fondée au XVIe siècle par les Portugais et son histoire est liée à l’industrie de la canne à sucre. Elle a été reconstruite après son pillage par les Hollandais et l’essentiel de son tissu urbain date du XVIIIe siècle. L’équilibre préservé entre les bâtiments, les jardins, les vingt églises baroques, les couvents et les nombreuses petites chapelles (« passos ») donne à Olinda une ambiance toute particulière.

الوسط التاريخي لمدينة أوليندا

في القرن السادس عشر، أسس البرتغاليون مدينة أوليندا التي يرتبط تاريخها بصناعة قصب السكر. وقد أعيد بناء هذه المدينة بعدما نهبها الهولنديون. ويرقى قسم أساسي من نسيجها الحضري إلى القرن الثامن عشر. كما تتميّز أوليندا بجو خاص تستمده من التوازن القائم بين الأبنية والحدائق والكنائس العشرين المشيّدة على الطراز الباروكي والأديرة والمعابد المتعددة (المعروفة بالبرتغالية بالـ "باسوس").

source: UNESCO/ERI

奥林达历史中心

这座城市是16世纪葡萄牙人建立的,其历史与蔗糖工业有着密切的联系。这里曾遭荷兰殖民者洗劫,后得以重建,基础城市建筑可以追溯到18世纪。城中的楼群、花园、20座巴洛克教堂、女修道院和为数众多的“帕索斯”(小教堂)之间布局和谐,相得益彰,赋予了奥林达城独特的魅力。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Исторический центр города Олинда

История этого города, основанного в XVI в. португальцами, связана с производством тростникового сахара. Городская застройка, восстановленная после разграбления города голландцами, относится в основном к XVIII в. Гармоничное сочетание зданий, садов, 20 барочных церквей, монастырей и множества небольших «пассос» (часовен) вносит свой вклад в особое очарование Олинды.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Centro histórico de la Ciudad de Olinda

La historia de esta ciudad, fundada por los portugueses en el siglo XVI, está vinculada a la industria de la caña de azúcar. Tuvo que ser reconstruida en el siglo XVII tras su saqueo por los holandeses y su tejido urbano data esencialmente del siglo XVIII. La arquitectura equilibrada de sus edificios y jardines, así como la de sus veinte templos barrocos, conventos y numerosos “passos” (capillas), da a esta ciudad un encanto muy especial.

source: UNESCO/ERI

オリンダ歴史地区

source: NFUAJ

Historisch centrum van Olinda

De stad Olinda werd opgericht in de 16e eeuw door de Portugezen. De stad dankt haar snelle opkomst aan het verbouwen van suikerriet en het gebruik van slaven in de Pernambuco regio. In de 17e eeuw was de regio in handen van Nederlandse bezetters. Na hun aftocht in 1654, brandden zij Olinda volledig plat. De stad kwam wederom onder Portugees bestuur en het centrum werd herbouwd. De stedelijke stijl dateert uit de 18e eeuw. De harmonieuze balans tussen gebouwen, tuinen, twintig barok kerken, kloosters en talrijke kapelletjes (passos), dragen allemaal bij aan de bijzondere charme van Olinda.

Source: unesco.nl

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Historic Centre of the Town of Olinda © Lyssuel Calvet
Long Description

The historical centre of Olinda, which is located several kilometres to the north of the harbour installations, industrial zones and skyscrapers of Recife, still retains the charm of a city museum of the colonial period. Olinda was founded in 1537 by the Portuguese Duarte Coelho Pereira and owed its rapid rise to the cultivation of sugar cane in the region of Pernambuco using slave labour.

From the 16th century, churches and convents, of which only rare examples such as the Church of São João exist today, were built by religious missions. The Dutch occupied the region from 1630 to 1654 and during the occupation a well-planned town was built where present-day Recife is located. Pernambuco was ably governed by the Dutch and prospered with the production of sugar in the plantations located in the rich alluvial soil along the coast. However, the invaders burned down Olinda, although they created a pacific and developed administration centred in Recife.

Portuguese rule replaced that of the Dutch in Pernambuco in 1654, and Olinda recovered; once again it was an important Brazilian village, as a developed and cultural centre. In the early 18th century a bitter rivalry developed between Olinda, the administrative capital of the Captaincy and the residence of rich aristocratic plantation owners, and Recife, which was the commercial centre, largely inhabited by traders, ship's chandlers and warehouse workers.

Recife continued to prosper, however, while Olinda declined, and in 1827 it was made the capital of the province. In 1817 Pernambuco was the scene of a local armed rebellion against Portuguese rule. It remained for years a hotbed of republicanism and revolutionary agitation, and it was the site of unsuccessful insurrections against Portuguese rule in 1821-22, 1824, 1831 and 1848. Pernambuco became a state of the Brazilian Republic in 1891.

The essential urban fabric of Olinda dates from the 18th century, although it incorporates some older monuments. Among the more important of the buildings of Olinda are the Episcopal Church, the Jesuit College and Church (now the Church of Graça), the Franciscan, Carmelite, Benedictine and other monasteries and convents, and the Misericórdia, Amparo and São João Batista churches.

The unique quality of the Historic Centre arises from the balance, which has generally been maintained, between the private and public buildings and the gardens of the early land allotment. It is a town of unexpected views: one of the numerous Baroque churches and convents or the numerous passos (chapels and oratories) will appear unexpectedly as one turns a corner. The studied refinements of the decor of these conscious architectural structures contrasts with the charming simplicity of the houses, which are painted in vivid colours or faced with ceramic tiles.

Over recent decades, Olinda - a city of art, much appreciated by artists - has been the object of numerous preservation measures. Outstanding buildings such as the Church of Graça, with the former Jesuit College, the Convent do Carmo and the Episcopal Palace have all been more or less completely restored. The construction of new complexes is regulated by a master plan and the zone of protection was extended in 1979.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC