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Sacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy

Sacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy

The nine Sacri Monti (Sacred Mountains) of northern Italy are groups of chapels and other architectural features created in the late 16th and 17th centuries and dedicated to different aspects of the Christian faith. In addition to their symbolic spiritual meaning, they are of great beauty by virtue of the skill with which they have been integrated into the surrounding natural landscape of hills, forests and lakes. They also house much important artistic material in the form of wall paintings and statuary.

Sacri Monti du Piémont et de Lombardie

he nine Sacri Monti (Sacred Mountains) of northern Italy are groups of chapels and other architectural features created in the late 16th and 17th centuries and dedicated to different aspects of the Christian faith. In addition to their symbolic spiritual meaning, they are of great beauty by virtue of the skill with which they have been integrated into the surrounding natural landscape of hills, forests and lakes. They also house much important artistic material in the form of wall paintings and statuary.

ساكري مونتي في البييمون ولومبارديا

الهضاب المقدسة التسع  في إيطاليا الشمالية هي مجموعات من الكنائس وعناصر هندسية معمارية أخرى نشأت في نهاية القرنين السادس عشر والسابع عشر وهي مكرّسة لجوانب متعددة من الإيمان المسيحي. وتتميز أيضًا بجمال باهر بفعل الاندماج المرن للعناصر الهندسية في المناظر الطبيعية المجاورة – تلال، وغابات وبحيرات. وهي تحتوي على عدد كبير من التحف الفنية الهامة بشكل رسوم جدارية وتماثيل.

source: UNESCO/ERI

皮埃蒙特及伦巴第圣山

位于意大利北部的这9座“圣山”,是一组修建于16世纪晚期至17世纪的小教堂建筑群,以及与之配套的其他宗教建筑物。它们是专门为人们以不同方式向基督教表示虔诚而建造的。除了具有精神方面的象征意义之外,它们那与周围自然环境(山峦、森林、湖泊)高度和谐、融洽及统一的精湛建筑技艺也给人以高度美的享受。这里也有许多壁画和雕像等重要艺术作品。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Ансамбли Сакри-Монти (Святые горы) в Пьемонте и Ломбардии

Девять ансамблей Сакри-Монти в северной Италии – это группы часовен и других архитектурных объектов, созданных в конце ХVI-ХVII вв. и посвященных различным аспектам христианской веры. В дополнение к своему символическому духовному значению, эти ансамбли, благодаря умелому включению в окружающий холмистый озерно-лесной ландшафт, очень живописны. Они также содержат много ценных художественных произведений в виде стенных росписей и статуй.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Sacri Monti del Piamonte y Lombardía

Formado por nueve Sacri Monti (montes sacros) de Italia del Norte, este sitio posee conjuntos de capillas y otras edificaciones de los siglos XVI y XVII dedicadas a la celebración de distintos aspectos del cristianismo. Además de su significado espiritual y simbólico, el sitio es de una gran belleza por la maestría con que se han integrado los elementos arquitectónicos en el paisaje natural circundante formado por colinas, bosques y lagos. El sitio cuenta también con una multitud de obras de arte importantes, en particular pinturas murales y estatuas.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ピエモンテとロンバルディアのサクリ・モンティ 

source: NFUAJ

Sacri Monti van Piemonte en Lombardije

Het fenomeen van de 'Sacri Monti' (heilige bergen) ontstond begin 15e en 16e eeuw toen men bedevaartsplekken in Europa wilde creëren als alternatief voor de heilige plaatsen in Jeruzalem en Palestina, waarvan de toegang steeds moeilijker werd voor pelgrims door de uitbreiding van de islamitische cultuur. De negen Sacri Monti in Noord-Italië bestaan uit groepen kapellen en architecturale elementen uit de late 16e en 17e eeuw, gewijd aan verschillende aspecten van het christelijke geloof. Ze hebben een symbolische spirituele betekenis en zijn van grote schoonheid door de manier waarop ze zich mengen met het omringende natuurlandschap. Ze herbergen belangrijk artistiek materiaal, zoals fresco’s en beeldhouwwerken.

Source: unesco.nl

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© UNESCO
Justification for Inscription

Criterion (ii): The implantation of architecture and sacred art into a natural landscape for didactic and spiritual purposes achieved its most exceptional expression in the Sacri Monti (‘Sacred Mountains’) of northern Italy and had a profound influence on subsequent developments elsewhere in Europe.

Criterion (iv): The Sacri Monti (‘Sacred Mountains’) of northern Italy represent the successful integration of architecture and fine art into a landscape of great beauty for spiritual reasons at a critical period in the history of the Roman Catholic Church.

Historical Description

The phenomenon of sacri monti ("sacred mountains") began at the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries with the aim of creating in Europe places of prayer as alternative to the Holy Places in Jerusalem and Palestine, access to which was becoming more difficult for pilgrims owing to the rapid expansion of Muslim culture. The Minorite guardians of the Holy Sepulchre selected three sites - Varallo in Valsesia, belonging to the Duchy of Milan, Montaione in Tuscany, and Braga in northern Portugal - at which to build "New Jerusalems" designed to be similar in topography to the original.

Within a few years, especially after the Council of Trent in 1535, this model, and in particular that of Varallo, built around 1480, were used for another purpose, and especially in those dioceses coming under the jurisdiction of the Milan Curia. This was to combat the influence of Protestant "Reform" by promoting the creation of more Sacri Monti as concrete expressions of their preaching. These were dedicated not only to Christ but also to cults devoted to the Virgin Mary, saints, the Trinity, and the Rosary.

This ideal project, which went into specific standards for the typology and architectural styles to use, received a strong impetus from Carlo Borromeo, Bishop of Milan. In accordance with the ideas that stemmed from the Council of Trent, he went straight ahead with the completion of the Varallo sacro monte before starting work on the others. This phase went on throughout the 17th century until around the middle of the 18th century. Varallo was succeeded by the sacri monti at Crea, Orta, Varese, Oropa, Ossuccio, Ghiffa, Domodossola, and Valperga. Although at the outset these followed certain basic rules, as they were being constructed they developed individual artistic and architectural aspects.

Other sacri monti were designed and built throughout the 18th century, but many of these were no more than examples of different styles, lacking the religious motivation, the authenticity of composition according to strict rules, and the fine architectural and artistic elements which had marked the earlier phase in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation
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