Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor
Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor
No doubt thousands of statues still remain to be unearthed at this archaeological site, which was not discovered until 1974. Qin (d. 210 B.C.), the first unifier of China, is buried, surrounded by the famous terracotta warriors, at the centre of a complex designed to mirror the urban plan of the capital, Xianyan. The small figures are all different; with their horses, chariots and weapons, they are masterpieces of realism and also of great historical interest.
Mausolée du premier empereur Qin
Sur ce site archéologique qui ne fut découvert qu'en 1974, il reste sans doute des milliers de statues à mettre au jour. C'est là que Qin, premier unificateur de la Chine, mort en 210 av. J.-C., repose au centre d'un ensemble qui évoque le schéma urbain de sa capitale Xianyan, entouré d'une armée de guerriers en terre cuite devenus rapidement célèbres dans le monde. Ces personnages, tous différents, avec leurs chevaux, leurs chars et leurs armes, sont des chefs-d'œuvre de réalisme, qui constituent aussi un témoignage historique inestimable.
ضريح الإمبراطور الأوّل كين
في هذا الموقع الأثري الذي لم يُكتشف حتّى العام 1974، آلاف من التماثيل التي لم يخرجها التنقيب بعد إلى النور. ففي هذا الموقع يجثم كين، موحّد الصين الأوّل الذي توفي عام 210 ق.م.، وسط مجموعةٍ تذكّر بمخطط العاصمة كزيانيان المدني يحوطه جمعٌ من المحاربين المصنوعين من الطين والذين ذاع سريعاً صيتهم في العالم. وهذه الشخصيّات المختلفة عن بعضها بأحصنتها ومدافعها وأسلحتها هي تحف عن الواقع وهي أيضاً شهادة تاريخية لا تُقدّر بثمن.
Гробница первого императора династии Цинь
Тысячи статуй этого археологического объекта, обнаруженного только в 1974 г., все еще остаются под слоем земли. Цинь Шихуанди, первый объединитель Китая (умерший в 210 г. до н.э.), был похоронен здесь в окружении знаменитых терракотовых воинов в центре комплекса. Этот комплекс создан по такой же планировке, что и столица страны – город Сяньян. Непохожие друг на друга фигуры с лошадьми, колесницами и оружием – это шедевры реалистичного искусства, представляющие огромный исторический интерес.
Mausoleo del primer emperador Qin
En este sitio arqueológico, descubierto solamente en 1974, quedan sin duda miles de estatuas por desenterrar. Aquí yacen los despojos mortales de Qin –primer unificador de China, muerto el año 210 a.C.– en el centro de un conjunto monumental que reproduce el trazado urbanístico de su capital, Xianyan. El emperador estí¡ rodeado por un ejército de guerreros de terracota que se han hecho célebres en mundo entero. Estos personajes, todos ellos diferentes, y sus caballos, carros de combate y armas, son obras maestras del realismo y constituyen un testimonio histórico de valor incalculable.
Mausoleum van Qin, de eerste keizer van China
Het mausoleum van Qin Shi Huang is het grootste bewaarde mausoleum in China. Waarschijnlijk zijn er nog duizenden standbeelden die opgegraven kunnen worden op deze archeologische vindplaats, die pas ontdekt werd in 1974. Qin Shi Huang († 210 voor Christus) was de eerste keizer die China verenigde. Hij is begraven, omringd door de beroemde terracotta krijgers. Zijn graf ligt in het centrum van een complex dat het stedelijk ontwerp van de hoofdstad Xianyan weerspiegelt. De kleine figuren zijn allemaal verschillend; met hun paarden, karren en wapens vormen ze ware realistische kunstwerken van buitengewone historische waarde.
Outstanding Universal Value
Located at the northern foot of Lishan Mountain, 35 kilometers northeast of Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, Qinshihuang Mausoleum is the tomb of Emperor Qinshihuang, founder of the first unified empire in Chinese history during the 3rd century BCE. Begun in 246 BCE the grave mound survives to a height of 51.3 meters within a rectangular, double-walled enclosure oriented north-south. Nearly 200 accompanying pits containing thousands of life-size terra cotta soldiers, terra cotta horses and bronze chariots and weapons - a world-renowned discovery - together with burial tombs and architectural remains total over 600 sites within the property area of 56.25 square kilometers. According to the historian Sima Qian (c. 145-95 BCE), workers from every province of the Empire toiled unceasingly until the death of the Emperor in 210 in order to construct a subterranean city within a gigantic mound.
As the tomb of the first emperor who unified the country, it is the largest in Chinese history, with a unique standard and layout, and a large number of exquisite funeral objects. It testifies to the founding of the first unified empire- the Qin Dynasty, which during the 3rd BCE, wielded unprecedented political, military and economic power and advanced the social, cultural and artistic level of the empire.
Criterion (i): Because of their exceptional technical and artistic qualities, the terracotta warriors and horses, and the funerary carts in bronze are major works in the history of Chinese sculpture prior to the reign of the Han dynasty.
Criterion (iii): The army of statues bears unique testimony to the military organization in China at the time of the Warring Kingdoms (475-221 BCE) and that of the short-lived Empire of a Thousand Generations (221-210 BCE). The direct testimony of the objects found in situ (lances, swords, axes, halberds, bows, arrows, etc.) is evident. The documentary value of a group of hyper realistic sculptures where no detail has been neglected - from the uniforms of the warriors, their arms, to even the horses' halters - is enormous. Furthermore, the information to be gleaned from the statues concerning the craft and techniques of potters and bronze-workers is immeasurable.
Criterion (iv): The mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang is the largest preserved site in China. It is a unique architectural ensemble whose layout echoes the urban plan of the capital, Xianyang, with the imperial palace enclosed by the walls of the city, themselves encircled by other walls. This capital of the Qin (to which succeeded on the present site of Xian the capitals of the Han, Sui and Tang dynasties) is a microcosm of the Zhongguo (Middle Country) that Qin Shi Huang wanted both to unify (he imposed throughout the land a single system of writing, money, weights and measures) and to protect from the barbarians that could arrive from any direction (the army which watches over the dead emperor faces outward from the tomb).
Criterion (vi): The mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang is associated with an event of universal significance: the first unification of the Chinese territory by a centralized state created by an absolute monarch in 221 BCE.
The Qinshihuang Mausoleum features a high level of integrity; the grave mound, mausoleum constructions, burial pits, sites of ritual construction and overall setting in the property area and the buffer zone are well preserved, and fully reflect the structure and ritual system of the whole mausoleum.
The grave mound, sites of constructions, burial tombs and burial pits in Qinshihuang Mausoleum truthfully maintain their original location, material, formation，technology and structure, which authentically reflect the constricting regulation of the Mausoleum and palace life and military systems of the Qin Dynasty. The numerous unearthed cultural relics reflect the highest technical level of pottery, chariot assembly, metallurgy and metal processing in the Qin Dynasty.
Protection and management requirements
The Qinshihuang Mausoleum has been listed a State Priority Protected Site and thus is under the protection of the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Cultural Relics. In July 2005, the Shaanxi Provincial People’s Congress passed the Shaanxi Provincial Regulation on the Protection of Qinshihuang Mausoleum and established a protection body: Qinshihuang Mausoleum. In 2009, the Museum of the Terra-Cotta Warriors and Horses of Qinshihuang was upgraded to the Qinshihuang Mausoleum Museum by the Shaanxi Provincial Bureau of Cultural Heritage, taking charge of the overall planning, management, archaeological excavation, scientific research and daily maintenance.
In order to respond to the pressure of urban development and tourism, the Shaanxi provincial government approved the Conservation Plan for Qinshihuang Mausoleum in July 2010, which clarifies the borders of the protection area and the construction control zone around the mausoleum and prohibits the development of Lintong district from infringing on the mausoleum. The measure has effectively protected the mausoleum and its settings, prevented destructive activities, and ensured the authenticity and integrity of the proper
The mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang is the largest preserved one in China. It is a unique architectural ensemble whose layout echoes the urban plan of the capital, Xianyang, with the Imperial Palace enclosed by the walls of the city, themselves encircled by other walls. The mausoleum is also associated with an event of universal significance: the first unification of the Chinese territory in a centralized state created by an absolute monarch, in 221 BC.
The first Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang (Ying Zheng: 221-210 BC) arranged for his burial place long before his accession to the seat of supreme power. When he became king of Qin in 247 BC, Zheng had his geomancers choose a favourable site at the foot of Mount Li. Work was commenced and was carried out more energetically with each new political and military success over his rivals Han, Zhao, Wei, Chu, Yan and Qi. Following the proclamation of the Empire of Ten Thousand Generations in 221, work at the burial place took on extraordinary dimensions.
About 700,000 workers from every province of the empire toiled unceasingly until the death of the emperor in order to construct a subterranean city within a gigantic mound. The place was a veritable scale model of the palace, the empire and the world. Its treasures were safeguarded by automatically triggered weapons designed to thwart tomb robbers.
After Qin Shi Huang's death, the principal craftsmen of the hypogeum were walled up on the orders of the second emperor, as a precaution against their betraying their secrets. The mausoleum, 35 km from Xian, is still landmarked by an imposing mound 43 m high. The interior is built within a first square enclosure, with doors in the middle of each of the four walls corresponding to the four cardinal points. This in turn is surrounded by a second rectangular enclosure running north-south.
The mausoleum's superstructures have disappeared and there remains only a wooded knoll resembling a truncated pyramid on a 350 m square base. While sinking a well 1.5 km from the exterior eastern wall of the mausoleum's inner room, three peasants from the small village of Yangeun-West came upon a pit in which there were lifesize terracotta statues of warriors. Excavations were begun immediately. Pit 1 contained a veritable army of 1,087 warriors, the infantry and cavalry corps standing in battle formation with archers protecting the flanks. Today it is estimated that there are a potential 6,000 statues of warriors and horses in that one pit alone, which has floored galleries 230 m long. It is now entirely enclosed by the site museum.
Two other pits were discovered just north of Pit 1 and were found to contain similar items - 1,500 warriors, carts and horses in Pit 2, and 68 officers and dignitaries and a cart with four horses in Pit 3. These pits were provisionally backfilled and the objects extracted from them displayed in exhibition rooms flanking the north and south ends of the great hall of the site museum. Other finds were made on the western slope of the mound; these included notably two half-life-size cast bronze quadrigae.
According to current estimates, the statue army of the Qin Shi Huang Mausoleum must have represented the exact number of the imperial guards. Over the past thirteen years, discoveries have revealed the dimensions of the mausoleum, and the site constitutes one of the most fabulous archaeological reserves in the world.
Because of their exceptional technical and artistic qualities, the terracotta warriors and horses and the funerary carts in bronze are major works in the history of Chinese sculpture prior to the reign of the Han dynasty. The army of statues also bears unique testimony to the military organization in China at the time of the Warring Kingdoms (475-221 BC) and that of the short-lived Empire of a Thousand Generations (221-210 BC) The direct testimony of the objects found in situ (lances, swords, axes, halberds, bows, arrows, etc.) is evident.Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC