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Royal Domain of Drottningholm

Royal Domain of Drottningholm

The Royal Domain of Drottningholm stands on an island in Lake Mälar in a suburb of Stockholm. With its castle, perfectly preserved theatre (built in 1766), Chinese pavilion and gardens, it is the finest example of an 18th-century north European royal residence inspired by the Palace of Versailles.

Domaine royal de Drottningholm

Situé sur une île du lac Mälar dans la banlieue de Stockholm, l'ensemble de Drottningholm, avec son château, son théâtre construit en 1766 et parfaitement préservé, son pavillon chinois et ses jardins, est le meilleur exemple de résidence royale d'Europe du Nord du XVIIIe siècle inspirée par le modèle du château de Versailles.

قصر دروتنينغهولم الملكي

يقع مجمّع دروتنينغهولم على إحدى جزر بحيرة مالار ويشكّل بقصره ومسرحه العائد الى عام 1766 والذي حافظ تماماً على حالته وجناحه الصيني وحدائقه النموذج الأفضل للمساكن الملكية التي ميّزت اوروبا الشمالية في القرن الثامن عشر والتي شيدت بإيحاء من نموذج قصر فرساي.

source: UNESCO/ERI

德罗特宁霍尔摩皇宫

德罗特宁霍尔摩皇宫位于斯德哥尔摩地区默拉尔湖的女王岛上,拥有城堡,保存完好的剧场(建于1766年),中国式的庭院楼阁,它还受到凡尔赛宫的影响,成为北欧18世纪皇宫的最佳典范。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Королевская резиденция Дротнингхольм

Королевская резиденция Дротнингхольм расположена на острове посреди озера Меларен в пригороде Стокгольма. Дворец, прекрасно сохранившийся театр (построенный в 1766 г.), Китайский павильон и парки – это прекрасный пример североевропейской королевской резиденции XVIII в., вдохновленной образцом Версальского дворца.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Real sitio de Drottningholm

Situado en una isla del lago Mälar, en los alrededores de Estocolmo, el real sitio de Drottningholm, con su palacio, su teatro del año 1766 admirablemente conservado, su pabellón chino y sus jardines, es el ejemplo más espléndido de residencia real de la Europa Septentrional del siglo XVIII inspirada en el modelo del palacio de Versalles.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ドロットニングホルムの王領地

source: NFUAJ

Koninklijke domein van Drottningholm

Het koninklijke domein van Drottningholm ligt op het eiland Lovön in het Mälar meer, in een buitenwijk van Stockholm. Het Drottningholm ensemble – kasteel, theater, Chinees paviljoen en tuinen – is het beste voorbeeld van een koninklijke residentie gebouwd in de 18e eeuw in Zweden en is representatief voor alle Europese architectuur van die periode. De bouwstijl is beïnvloed door het Château de Versailles. Er woonden verschillende vorsten, die verschillende bouwstijlen. Deze hadden ook invloed op de tuinen. De Franse tuin werd ontworpen naar het voorbeeld van het barokke park van Versailles en de Engelse tuin heeft een meer levendig en pittoresk landschap.

Source: unesco.nl

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Royal Domain of Drottningholm © Alexander Smolianitski
Long Description

The ensemble of Drottningholm - castle, theatre, Chinese pavilion and gardens - is the best example of a royal residence built in the 18th century in Sweden and is representative of all European architecture of that period, heir to the influences exerted by the Château de Versailles on the construction of royal residences in western, central and northern Europe.

The royal domain of Drottningholm is located on Queen's Island in Lake Mälaren, outside Stockholm. The island's name acknowledges the closely interwoven history of the castle with the different queens of Sweden. The first royal residence was built there towards the end of the 16th century for Queen Catherine Jagellon, as the summer residence of the royal family. A century later, Queen Hedvig-Eleonora bought the lands and had a new castle built by Nicodemus Tessin the Elder (1615-81). The interior was decorated between 1665 and 1703, at first in a heavy, sumptuous Baroque style, but later increasingly refined to French patterns. After his death, his son carried on the work, but the building remained unfinished for almost 100 years. Belonging to this phase of construction are the royal bedroom and the atrium-vestibule from which the main staircase rises. The next owner was a future queen, the crown princess Louisa-Ulrika (wife of Adolph-Frederick 1751-71).

She ordered Carl Harleman to continue the work in the style of Louis XV and, along with the private apartments, to add a sumptuous library and a portrait gallery, built by the French architect Jean Eric Rehn. Gustav Ill (1771-92) inherited the castle from his mother, but the terrible monarch was obliged to sell it to the state with all the furnishings and collections of Louisa-Ulrika. Expansion and renovation went on over the decades that followed as well, leading to the creation pf new ancillary buildings, the radical restructuring of the throne room and, during the reign of King Oscar II (1829-1907), an extensive campaign of decoration intended to make the palace adhere more closely to the eclectic Rococo tastes of the king.

The same queen Louisa-Ulrika had Frederik Adelcrantz build a theatre (1766) in the castle grounds. In the early 20th century it was restored to its original appearance and refurbished with the original fittings, even the stage sets. It is a unique example of a European theatre of the 18th century that has conserved its original state. The sophisticated theatrical machinery, designed and built by the Italian Donato Stoffani, is still fully intact, permitting quick changes of scene with the curtain up. A unique collection of stage sets, the dressing rooms, the storerooms, the scenery, and the large orchestra, seating 400 spectators, are preserved. The park was later expanded with a wilder section, and Gustav III also had an English park laid out in 1777. In 1922 the castle, once again a residence for the royal family, was restored and a large part of the furnishings and decorations of the 18th century were returned, under the direction of Agne Beijer.

The changes and shifts in styles and fashions also affected the gardens: the French garden, which surrounds the complex, designed by Nicodemus Tessin the Younger in 1681 on the model of the Baroque park of Versailles, with bronze statues by Adriaen de Vries, hedges with surprising shapes, and flowerbeds, bushes, waterfalls, fountains and artificial ponds; and the English garden, to plans by King Gustav III and the architect Adelcrantz, reflecting the new preference for a more lively and 'picturesque' landscape.

As a birthday gift, the mother of Gustav III was once given a Chinese pavilion, in keeping with the chinoiseries in vogue at the time. The pavilion, built in 1769 to replace a wooden pavilion from 1753, is considered one of the most important examples of this type of structure conserved in Europe. The architecture is basically French Rococo but it has an exotic character, with Chinese and other oriental elements, which were the height of fashion then. The interiors are among the most splendid in Swedish Rococo. The exterior of the Chinese Pavilion was renovated in 1943-55 and the interior in 1959-68.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC