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Alhambra, Generalife and Albayzín, Granada

Alhambra, Generalife and Albayzín, Granada

Rising above the modern lower town, the Alhambra and the Albaycín, situated on two adjacent hills, form the medieval part of Granada. To the east of the Alhambra fortress and residence are the magnificent gardens of the Generalife, the former rural residence of the emirs who ruled this part of Spain in the 13th and 14th centuries. The residential district of the Albaycín is a rich repository of Moorish vernacular architecture, into which the traditional Andalusian architecture blends harmoniously.

Alhambra, Generalife et Albaicin, Grenade

Dominant la ville moderne construite dans la plaine, l'Alhambra et l'Albaicin, situés sur deux collines adjacentes, constituent la partie médiévale de Grenade. À l'est de la forteresse et résidence de l'Alhambra s'étendent les merveilleux jardins du Generalife, ancienne demeure champêtre des émirs qui régnaient sur cette partie de l'Espagne aux XIIIe et XIVe siècles. Le quartier résidentiel de l'Albaicin conserve un riche ensemble d'architecture vernaculaire maure dans laquelle l'architecture andalouse traditionnelle se fond harmonieusement.

الحمراء، جينيراليف البيازين، غرناطة

تُطلّ الحمراء والبيازين على المدينة الحديثة المبنيّة عند السهل من على تلّتين متحاذيتين ليشكّلا الجزء العريق لغرناطة. وعند شرق الحصن ومقرّ الحمراء تقع حدائق جينيراليف الغنّاء وهي قديماً المقرّ الريفي لإقامة الأمراء أي حكام هذا الجزء من إسبانيا في القرنين الثالث والرابع عشر. ويحافظ حي البيازين السكني على مجموعة هندسيّة وطنيّة وعربية تنصهر في بوتقتها روعات الفنّ المعماري الأندلسي التقليدي.

source: UNESCO/ERI

格拉纳达的艾勒汉卜拉、赫内拉利费和阿尔巴济

俯瞰着低处的现代城镇,艾勒汉卜拉宫和阿尔巴济坐落在两个相邻的小山上,一直保持着中世纪格拉纳达地区的风貌。艾勒汉卜拉堡垒和民居区的东面是风景秀美的赫内拉利费花园,公元13世纪至14世纪统治着西班牙这部分土地的埃米尔们就曾居住在这里。阿尔巴济住宅区保留着大量摩尔人建筑风格的各式建筑,同时在这些建筑中还可以看到传统的安达卢西亚建筑风格被完美地融入其中。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Альгамбра, Хенералифе и Альбасин в городе Гранада

Возвышаясь над современным Нижним городом, Альгамбра и Альбасин, расположенные на двух соседних холмах, образуют средневековую часть Гранады. К востоку от крепости и резиденции Альгамбра находятся великолепные сады Хенералифе, бывшая загородная резиденция эмиров, которые правили этим регионом Испании в ХIII-ХIV вв. Жилой район Альбасин – это богатое хранилище народной архитектуры мавров, с которой гармонично соединяется традиционная архитектура Андалусии.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Alhambra, Generalife y Albaicín de Granada

Situados en dos colinas adyacentes, el Albaicín y la Alhambra forman el núcleo medieval de Granada que domina la ciudad moderna. En la parte este de la fortaleza y residencia real de la Alhambra se hallan los maravillosos jardines del Generalife, casa de campo de los emires que dominaron esta parte de España en los siglos XIII y XIV. El barrio del Albaicín conserva un rico conjunto de construcciones moras armoniosamente fusionadas con la arquitectura tradicional andaluza.

source: UNESCO/ERI

グラナダのアルハンブラ、ヘネラリーフェ、アルバイシン地区

source: NFUAJ

Alhambra, Generalife en Albaycín in Granada

Het Alhambra en Generalife in Granada zijn artistieke creaties die getuigen van het islamitische Spanje van de 16e eeuw. Ze vormen een uitzonderlijk voorbeeld van koninklijke Arabische residenties tijdens de middeleeuwse periode. Ten oosten van het Alhambra fort en residentie liggen de prachtige tuinen van Generalife, de voormalige landelijke residentie van de emirs die dit deel van Spanje regeerden in de 13e en 14e eeuw. In de woonwijk Albaycín zijn Moorse volksarchitectuur en traditionele Andalusische architectuur harmonieus vermengd. Ondanks de christelijke verovering getuigt Albaycín nog steeds van de vroegere middeleeuwse Moorse nederzetting. De stedelijke structuur, architectuur en belangrijkste uiterlijke kenmerken (vorm, materiaal en kleur) bleven onveranderd, waardoor de wijk een bijzonder voorbeeld is van een Spaans-Moorse stad.

Source: unesco.nl

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Alhambra, Generalife and Albayzín, Granada © Philipp Schinz
Long Description

Unique artistic creations, the Alhambra and the Generalife of Granada bear exceptional testimony to Muslim Spain of the 16th century. They form an exceptional example of royal Arab residences of the medieval period: neither destroyed nor changed by the alterations of radical restorations, the Alhambra and the Generalife appear to have escaped the vicissitudes of time. Despite the development that followed the Christian conquest, the Albayzín still bears witness to the medieval Moorish settlement, as its urban fabric, architecture and main characteristics (form, materials, colours), were not changed when it was adapted to the Christian way of life, to survive as a remarkable example of a Spanish-Moorish town.

Archaeological excavations have shown that the hill where the Albayzín is now situated has been occupied continuously from as early as the Roman period. In the mid-8th century the region's governor built a fortress where the Plaza de San Nicolás is now located. After the disappearance of the Caliphate of Cordoba (1031), the ephemeral Zirid Emirate of Granada replaced it until 1090: the emirs devoted themselves to the embellishment of their capital, constructed on a site of exceptional beauty. A new defensive enclosure was added and around this a settlement grew up. The town prospered under the Nasrid dynasty and this was reflected by considerable development of the city, but Granada did not become of the important centres of Muslim Spain until much later - in 1238, when Muhammad ibn al Ahmar founded the present Alhambra.

The palace was essentially completed in the 14th century by Yusuf I and his son Mohammed V. It is organized around two rectangular courts, the patio de Los Arrayanes and the Patio de Los Lames, and includes a large number of rooms of a highly refined taste, with marble columns, stalactite cupolas, ornamental works in stucco, gaily coloured azulejos , precious wood inlayed and sculpted, and paintings on leather compete with the richness and the delicacy of the natural decor: the water, still and sparkling in immense basins, flows out into the basins of the fountains (the circular fountain of the Court of Lions), glides through narrow canals, and explodes into jets of water or falls in refreshing cascades.

When the Reconquista was completed in 1492, the emigration of most of the Muslim inhabitants and the baptism of those who remained, together with settlement by a substantial Christian population, had an effect on the development of the quarter. The new late Gothic or early Plateresque churches and monasteries harmonized with the existing architecture. Both fortress and residence, the Alhambra (Arabic 'The Red') incorporates palaces, guard room, patios and gardens as well as workshops, shops, baths and mosque (independently of the church of Santa María built in the 16th century on the site of the royal mosque). It is enclosed by a massive fortified wall with towers, extended to the south-west.

In the 19th century the lower quarters of the town were transformed and lost their artistic qualities. Much of the significance of the Albayzín lies in the medieval town plan with its narrow streets and small squares and in the relatively modest houses in Moorish and Andalusian style that line then. There are, however, some more imposing reminders of its past prosperity. Among them are the Casa de la Reina (the remains of an aristocratic residence), the Corral del Carbón (an ancient caravanserai), and the former hermitage, converted into the church of San Sebastián. After the Reconquista, Los Reyes Catolicos honoured Granada in many ways and endowed it with many religious monuments. Diego de Siloé, who was trained in Toledo and was one of the initiators of the Plateresque style, became one of the most important architects working in Granada. Among his many masterpieces there is the Patio de la Chancillería.

At a short distance to the east of the Alhambra, the enchantment is extended to the gardens of the Generalife, rural residence of the Emirs. The relationship between the architectural and the natural has been reversed here, where gardens and water predominate over the pavilions, summerhouses and living quarters. The massive boxwood trees, rose, carnation and gillyflower bushes, shrubs ranging from willow to cypress, comprise an absolute masterpiece of the art of horticulture by restoring the Koranic image of paradise to the believers.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

Archaeological excavations have shown that the hill where the Albayzín is now situated has been occupied continuously from as early as the Roman period. In the mid-8th century the region's governor Asap ben Abderrahman built a fortress where the Plaza de San Nicolas is now located (known as the Casbah until the Alhambra was built in the 13th century, when it became known as the Old Casbah). A new defensive enclosure was added by the Zirids in the 11th century, and around this a settlement grew up. The town prospered under the Nasrid dynasty and this was reflected by considerable development of the Albayzín in the mid-14th century; it became the quarter of Arab and Jewish craftsmen and traders.

When the Reconquista was completed in 1492, the population of the Albayzín rose to 60,000. The emigration of most of the Moslem inhabitants and the baptism of those who remained, together with settlement by a substantial Christian population, had an effect on the development of the quarter, but without disfiguring the old Moorish town. The new late Gothic or early Plateresque churches and monasteries harmonized with the existing architecture.

The remarkable expansion of agriculture in the region in the 19th century gave a new impetus to the development of Granada. The lower quarters of the town were transformed and lost their artistic qualities. However, the Albayzín was spared this new urbanization owing to its hillside location. Today the town is divided into two distinct parts: on the one hand the modem lower town and on the other the medieval town on its two hills, the Alhambra and the Albayzín, which form a coherent whole.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation
Notes
  • Extension of the "Alhambra and the Generalife, Granada", to include the Albayzin quarter.