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Baekje Historic Areas

Baekje Historic Areas

Located in the mountainous mid-western region of the Republic of Korea, this property comprises eight archaeological sites dating from 475 to 660 CE, including the Gongsanseong fortress and royal tombs at Songsan-ri related to the capital, Ungjin (present day Gongju), the Busosanseong Fortress and Gwanbuk-ri administrative buildings, the Jeongnimsa Temple, the royal tombs in Neungsan-ri and the Naseong city wall related to the capital, Sabi (now Buyeo), the royal palace at Wanggung-ri and the Mireuksa Temple in Iksan related to the secondary Sabi capital. Together, these sites represent the later period of the Baekje Kingdom – one of the three earliest kingdoms on the Korean peninsula (18 BCE to 660 CE) - during which time they were at the crossroads of considerable technological, religious (Buddhist), cultural and artistic exchanges between the ancient East Asian kingdoms in Korea, China and Japan.

Aires historiques de Baekje

Situé dans la région montagneuse du centre-ouest de la République de Corée, ce bien en série comprend huit sites archéologiques datant de 475-660 apr. J.-C : la forteresse Gongsanseong et les tombes royales de Songsan-ri liées à la capitale Ungjin (actuelle Gongju), la forteresse Busosanseong et les bâtiments administratifs Gwanbuk-ri, le temple Jeongnimsa, les tombes royales de Neungsan-ri  et les remparts de Naseong liés à la capitale Sabi (actuelle Buyeo), le palais royal de Wanggung-ri et le temple Mireuksa à Iksan, liés à la deuxième capitale Sabi. Ensemble, ils symbolisent la dernière période du royaume de Baekje –l’un des trois premiers royaumes de la péninsule coréenne (18 av. J.-C. à 660 apr. J.-C.)- au cours de laquelle existèrent des échanges technologiques, religieux (bouddhisme), culturels et artistiques considérables entre les anciens royaumes d’Asie de l’Est en Corée, en Chine et au Japon.

مساحات بايكجي التاريخية
يقع هذا الموقع المتسلسل في المنطقة الجبلية الغربية الوسطى من جمهورية كوريا ويضم ثمانية مواقع أثرية يعود تاريخها إلى الفترة الممتدة من العام 475 إلى العام 660 ميلادية، وهي قلعة غونغسانسيونغ ومدافن سونغسان-ري الملكية المرتبطة بالعاصمة أوندجين (غونغدجو حالياً)، وقلعة بوسوسانسيونغ ومباني غوانبوك-ري الإدارية وأسوار ناسيونغ المرتبطة بالعاصمة سابي (بويو حالياً)، وقصر وانغونغ-ري الملكي ومعبد ميروكسا في إيكسان، المرتبطان بالعاصمة الثانية سابي. وترمز هذه المواقع مجتمعةً إلى الحقبة الأخيرة لمملكة بايكجي التي تمثل إحدى الممالك الثلاث الأولى التي عرفتها شبه الجزيرة الكورية (في الفترة من العام 18 قبل الميلاد إلى العام 660 ميلادية)، وهي حقبة شهدت مبادلات مهمة على الصعيد التكنولوجي والديني (البوذية) والثقافي والفني بين الممالك القديمة لشرق آسيا، في كوريا والصين واليابان.

source: UNESCO/ERI

百济遗址区
这片遗址 位于韩国中西部山区,包括八个建于公元475——660年的考古遗址,如公山城,宋山里皇陵,雄镇(现称公州),扶苏山城,关北里行政楼群,内城城墙,泗比(现称夫馀),王宫里和益山上的弥勒寺。所有这些遗迹都展现了朝鲜半岛上最早的三个王国(公元前十八世纪——公元660年)之一——百济王朝后期的状况,这一时期这里正处于朝鲜、中国和日本等东亚古国之间技术、宗教、文化和艺术交流的必经之路上。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Историческая область королевства Пэкче
Кластерный объект «Историческая область королевства Пэкче» расположен в гористой местности центрально-западной части Республики Корея и включает восемь археологических памятников, относящихся к 475-660 гг. н. э. Крепость Консансон и королевские могильные холмы Сонсанри относятся к так называемому «унджинскому периоду», когда столицей королевства был  город Унджин (современный Конджу). Крепость Пусосансон, административные здания Кванбук-ри и крепостной вал Насон были возведены в период, когда столицей был город Саби (ныне Пуё). Королевский дворец Вангун-ри и храм Мирыкса в Иксане относятся ко времени заката Саби, когда столица стала терять своё влияние. Пэкче – одно из трех древнейших королевств Корейского полуострова – просуществовало в период с 18 года до н. э. по 660 год н. э. Памятники, входящие в данный объект, являются уникальным свидетельством позднего периода существования Пэкче, во время которого между древними государствами Восточной Азии, в частности, между Кореей, Китаем и Японией, были налажены тесные культурные связи и велся активный обмен достижениями технологии, искусства и религиозной мысли, происходило распространение буддизма.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Zonas históricas del reino de Baekje
Situado en la región montañosa del oeste de la parte central de la República de Corea, este bien cultural en serie está integrado por ocho sitios arqueológicos del reino de Baekje, uno de los tres más antiguos de la península coreana, que perduró por espacio de unos siete siglos (desde el año 18 a.C. hasta el 660 de nuestra era). Entre esos sitios, cabe mencionar: la fortaleza de Gongsanseong y las sepulturas de Songsan-ri, vinculadas a la ciudad capital de Ungjin (actualmente Gongju); la fortaleza Busosanseong, las edificaciones administrativas de Gwanbuk-ri y las murallas de Naseong, vinculadas a la ciudad capital de Sabi (actualmente Buyeo); y el palacio real de Wanggung-ri y el templo Mireuksa de Iksan, vinculados a la segunda capital Sabi. El conjunto de esos sitios es representativo del periodo tardío del reino Baekje (475–660), que se caracterizó por los considerables intercambios tecnológicos, religiosos (expansión del budismo), culturales y artísticos entre los antiguos reinos del Asia Oriental situados en los territorios de Corea, China y Japón.

source: UNESCO/ERI

百済歴史地域

source: NFUAJ

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Baekhwajeong Pavilion © Baekje Historic Areas Nomination Office
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Located in the mountainous mid-western region of the Republic of Korea, the remains of three capital cities collectively represent the later period of the Baekje Kingdom as it reached its peak in terms of cultural development involving frequent communication with neighbouring regions. The Baekje lasted 700 years from 18 BCE to 660 CE and was one of the three earliest kingdoms on the Korean peninsula. The Baekje Historic Areas serial property comprises eight archaeological sites dating from 475-660 CE including the Gongsanseong fortress and royal tombs at Songsan-ri related to the Ungjin capital Gongju; the Archaeological Site in Gwanbuk-ri and Busosanseong Fortress, Jeongnimsa Temple Site, royal tombs in Neungsan-ri and Naseong city wall related to the Sabi capital Buyeo; the Archaeological Site in Wanggung-ri and the Mireuksa Temple Site in Iksan related to the secondary Sabi capital. Together these sites testify to the adoption by the Baekje of Chinese principles of city planning, construction technology, arts and religion; their refinement by the Baekje and subsequent distribution to Japan and East Asia.

Criterion (ii): The archaeological sites and architecture of the Baekje Historic Areas exhibit the interchange between the ancient East Asian kingdoms in Korea, China and Japan in the development of construction techniques and the spread of Buddhism.

Criterion (iii): The setting of the capital cities, Buddhist temples and tombs, architectural features and stone pagodas of the Baekje Historic Areas contribute in forming exceptional testimony to the unique culture, religion and artistry of the kingdom of Baekje.

Integrity

The property components together contain all the elements necessary to embody the values of the property as a whole. The component parts are of sufficient scale to present the historic function of the capital cities and their relationship to their settings. Apart from the pumping station in the vicinity of the northern gate of Busosanseong Fortress and the remaining residential accommodation within the Archaeological Site of Gwanbuk-ri, the sites have not been impacted adversely by development or neglect.

Authenticity

Most elements of the eight component parts of the serial property have suffered human intervention including reparation and restoration to different degrees. Materials and techniques used have largely been traditional. The forms of tombs and temples have been retained. The temple sites are now to some extent islands amongst low scale urban development but the settings of the fortresses and tombs largely retain their forested setting in a mountain landscape.

Protection and management requirements

The property components are all designated as Historic Sites under the Cultural Heritage Protection Act 1962 amended 2012; the Special Act on the Preservation and Promotion of Ancient Cities 2004, amended 2013 and under local government Cultural Heritage Protection Ordinances: Chungcheongnam-do 2002 and Jeollabuk-do 1999. The buffer zones are protected under the Cultural Heritage Protection Act up to 500m from the boundaries of the property components and under the Cultural Heritage Protection Act which limits the height of new buildings to 8 metres.

The property is managed by the Baekje Historic Areas Conservation and Management Foundation with input from central, provincial and local authorities as well as community associations through the Community Council, which in turn co-ordinates three Local Community Councils. The Community Councils set up under the three municipalities of Gongju, Buyeo and Iksan are responsible for conservation and management, utilization and publicity, and coordinating community participation. An overall Conservation and Management Plan for 2015-2019 was developed to integrate all the agencies responsible for the eight components with the aim of ensuring maintenance of Outstanding Universal Value. This is currently being extended to include an overall tourism management strategy for the property as well as a visitor management plan for each component part.