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Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Monte in Braga

Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Monte in Braga

Located on the slopes of Mount Espinho, overlooking the city of Braga in the north of Portugal, this cultural landscape evokes Christian Jerusalem, recreating a sacred mount crowned with a church. The sanctuary was developed over a period of more than 600 years, primarily in a Baroque style, and illustrates a European tradition of creating Sacri Monti (sacred mountains), promoted by the Catholic Church at the Council of Trent in the 16th century, in reaction to the Protestant Reformation. The Bom Jesus ensemble is centred on a Via Crucis that leads up the western slope of the mount. It includes a series of chapels that house sculptures evoking the Passion of Christ, as well as fountains, allegorical sculptures and formal gardens. The Via Crucis culminates at the church, which was built between 1784 and 1811. The granite buildings have whitewashed plaster façades, framed by exposed stonework. The celebrated Stairway of the Five Senses, with its walls, steps, fountains, statues and other ornamental elements, is the most emblematic Baroque work within the property. They are framed by lush woodland and embraced by a picturesque park that, masterfully set on the rugged hill, highly contributes to the landscape value of the ensemble.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Sanctuaire du Bon Jésus du Mont à Braga
Situé sur les pentes du mont Espinho, qui domine la ville de Braga, au nord du Portugal, ce paysage culturel évoque la Jérusalem chrétienne et reproduit un mont sacré couronné d’une église. Construit sur une période de plus de 600 ans, principalement dans un style baroque, le sanctuaire illustre la tradition européenne des Sacri Monti (monts sacrés), promue par l’Église catholique au Concile de Trente, au XVIe siècle, en réaction à la Réforme protestante. L’ensemble du Bon Jésus est centré sur une Via Crucis qui parcourt le flanc ouest du mont. Il compte une série de chapelles qui abritent des sculptures évoquant la Passion du Christ, des fontaines, des sculptures allégoriques et des jardins classiques. La Via Crucis mène à l’église, construite entre 1784 et 1811. Les bâtiments en granit ont des façades en plâtre, blanchies à la chaux, encadrées de maçonneries en pierres apparentes. Le célèbre Escalier des Cinq Sens, qui comporte des murs, des marches, des fontaines, des statues et d’autres éléments ornementaux, est l’œuvre baroque la plus emblématique au sein du bien. Ils sont encadrés par des bois luxuriants et entourés par un parc pittoresque qui, situé magistralement sur la colline escarpée, contribue fortement à la valeur paysagère de l'ensemble.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

كنيسة يسوع الصالح في مونتي في براغا-
يقع هذا المنظر الثقافي على سفح جبل إسبينيو، المهيمن على مدينة براغا شمال البرتغال، ويجسّد الموقع روح مدينة القدس المسيحية ويتألف من جبل مقدّس تعلوه كنيسة. استغرق بناء الكنيسة المصممة على الطراز الباروكي، ما يزيد عن 600 عام، وتجسّد التقليد الأوروبي لما يعرف بـ"ساكري مونتي" أيالجبال المقدّسة، التي روّجت لها الكنيسة الكاثوليكية في مجمع ترنت في القرن السادس عشر، للتصدي للإصلاحات البروتستانتية. ويتمحور موقع يسوع الصالح على طريق "درب الصليب" الممتد على طول الجانب الغربي من الجبل. ويحتوي على سلسلة من الكنائس الصغيرة التي تحتوي على تماثيل تجسّد آلام المسيح، بالإضافة إلى عدد من النوافير، والمنحوتات والحدائق الكلاسيكية. ويؤدي طريق درب الصليب إلى الكنيسة، التي بنيت بين عامي 1784 و1811. وتحتوي المباني الجرانيتية على واجهات من الجبس مطلية باللون الأبيض، ومحاطة بأحجار حجرية. يعد الدرج الشهير المعروف باسم "سانك سونس" مع الجدران والدرجات والنوافير والتماثيل وغيرها من عناصر الزينة من أكثر الأعمال التي تعود للفترة الباروكية والتي تعد من أبهى العناصر في الموقع.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

布拉加山上仁慈耶稣朝圣所
布拉加山上仁慈耶稣朝圣所位于葡萄牙北部埃斯皮诺山的山坡上,俯瞰布拉加城。朝圣所再现了带教堂的圣山景观,令人联想到耶路撒冷。这里的建筑经历了600多年的兴废更替,主体为巴罗克风格,是欧洲传统圣山营造的体现。这一建筑传统源自特利腾大公会议,是16世纪时天主教会对宗教改革做出的回应。仁慈耶稣朝圣所位于布拉加山西坡“苦路”的中心, 内有一系列小圣堂(其内供奉耶稣受难雕像)、喷泉、宗教雕塑和古典花园。通往教堂的苦路建于1784-1811年之间。朝圣所正面外墙裸露石料间的空白以石膏粉刷。著名的“五感台阶”由墙壁、阶梯、喷泉、雕塑及其他装饰物组成,是朝圣所内最具代表性的巴洛克艺术作品

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Святилище Бон-Жезуш-ду-Монти в городе Брага
Святилище Бон-Жезуш-ду-Монти расположено на склонах горы Эшпинью, возвышающейся над городом Брага в северной Португалии. Этот культурный ландшафт, в основе которого – увенчанная церковью священная гора, напоминает христианский Иерусалим. Святилище, строительство которого продолжалось более 600 лет, выполнено в основном в стиле барокко и иллюстрирует европейскую архитектурную традицию создания Сакри-Монти (священных гор), продвигаемую католической церковью в ходе Тридентского собора в XVI веке в ответ на движение Реформации. Центральное место в архитектурном ансамбле Бон-Жезуш занимает Крестный путь, Via Crucis, который тянется вдоль западного склона горы. Здесь расположен ряд часовен, в которых хранятся скульптуры, символизирующие сюжеты Страстей Христовых, а также фонтаны, аллегорические скульптуры и классические сады. Крестный путь ведет к церкви, построенной между 1784 и 1811 годами. Символическими сооружениями этого культурного объекта являются гранитные здания с гипсовыми фасадами, побеленными и обрамленными каменной кладкой, а также знаменитая Лестница пяти чувств, построенная в стиле барокко и украшенная фонтанами, статуями, стенами и другими декоративными элементами.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Santuario del Buen Jesús del Monte en Braga

Situado en las laderas del cerro del Espinho, que domina la ciudad de Braga en el norte de Portugal, este paisaje cultural evoca la Jerusalén cristiana y reproduce una montaña sagrada coronada por una iglesia. Construido a lo largo de un período de más de 600 años, principalmente en estilo barroco, el santuario ilustra la tradición europea de los Sacri Monti (montañas sagradas), impulsada por la Iglesia Católica en el Concilio de Trento en el siglo XVI como respuesta a la Reforma Protestante. El complejo del Buen Jesús se centra en un Vía Crucis que recorre el flanco occidental de la montaña. Tiene una serie de capillas que albergan esculturas evocadoras de la Pasión de Cristo, fuentes, esculturas alegóricas y jardines clásicos. El Vía Crucis conduce a la iglesia, construida entre 1784 y 1811. Los edificios de granito tienen fachadas de yeso encalado, enmarcadas por mampostería de piedra aparente. La famosa Escalera de los Cinco Sentidos, con sus muros, escalones, fuentes, estatuas y otros elementos ornamentales es la obra barroca más emblemática de este sitio. Dichos elementos están enmarcados por frondosos bosques y rodeados por un pintoresco parque que, situado magistralmente en la empinada colina, contribuye en gran medida al valor paisajístico del conjunto.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

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Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Monte in Braga © João Paulo Sotto Mayor
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Located in the city of Braga, in the North of Portugal, the sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Monte is built facing west and has expansive views, at times of the ocean itself, overlooking the whole city of Braga, the Bracara Augusta founded in roman times of which it is historically inseparable. The sanctuary is a type of architectural and landscape ensemble rebuilt and enhanced throughout a period of over 600 years, mainly defined by a long and complex Viae Crucis expanding up the hill, leading pilgrims through chapels that house sculptural collections evoking the Passion of Christ, fountains, sculptures and formal gardens. It is inscribed in an enclosure of 26 ha, totally accessible to the public. It belongs to the Confraternity of Bom Jesus do Monte, the institution that continuously overlooks the place for almost 400 years.

The landscape and architectural ensemble of the Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Monte is part of a European project for the creation of Sacri Monti, spurred by the Council of Trent, embodying a sacred mount which has witnessed several moments in the history of the city of Braga and its archdiocese, reaching a unique formal and symbolic complexity and an unprecedented monumental character and dimension in the context of European sacred mounts, with a baroque style and a grand religious narrative, typical of the Counter-Reformation.

It is a complete and complex manifestation resulting from a creative-genius, a monumental stairway where the conception models and aesthetic preferences clearly represent the different periods of its construction, culminating in a piece of great unity and harmony. It is organized in two sections: (1) the moments before Jesus Christ’s death, ending in the church and (2) the glorious life of Christ resurrected culminating in the Yard of the Evangelists. Enclosure and sanctuary blend together resulting in a cultural landscape.

The study made on Bom Jesus do Monte has shown that the history of its construction is extremely rich in events and initiatives, highlighted by important personalities, allowing for several time periods to be defined, since its inception to the present day. Its evolution throughout the centuries has allowed for a continual integration of the elements, within the same religious narrative, reaching its highest point during the baroque period. Its execution was possible through an extraordinary mobilization of resources, namely through alms and offerings, representing a continued and determined effort throughout generations, over a period of more than six centuries. The result is a high quality and solid construction, with a concentration of artistic and technical expressions, a landscape where, together with water, granite is celebrated, sculpted within a luxurious “nature”, perfectly integrated into the landscape.

Criterion (iv): The sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Monte is an extraordinary example of a sacred mount with an unprecedented monumentality determined by a complete and elaborate narrative of the Passion of Christ of great importance to the history of humanity. It embodies traits that identify roman Catholicism, such as externalization of celebration, community sense, theatricality, and life as a permanent and inexhaustible journey.

The sanctuary stands out due to its impact and affirmation in the landscape, the architectural and decorative originality of its stairways, the strong sensations generated when visiting it, specific to its baroque character. The unity of the sanctuary within its enclosure is a distinctive factor that generates tremendous formal and functional harmony. It is a masterpiece resulting from creative genius, integrating a set of monumental stairways, displaying models of design, taste and aesthetic preferences of each period of construction, integrated in an ensemble of great unity and harmony constituting a cultural landscape. The unity of the architectural ensemble and its high artistic quality result from its overall design and organization, structure and composition, as well as from the predominant use of granite, which endows the sanctuary with a significant sculptural and plastic dimension. Retaining and dividing walls, stairways, buildings, fountains, pavements, ornaments and an impressive and unprecedented set of statues are all made of granite, resulting in a work of high construction quality. The contrast between the whitewashed granite, on the one hand, and the surrounding lush green park and wood, on the other, decisively contributes to the sanctuary’s baroque character. The property reflects also a concentration of technical ingenuity (hydraulics, supports for the terrain, built structures, mechanics) and of artistic expression (architecture, sculpture, painting).

Integrity

The formal and functional composition of the sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Monte and its enclosure, as evolved, remains intact overall and its essential character has been preserved.

The historical physical context has remained practically intact up to the present day and, although it combines several stages of evolution of significant artistic interest, the ensemble has retained its overall integrity, in terms of materials and modes of execution. The history of the property reveals that the sanctuary’s physical dimension has evolved to ensure its religious dimension, while it has simultaneously affirmed itself as a place of villegiatura. This physical expansion has broadly encompassed the legacies handed down from previous historical periods. Today, the sanctuary and its enclosure retain all the elements that reflect the values and importance of the property.

The attributes of the structural and ornamental materials: granite walls, stairways, patios, gardens, chapels, church, fountains and statues, associated with the presence of water and of decisive importance for the property’s artistic and symbolic dimension and for interpretation of the overall narrative of the property, as well as the surrounding woodlands and park have remained intact, and guarantee the completeness of the narrative and integrity of the ensemble.

The general state of conservation of the property is good. Recently, a project regarding the requalification of the heritage was carried out, namely through the preservation and restoration of the façades and roofing of the church, ten chapels of the Viae Crucis, including their exterior and interior sculptures and murals, and some stretches of the stairways. A new phase is about to start, to further improve the condition. The hotel units and other facilities surrounding the Sanctuary such as the funicular, Casa das Estampas, Colunata de Eventos recently underwent restoration works and are thus in a good state of conservation. The park and the wood are also in a good general state of conservation except for some steepest areas, and the presence of old decaying trees and some invasive species.

The sanctuary of Bom Jesus and its enclosure represent almost four centuries of continued management of the property by a single entity: the Confraternity of Bom Jesus do Monte, established in 1629.

Urban expansion and visitor pressures require close monitoring; the removal of the terrace bar should be finalised, and fire risk management enhanced.

Authenticity

The property is generally authentic in terms of its location, setting, form and design, materials and substance, and continuing religious use.

The sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Monte in Braga dates back to at least the 14th century. It progressively acquired importance and religious and cultural significance, especially from the early 17th century onwards, after the Confraternity of Bom Jesus do Monte was founded. Since then, documents relating to the initiatives that were taken to enhance the sanctuary, including those which made it possible to expand its physical space and enhance the complexity of its forms and composition, have been recorded in the minutes of the meetings of the Board of the Confraternity. Monographs written about the sanctuary, descriptions provided by travellers and scholars, engravings and paintings, pilgrims’ manuals, technical drawings of building works, photographs, among other records, constitute significant primary sources of information.

The visual and written information of illustrations - of which only those produced since the end of the 18th century (e.g. the survey by Carlos Amarante in 1790 and the engraving of the sanctuary, undated, possibly from the 1770s or 1780s), drawings and descriptions constitute records of significant rigor. These elements can be compared with the historical buildings that now exist and thereby confirm the authenticity of these information sources. There is significant physical evidence of the various stages of the sanctuary’s evolution - the property itself constitutes a document that testifies to its evolution over time.

The understanding of the landscape planting’s historical design and related meaning should be enhanced through further research and this should also inform management.

Protection and management requirements

The protection mechanisms of the sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Monte are defined nationally and locally, under the aegis of the Ministry of Culture, through the Directorate General of Cultural Heritage (DGPC), in coordination with the regional structure, the Regional-Directorate for Culture - North (DRCNorte) and supported by a robust legal framework. The Notice no. 68/2017, of May 10, triggered opening of the procedure to extend the classification of the sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Monte, so as to encompass the entire sacred mount including the funicular, and its reclassification as a national monument. Since that time, all legal provisions regarding the protection of a national monument apply to the property.

The heritage protection instruments apply at a national and local / municipal level. National legislation ensures compliance with the requirements for protection of the listed heritage site and its buffer zone. Law no. 107/2001 of September 8 establishes the basis for the policy and regime for protection and enhancement of cultural heritage, in particular by indicating the classification objectives for safeguarding cultural assets, and their protection and management. On the other hand, Decree-law no. 309/2009 of October 23 defines the procedure for classification of immovable cultural property, the regime of protection zones and the establishment of rules for drawing up a detailed plan to safeguard such sites.

At the local level, Braga City Council operates under the recently revised Municipal Master Plan which contains clear rules, both for the sanctuary and the buffer zone. National and local legislation ensures compliance with the requirements for protection of the property and its buffer zone, thereby ensuring that the Outstanding Universal Value is preserved over time.

The Confraternity of Bom Jesus is the entity responsible for managing the property’s heritage and religious worship. The management is made in an ecumenical manner, since the property is simultaneously managed as a religious place and a space dedicated to the arts and culture. It is understood that only through a peaceful coexistence between these two realities a sustainable management is possible, without deteriorating its tangible and intangible assets. Timely funding for conservation works is an ongoing management challenge.

The overall objectives of management are to preserve and enhance the attributes of the sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Monte and define sustainable practices for the management, maintenance and use of the sanctuary, the park and the wood as a cultural landscape.

Management issues to be addressed include improving the documentation by completing the inventory of heritage elements, improving institutional links related to fire prevention and firefighting, maintaining an updated action plan, visitor management, and enhanced monitoring.