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Botanical Garden (Orto Botanico), Padua

Botanical Garden (Orto Botanico), Padua

The world's first botanical garden was created in Padua in 1545. It still preserves its original layout – a circular central plot, symbolizing the world, surrounded by a ring of water. Other elements were added later, some architectural (ornamental entrances and balustrades) and some practical (pumping installations and greenhouses). It continues to serve its original purpose as a centre for scientific research.

Jardin botanique (Orto botanico), Padoue

Le premier jardin botanique du monde a été créé à Padoue en 1545. Il a conservé son plan d'origine – un jardin clos circulaire, symbole du monde, entouré d'un ruban d'eau. Par la suite, des éléments nouveaux ont été ajoutés, à la fois architecturaux (entrées monumentales et balustrades) et pratiques (installation de pompage et serres). Il continue, comme par le passé, à inspirer la recherche scientifique.

حديقة النباتات، بادوفا

أنشئت حديقة النباتات الأولى في بادوفا في العام 1545 وقد حافظت على تصميمها الأصلي – أي حديقة مغلقة دائرية، ترمز إلى العالم، ومحاطة بشريط ماء. وبالتالي، أضيفت عناصر جديدة، هندسية معمارية (مداخل نُصبية ودرابزين) وعملية (منشآت ضخّ وبيوت بلاستيك). وهي تستمر كما في الماضي في تقديم الوحي للبحوث العلمية.

source: UNESCO/ERI

帕多瓦植物园

世界上第一个植物园于1545年建于帕多瓦。它至今仍保留着最初的建筑布局——一块圆形土地,象征着整个世界,四周被淙淙的水流环绕。此后这里又增添了一些其他设施,其中包括建筑设施(装饰过的大门和栅栏)和实用设施(汲水装置和暖房)。时至今日,它仍一如既往地继续着它的初衷,即把植物园作为科学研究的基地。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Ботанический сад (Орто Ботанико) в городе Падуя

Первый в мире ботанический сад был заложен в Падуе в 1545 г. Он все еще сохраняет свою первоначальную планировку – круглый участок в центре, символизирующий весь мир, окруженный кольцом воды. Другие элементы были добавлены позже: архитектурные (декоративные входы и балюстрады) и инженерно-технические (насосные станции и оранжереи). Сад и поныне продолжает служить своей первоначальной цели в качестве центра научных исследований.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Jardín Botánico (Orto Botanico) de Padua

El primer jardín botánico del mundo se creó en Padua en 1545. Ha conservado su trazado primigenio formado por un terreno circular, símbolo del mundo, rodeado por un anillo de agua. Con el correr del tiempo se le fueron agregando elementos arquitectónicos (pórticos ornamentales y balaustradas) y funcionales (instalaciones de bombeo de agua e invernaderos). El jardín sigue cumpliendo su función original de centro de investigación científica.

source: UNESCO/ERI

パドヴァの植物園(オルト・ボタニコ)

source: NFUAJ

Botanische tuin, Padua

De Botanische tuin van Padua is de meest originele botanische tuin ter wereld. Hij vertegenwoordigt de geboorte van de wetenschap, wetenschappelijke uitwisselingen en het begrip van de relatie tussen natuur en cultuur. De tuin heeft in grote mate bijgedragen aan de ontwikkeling van moderne wetenschappelijke disciplines, met name plantkunde, geneeskunde, chemie, ecologie en farmacie. Hij is opgericht in 1545 en heeft tot op heden nog zijn originele ontwerp: een rond, centraal grondstuk als symbool van de wereld, omgeven door een ring van water. Andere architecturale en praktische elementen werden later toegevoegd. De botanische tuin dient nog steeds zijn oorspronkelijke doel als centrum voor wetenschappelijk onderzoek.

Source: unesco.nl

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Justification for Inscription

The Committee decided to inscribe this property on the basis of criteria (ii) and (iii), considering that the Botanical Garden of Padua is the original of all botanical gardens throughout the world, and represents the birth of science, of scientific exchanges, and understanding of the relationship between nature and culture. It has made a profound contribution to the development of many modern scientific disciplines, notably botany, medicine, chemistry, ecology, and pharmacy.

Long Description

The Botanical Garden of Padua is the original of all botanical gardens throughout the world, and represents the birth of science, of scientific exchanges, and understanding of the relationship between nature and culture. It has made a profound contribution to the development of many modern scientific disciplines, notably botany, medicine, chemistry, ecology, and pharmacy.

Many distinguished scholars in the disciplines of botany and medicine have worked at the University of Padua since its foundation in 1222. Among these were Alberto Magno, who obtained his degree there in 1223 and went on to become the patron saint of the natural sciences, Pietro d'Abano (1250-1316), Giacomo Dondi Orologio (1298-1360), and Domenico Senno (1461-1531). In 1533 Francesco Bonafede (1474-1558) was appointed to the Chair of Lectura Simplicium at the University by the Most Serene Republic of Venice. In 1543 he petitioned for the creation of a model herbarium and botanical garden, which was established by decree of the Most Serene Republic on 29 June 1545. Work began immediately on a plot belonging to the Benedictine Order, whose monks were probably already raising medicinal plants there. Implementation of the project was assigned to Daniele Barbaro, translator of the De architectura of Vitruvius.

The garden has remained here ever since. Various additions have been made in the intervening centuries - a pumping installation to supply 10 fountains in the 17th century, four monumental entrances in 1704, and new masonry greenhouses in the late 18th and early 19th century. An arboretum, an English garden with winding paths, and a small hillock (belvedere) were also added around this time.

Barbaro's intention was to lay the 22,000 m2 of the irregularly shaped area out in the form of a tiny paradisal world surrounded by a ring of water (Alicomo Canal) to represent the ocean. Within he planned a circular hortus conclusus (walled garden) 86 m in diameter, which in turn enclosed a 41 m square plot. The entire garden was divided into four quadrants by pathways at right angles, running to the four cardinal points.

Early documents show that the Botanical Garden was enclosed by a high brick wall, while the four smaller squares created by the two pathways cutting the central square were embellished with geometric flower beds, bordered with stone, in each of which a single plant species was grown. This basic layout survives to the present day, although with many later additions.

When the four entrances were refashioned in 1704, the wrought-iron gates giving on to the inner circles and the four acroteria were placed on the eight pillars and surmounted by four pairs of wrought-iron plants (Fritillatia, Ananas, Lilium and Yucca). The Istrian stone fountains outside the round garden date to the same period and represent Theophrastus and Solomon. The elegant balustrade, which runs along the top of the entire 250 m of the circular wall, was also completed during the first half of the 18th century. The heated stone-built greenhouses replaced mobile conservatories used for protecting delicate plants during the winter, which were located on the south side of the ring.

The Botanical Garden also houses two important collections. The library contains more than 50,000 volumes and manuscripts of immense historical and bibliographic importance. The herbarium is the second most extensive in Italy.

The garden has traditionally collected and grown particularly rare plants, which have then been introduced into the rest of Europe. Currently there are over 6,000 species, arranged according to systematic and utilitarian criteria (medicinal plants, essence-producing plants) and ecological-environmental criteria (peat-bog plants, Mediterranean maquis flora, alpine flora). There are also thematic collections (carnivorous, succulent, aquatic, poisonous) and single-genus collections (Salix L., Allium L., Ornithogallum L., Aster L., Campanula L .). Of particular interest is the collection of plants which are rare or threatened by extinction, some of which have been successfully reproduced in the garden.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

Many distinguished scholars in the disciplines of botany and medicine have worked at the University of Padua since its foundation in 1222. Among these were Albero0 Magno, who obtained his degree there in 1223 and went on to become the patron saint of the natural sciences, Pietro d'Abano (1250-1316), Giacomo Dondi Orologio (1298-1360), and Domenico Senno (1461-1531).

In 1533 Francesco Bonafede (1474-1558) was appointed to the Chair of Lectura Simplicium at the University by the Most Serene Republic of Venice. In 1543 he petitioned for the creation of a model herbarium and botanical garden, which was established by decree of the Most Serene Republic on 29 June 1545.

Work began immediately on a plot belonging to the Benedictine Order, whose monks were probably already raising medicinal plants there. Implementation of the project was assigned to Daniele Barbaro, translator of the De architectura of Vitruvius.

The garden has remained here ever since that time. Various additions have been made in the intervening centuries - a pumping installation to supply ten fountains in the 17th century, four monumental entrances in 1704, and new masonry greenhouses in the late 18th and early 19th century. An arboretum, an English garden with winding paths, and a small hillock, known as the Belvedere, were also added around this time.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation