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ShUM Sites of Speyer, Worms and Mainz

ShUM Sites of Speyer, Worms and Mainz

Located in the former Imperial cathedral cities of Speyer, Worms and Mainz, in the Upper Rhine Valley, the serial site of Speyer, Worms and Mainz comprise the Speyer Jewry-Court, with the structures of the synagogue and women’s shul (Yiddish for synagogue), the archaeological vestiges of the yeshiva (religious school), the courtyard and the still intact underground mikveh (ritual bath), which has retained its high architectural and building quality. The property also comprises the Worms Synagogue Compound, with its in situ post-war reconstruction of the 12th century synagogue and 13th century women’s shul, the community hall (Rashi House), and the monumental 12th-century mikveh. The series also includes the Old Jewish Cemetery in Worms and the Old Jewish Cemetery in Mainz. The four component sites tangibly reflect the early emergence of distinctive Ashkenaz customs and the development and settlement pattern of the ShUM communities, particularly between the 11th and the 14th centuries. The buildings that constitute the property served as prototypes for later Jewish community and religious buildings as well as cemeteries in Europe. The acronym ShUM stands for the Hebrew initials of Speyer, Worms and Mainz.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Sites SchUM de Spire, Worms et Mayence

Situé dans les anciennes villes cathédrales impériales de la vallée du Rhin supérieur, Spire, Worms et Mayence, ce site en série comprend à Spire la Cour de justice de la communauté juive, avec les structures de la synagogue et de la shul(synagogue, en yiddish) des femmes, les vestiges archéologiques de la yeshiva (école religieuse), la cour et le mikveh (bâtiments pour les bains rituels) souterrain encore intact, lequel a conservé sa grande qualité architecturale et de construction. Le bien comprend également le complexe de la synagogue, avec la synagogue (XIIe siècle) reconstruite in situ après la guerre et la shul des femmes (XIIe siècle), la salle communautaire (maison Rachi) et le mikveh monumental du XIIe siècle. La série comprend également l’ancien cimetière juif de Worms et celui de Mayence. Ces quatre éléments reflètent de manière tangible l’émergence initiale des coutumes distinctes des juifs ashkénazes et le modèle de développement et d’établissement des communautés SchUM dans ces trois villes, en particulier du XIe au XIVe siècle. Les édifices qui constituent le bien ont servi de prototypes aux communautés juives et aux bâtiments religieux ultérieurs ainsi que pour les cimetières en Europe. L’acronyme SchUM correspond aux initiales hébraïques de Spire, Worms et Mayence.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

موقع ثلاثية المدن

يقع الموقع المتسلسل في مدن الكاتدرائيات الإمبراطورية سابقاً، ألا وهي مُدن شباير وفورمز وماينز الكائنة في وادي الراين الأعلى. ويضم الموقع محكمة تعود للمجتمع المحلي اليهودي وهياكل معبد يهودي ومعبد آخر للنساء اليهوديات (أي "شول" باللغة اليديشية) وبقايا أثرية لمدرسة "يشيفا" الدينية وفناء "الميكفاه" (مكان الاستحمام التعبّدي) وسردابه الذي لم تَشِبه شائبة وحافظ على الجودة الرفيعة للعمارة والبناء فيه. ويضم الموقع أيضاً مجمع المعبد اليهودي في فورمز، والكنيس الذي يعود تاريخه للقرن الثاني عشر وكنيس النساء الذي يعود للقرن الثالث عشر اللذين رُمّما بعد الحرب، ومجلس المجتمع المحلي (بيت راشي)، والميكفاه الأثرية التي يعود تاريخها إلى القرن الثاني عشر. ويضم الموقع المتسلسل أيضاً المقبرة اليهودية القديمة في ماينز. ويجسّد الموقع المؤلف من أربعة مكوّنات البداية المبكّرة لتقاليد الأشكناز وتبلوُرِ مفهوم أنماط الاستيطان لدى مجتمعات مدن "الشوم"، لا سيما بين القرنَين الحادي عشر والرابع عشر. هذا وغدت المباني والصروح التي يتألف منها الموقع بمثابة نماذج أولية للمجتمع اليهودي والمباني الدينية في المراحل اللاحقة، فضلاً عن المقابر الأوروبية. وإنّ الاسم المختصر "شوم" مؤلف من الأحرف الأولى من أسماء المدن شباير وفورمز وماينز.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

施派尔、沃尔姆斯和美因茨的犹太社区遗址

该遗产地位于莱茵河谷上游的施派尔、沃尔姆斯和美因茨等前帝国座堂城市。施派尔犹太会堂部分包括犹太教堂和妇女会堂的建筑结构、犹太学校考古遗迹、庭院和仍然完好无损的地下浸礼池,建筑及施工质量很高。沃尔姆斯犹太会堂建筑群部分包括战后在原址重建的12世纪犹太教堂和13世纪妇女会堂、犹太社区礼堂和纪念性的12世纪浸礼池。遗产地还包括沃尔姆斯和美因茨的老犹太公墓。这4个组成部分生动地反映了独特的德系犹太人风俗的初期形成过程,以及犹太社区的发展和定居模式,尤以11-14世纪最为突出。这些建筑是后来欧洲犹太社区、宗教建筑以及墓地的原型。希伯来语中“犹太社区”(ShUM)一词就是施派尔、沃尔姆斯和美因茨的首字母缩写。

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Объекты в городах ШУМ - Шпайере, Вормсе и Майнце

Расположенный в бывших имперских соборных городах Шпайер, Вормс и Майнц, в долине Верхнего Рейна, серийный объект включает Еврейский двор в Шпайере с синагогой и женской синагогой, археологические остатки ешивы (религиозная школа), двор и все еще нетронутую подземную микву (ритуальная баня), которая сохранила свое высокое архитектурное и строительное качество. В состав объекта также входят Комплекс Вормсской синагоги с послевоенной реконструкцией на месте синагоги XII века и женской синагоги XIII века, а также общественный зал (дом Раши) и монументальная миква XII века. На территории серийного объекта также находятся Старое еврейское кладбище в Вормсе и Старое еврейское кладбище в Майнце. Четыре составляющие объекта наглядно отражают раннее появление отличительных обычаев ашкеназов, а также структуру развития и расселения общин ШУМ, особенно в период между XI и XIV веками. Здания, которые составляют объект, служили прототипами для более поздних еврейских общин и религиозных построек, а также кладбищ в Европе. Аббревиатура ШУМ (ShUM) представляет собой сокращение названий трех немецких городов - Шпайер, Вормс и Майнц.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Sitios SchUM de Espira, Worms y Maguncia

Situado en las antiguas ciudades catedralicias imperiales de Speyer, Worms y Maguncia, en el valle del Alto Rin, el conjunto de Espira, Worms y Maguncia comprende el Patio judío de Speyer, con las estructuras de la sinagoga y la shulfemenina (sinagoga en yidish), los vestigios arqueológicos de la yeshiva (escuela religiosa), el patio y la mikve (baño ritual) subterránea aún intacta, que ha conservado su alta calidad arquitectónica y constructiva. El sitio también comprende el recinto de la sinagoga de Worms, con su reconstrucción in situ después de la guerra de la sinagoga del siglo XII y la shul femenina del siglo XIII, el salón comunitario (Casa Rashi) y la monumental mikve del siglo XII. La serie también incluye el antiguo cementerio judío de Worms y el antiguo cementerio judío de Maguncia. Los cuatro lugares que componen el sitio reflejan de forma tangible la aparición temprana de las costumbres distintivas asquenazíes y el desarrollo y el patrón de asentamiento de las comunidades ShUM, especialmente entre los siglos XI y XIV. Los edificios que constituyen el sitio sirvieron de prototipo para posteriores edificios comunitarios y religiosos judíos, así como para cementerios en Europa. El acrónimo ShUM corresponde a las iniciales hebreas de Espira, Worms y Maguncia.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

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Old Jewish Cemetery Mainz, “New Section” of the Cemetery © Generaldirektion Kulturelles Erbe Rheinland-Pfalz
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

ShUM Sites of Speyer, Worms and Mainz are located in the state of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is a serial property of four component parts, which are located in the Upper Rhine cathedral cities of Speyer, Worms and Mainz: Speyer Jewry-Court, Worms Synagogue Compound, Old Jewish Cemetery Worms, and Old Jewish Cemetery Mainz. The property is an exceptional testimony of Jewish communal diasporic life, from the 10th century onwards. The community centres and cemeteries date back to the origins of Jewish history beyond the Mediterranean region. ShUM is a traditional Hebrew acronym for the league of prominent qehillot of Ashkenazi Jews in Speyer, Worms and Mainz, made up from the initial letters of their Hebrew city names. The ShUM communities were uniquely connected by joint community ordinances, passed around 1220 and known as the Taqqanot Qehillot ShUM. The fundamentals of Ashkenazic Judaism were established between the 10th and 13th centuries: the scholars of Speyer, Worms and Mainz played a prominent role in this process. Their statutes are vividly reflected in the property by its architecture and the associated development of culture.

The unique community centres and cemeteries have had a lasting impact on the material Ashkenazic culture and are directly and tangibly associated with the creative achievements of the early Ashkenazic scholars.

Criterion (ii): The ShUM Sites of Speyer, Worms and Mainz are pioneering ensembles of Jewish diasporic community centres and cemeteries from the High Middle Ages. Their form and design influenced Jewish architectural design, ritual buildings and burial culture across Central Europe north of the Alps and northern France and England.

Criterion (iii): The ShUM Sites of Speyer, Worms and Mainz provide a unique and exceptional testimony to the formation of European Jewish cultural tradition and identity. There is no other property with a comparable range of elements that can bear witness to such profound developments in the formation phase of the continuing cultural tradition of Ashkenazic Judaism. Their community centres and cemeteries form an exceptional complex of early religious sites that contributed profoundly to the creation of a distinctive cultural identity.

Criterion (vi): The ShUM Sites of Speyer, Worms and Mainz, as the cradle of Ashkenazic Jewish living tradition, are directly and tangibly associated with a major group of the Jewish diaspora which settled in Europe in the High Middle Ages. There is no other location with a comparable range of Jewish community centres and cemeteries to bear witness to the cultural achievements of Ashkenazic Jews. The ShUM sites were treated as prime places of Jewish identity and of reflection on Jewish-Christian relations. The joint ordinances (Taqqanot ShUM) around 1220 constitute the most comprehensive corpus of Jewish community ordinances from medieval Ashkenaz. The writings of ShUM scholars, poets and community leaders during the 10th to the 13th centuries provide evidence of profound influence at a crucial point at the crossroads of cultural developments in Ashkenazic Judaism. Their writings are still part of Jewish tradition to this day.

Integrity

The ShUM Sites of Speyer, Worms and Mainz include all elements necessary to express the Outstanding Universal Value. Altogether, they represent the closely linked cultural tradition of the qehillot ShUM in the cities of Speyer, Worms and Mainz and reflect the special contribution of each component part to the series. None of the component parts are threatened by development or neglect, each being afforded the strongest possible legal protection under the Monuments Protection Act of Rhineland-Palatinate (in accordance with Article 8 DSchG), and ongoing conservation of the property being adequately funded and well-supported by local communities.

Authenticity

The form and design, essential layout, spatial organisation of the ShUM Sites of Speyer, Worms and Mainz and the respective interrelationships and visual links between the elements within the component parts, together with their architectural forms and designs, reflect the significant and influential development of these sites in the High Middle Ages in a clear and unambiguous manner. Elements are well-preserved according to historical development from the 11th to the 14th centuries, with additions in the 17th century and interventions in the 20th century; post-trauma reconstructions have been carried out respectfully and have retained the heritage significance of the monuments. As early as the late-19th century, measures towards the protection of the substance were introduced. Each component part and their elements have been scientifically investigated from the middle of the 18th century, and their signification increasingly realised. Existing documentation is thorough, and research continuous, thus enhancing knowledge of the property.

Protection and management requirements

The ShUM Sites of Speyer, Worms and Mainz are protected by national instruments of protection. The central instrument for the protection of the property at national level is the Federal Building Code (Baugesetzbuch – BauGB), and the State Building Ordinance of Rhineland-Palatinate (Landesbauordnung – LBauO) and the Monuments Protection Act of Rhineland-Palatinate (Denkmalschutzgesetz – DSchG). Being placed under protection in accordance with Article 8 DSchG, the property enjoys the strongest possible legal protection. The legal principles of regional and urban planning and the municipal legal regulations and statutes provide effective additional protection to the property, so as to guarantee that the attributes of the Outstanding Universal Value are protected from development, particularly in more dynamic urban areas.

A single Management Plan has been developed so that the protection and the integrated and coordinated management of the property are ensured. For implementing this plan, centrally coordinated management and monitoring groups have been organised in cooperation with the owners and other stakeholders. The cooperation of all those involved guarantees that statutory and legal provisions will be respected, and that ShUM Sites of Speyer, Worms and Mainz will be sustainably protected.