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Grottes de Mogao

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Grottes de Mogao, proposed by Chine as a best practice, is interesting as a case study for the following aspects: research, visitors capacity study and booking system, policies to educate local community, conservation master plan, special protection regulations, entrance fee back into site, yearly training staff, pro-active education and dissemination activities.

The Dunhuang Academy has through many years of trial and error adopted an effective conservation methodology to conserve the Mogao Grottoes. We have been able to guarantee that within the parameters of the site that there has been no damage to the heritage components and the cliff face. The landscape and setting within the site parameters as officially demarcated along with the buffer zone are compatible with the site itself. We have used real time monitoring and preventative control technology to check any factors that may negatively impact on the site as well as put into place conservation measures in a timely manner. We have adopted many ways and means to educate the public on the site’s values, conservation and management. We have basically completed a Site Carrying Capacity Study and have drawn up appropriate visitation plans for different circumstances. We have also introduced a new interpretive model with digital technology to interpret the site.

We have a significant number of highly-qualified professionals that guarantee that the conservation of the site is based upon modern concepts and methodologies. We have a high quality team of site narrators who are able to accurately and faithfully tell the story of the site values as well as the site’s conservation and management. Our professionals and site narrators continue to raise their professional standards through various forms of training. We have drawn up conservation and management rules and regulations for the site that conform to international conventions and charters on the conservation of cultural heritage and sit comfortably within China’s legal framework while drawing on our own unique realities. Through various media we educate the public about the laws and regulations on cultural heritage as well as general knowledge on the conservation and management of a heritage site. Due to these efforts we have been successful in gaining the understanding and support of the local community in observing these rules and regulations.

National and local governments, community organizations and individuals attach a great deal of importance to the conservation of the Mogao Grottoes. Ticket/gate income is our main source of revenue. We also receive funding from central and provincial governments as well as funding from foundations. These sources of funding provide us with sufficient and sustainable funding for the conservation of the site. The Dunhuang Academy attaches a great deal of importance in obtaining a good balance between conservation and use. We have always given priority to conservation over use and will long allow visitation in a way that does not impact on the conservation of the site. When opening up the site to visitation we pay a great deal of attention to conservation thereby guaranteeing the site’s sustainability.

We believe that the conservation and management experience we have gained working at the site is worthy of other sites drawing on. We have undertaken a systemic analysis of the various threats facing the preservation of the site. We have set up a comprehensive monitoring system and undertake preventative conservation. We work together with international partners to draw on advanced conservation notions and technology thereby improving our overall level of conservation. We train our personnel in many ways and in many disciplines. We have various channels of raising funds and undertake academic research. We have tried to interpret all values at the site and have created new ways and means of opening up the site to the public. We have introduced digital storage and interpreting technology so that we are able to interpret the outstanding and universal values of the site in a comprehensive and multi-layered manner.

La reconnaissance de la meilleure pratique en gestion du patrimoine mondial

La Stratégie de renforcement des capacités du patrimoine mondial, adoptée par la Comité du patrimoine mondial en 2011, répond aux besoins identifiés d’une audience diversifiée et croissante pour le renforcement des capacités en matière de conservation du patrimoine mondial et d’activités de gestion. Le développement de matériels tels que les études de cas des meilleures pratiques et les outils de communication figurent parmi les activités prévues par la stratégie pour améliorer ces capacités.

Un exemple d’initiative innovante de renforcement des capacités est la Reconnaissance de la meilleure pratique en gestion du patrimoine mondial récemment accordée. Cette initiative, demandée par le Comité du patrimoine mondial et menée dans le cadre du 40è anniversaire de la Convention du patrimoine mondial en 2012, avait requis les candidatures de biens du patrimoine mondial ayant démontré des manières nouvelles et créatives dans la gestion de leurs sites. Vingt-trois candidatures furent reçues et évaluées par un comité de sélection international de 10 membres, comprenant les représentants des Organisations consultatives de la Convention : l’ICCROM, l’ICOMOS et l’UICN. La Ville historique de Vigan aux Philippines a été choisie comme représentante de la meilleure pratique avec des moyens relativement limités, une bonne intégration des communautés locales dans de nombreux aspects de la conservation durable et de la gestion du site, et avec une approche multi-facette intéressante de protection du site.

Les pratiques de gestion reconnues comme réussies et durables peuvent couvrir tous les aspects, depuis l’implication des populations locales dans la gestion du site, à la création des politiques innovantes et la régulation du tourisme. Certains sites impliquent les étudiants des écoles locales dans la gestion du site (Slovénie), forment des habitants au métier de guide touristique (Pérou) ou encore installent des filets en nylon pour protéger les villageois des tigres du Parc national des Sundarbans (Inde). Partager ces pratiques aide les autres sites à trouver des solutions qui fonctionnent.

Cette initiative incite les Etats parties et les gestionnaires de site à réfléchir sur leurs pratiques de gestion et à explorer des possibilités d’amélioration.