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Contrée naturelle et culturo-historique de Kotor

Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor

In the Middle Ages, this natural harbour on the Adriatic coast in Montenegro was an important artistic and commercial centre with its own famous schools of masonry and iconography. A large number of the monuments (including four Romanesque churches and the town walls) were seriously damaged by the 1979 earthquake but the town has been restored, largely with UNESCO’s help.

Contrée naturelle et culturo-historique de Kotor

Ce port naturel monténégrin sur la côte adriatique était un important centre de commerce et d’art qui comptait de célèbres écoles de maçonnerie et de peinture sur icônes au Moyen Âge. Un grand nombre de ses monuments, dont quatre églises romanes et les remparts de la ville, ont été gravement endommagés par un tremblement de terre en 1979, mais la ville a été restaurée, essentiellement grâce à l’aide de l’UNESCO.

بقعة كوتور الطبيعية والثقافية والتاريخية

كان هذا المرفأ الطبيعي الذي يقع في الجبل الأسود على الساحل الادرياتيكي مركزًا تجاريًّا و فنيًّا مهمًّا يتضمَّن مدارس مشهورة للبناء والرسم على الأيقونات في القرون الوسطى. دمّرت هزة أرضية في العام 1979 عددًا كبيرًا من الآثار بشكلٍ كبيرٍ، من بينها 4 كنائس رومانية وأسوار المدينة. بيد أنّ المدينة رُمّمت بفضل مساعدة اليونيسكو التي كانت أساسيةً لذلك.

source: UNESCO/ERI

科托尔自然保护区和文化历史区

这个天然港位于门的内哥罗的亚得里海岸,它在中世纪曾是重要的艺术和商业中心,那里有著名的石工和肖像学校。在1979年的一次地震中很多遗址被严重毁坏,其中包括两座罗马式教堂和城墙。之后在联合国教科文组织的帮助下,该城恢复了原貌。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Природный и культурно-исторический район Котор

В Средние века эта естественная гавань на Адриатическом побережье в Черногории была важным художественным и торговым центром с известными школами каменщиков и иконописцев. Множество памятников (включая четыре романские церкви и городские стены) было серьезно повреждено при землетрясении 1979 г., но город был восстановлен, в значительной степени с помощью ЮНЕСКО.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Comarca natural, cultural e histórica de Kotor

Situada en un puerto natural del Adriático, esta ciudad montenegrina fue en la Edad Media un importante centro comercial y artístico con afamadas escuelas de albañilería y pintura de iconos. Muchos de sus monumentos –comprendidas las murallas y cuatro iglesias románicas– fueron gravemente dañados por un terremoto en 1979. Su restauración posterior se debió en gran parte a la ayuda proporcionada por la UNESCO.

source: UNESCO/ERI

コトルの自然と文化-歴史地域

source: NFUAJ

Natuurlijke en cultuurhistorische omgeving van Kotor

Deze natuurlijke haven ligt aan de Adriatische kust in Montenegro. Tijdens de middeleeuwen was het een belangrijk artistiek en commercieel centrum met zijn eigen beroemde scholen van bouwkunst en iconografie. Een groot aantal monumenten – waaronder vier Romaanse kerken en de stadsmuren – werd ernstig beschadigd door de aardbeving van 1979, maar de stad is hersteld (grotendeels dankzij hulp van UNESCO). De plek heeft een turbulente geschiedenis waardoor een verscheidenheid van gebouwen is ontstaan. Het grootste en meest indrukwekkende is de kathedraal van Sint Tryphon. De oorspronkelijke kerk werd gebouwd in de 8e eeuw en de nieuwe kerk in 1166.

Source : unesco.nl

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Contrée naturelle et culturo-historique de Kotor © Silvan Rehfeld
Description longue
[Uniquement en anglais]

The culturo-historical region of Kotor has exerted considerable influence, over a span of time and within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture and human settlement. Kotor and its neighbours were main bridgeheads of Venice on the southern Adriatic coast. Its art, goldsmithing and architecture schools had a profound and durable influence on the arts of the coast. It is among the most characteristic examples of a type of structure representing important cultural, social and artistic values. It is considered to possess outstanding universal value by the quality of its architecture, the successful integration of its cities to the Gulf of Kotor and by its unique testimony to the exceptionally important role that it played in the diffusion of Mediterranean culture in the Balkan lands.

Founded by the Romans on the Adriatic coast in Montenegro, Kotor developed in the Middle Ages into an important commercial and artistic centre with its own famous schools of masonry and iconography. Throughout the centuries, many empires battled for control of the city. In the 10th century, it was an autonomous city of the Byzantine Empire. From 1186 to 1371, it was a free city of medieval Serbia. It was under Venetian and Hungarian control for brief periods, an independent republic from 1395 to 1420, and then returned to Venetian control once again. French occupation from 1807 to 1914 was followed by Austrian rule until 1918, when Kotor finally became part of Yugoslavia. Throughout its turbulent history, a variety of buildings have been erected. The largest and most impressive of these is the St Tryphon Cathedral. The original church was constructed in the 8th century, according to the annals of the Byzantine Emperor. A new church, built in 1166, was subsequently damaged during the 1667 earthquake and then restored.

The limits of the World Heritage site coincide approximately with the crests of the natural sinkhole formation. At both ends, the site is bordered by the national parks of Orten and Lovcen, making a vast protected natural area. The Gulf of Tivat (formerly part of the approaches to Kotor) is omitted because of the authenticity of its settlements, which has been downgraded by recent industrialization (shipyards, harbour equipment).

Most of Kotor's palaces and houses, many Romanesque churches, all of Dobrota's palaces, and Perast's main buildings have all suffered from earthquakes, and some have been partly destroyed. The city was evacuated by all its inhabitants after the most recent, on 15 April 1979. An intensive restoration and reconstruction programme has now been completed and the city is flourishing again.

Source : UNESCO/CLT/WHC