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Chan Chan Archaeological Zone

Peru
Factors affecting the property in 2019*
  • Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community
  • Illegal activities
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Water (rain/water table)
  • Other Threats:

    Continuous deterioration of earthen architecture structures and decorated surfaces from lack of conservation and maintenance practices

Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community
  • Illegal activities
  • Management systems/management plan
  • Water (rain/water table)
  • Continuous deterioration of earthen architecture structures and decorated surfaces from lack of conservation and maintenance practices
  • Illegal occupation of the property
  • Unregulated farming activities
  • Rising water table levels
  • Delay in implementing protective measures (legislation and regulations already passed by the National Authorities)
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
  • Fragile state of conservation of earthen structures and decorated surfaces due to extreme climatic conditions (El Niño phenomenon) and other environmental factors
  • Inadequate management system in place
  • Insufficient capacity and resources for the implementation of conservation measures
  • Increase in the levels of the phreatic water table
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger
Corrective Measures for the property
Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures
International Assistance: requests for the property until 2019
Requests approved: 5 (from 1987-1998)
Total amount approved : 118,700 USD
Missions to the property until 2019**

1997: ICOMOS mission; February 2007: Joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS and ICCROM mission; November 2010 and December 2014: Joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring missions

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2019

On 7 February 2019, the State Party submitted a state of conservation report, which is available at http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/366/documents/, responding to the previous Decision of the Committee and the adopted corrective measures, as follows:

  • Implementation of the corrective measures continues within the framework of the updated Master Plan with the objective of achieving the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR);
  • The updated version of the Master Plan for the property (2015-2025) is still pending approval by the Ministry of Culture. A bill is being drafted so that the updated Plan will have the same legal status of approval as the original Master Plan;
  • The Ministry of Culture has received no response from the Provincial Municipality of Trujillo regarding the incorporation of the buffer zone and its regulations into the Metropolitan Urban Development Plan of Trujillo. A new municipal administration took office in January 2019 and new efforts will be undertaken to obtain a response;
  • Following the advice of a ministerial working group, an amendment to Law 28261 has been proposed to allow for the expropriation of illegally-occupied archaeological areas. For this purpose, the Ministry of Culture is updating the data of the property as a first step prior to the verification and geo-referencing of the areas that are illegally occupied;
  • In 2018, Public Investment Projects (PIP), totalling an amount of 8.6 million Peruvian soles, were executed with regard to archaeological research, architectural conservation and public use;
  • Several important improvements to the site museum were undertaken regarding maintenance, security, and improving the visitor experience;
  • Although the Public Use Plan has not yet been approved, several activities related to cleaning, awareness raising and communication have been implemented in collaboration with local communities. These include traditional mud technique workshops, a handicraft workshop and the recreation of Chimu ceremonies as a means for the preservation of traditional knowledge;
  • The Pan American Conservation Centre for Earthen Heritage Sites (PECACH) continued its activities related to scientific research of materials and construction techniques and monitoring of environmental conditions, and acquired new laboratory equipment for conservation purposes.

On 6 February 2019, the State Party submitted a separate dossier in accordance with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines on the possible widening of the Trujillo ring road (from 2 to 4 lanes), which crosses the property boundaries and buffer zone. The Ministry of Transport and Communication considers the widening of the road between Trujillo and Sullana, which is part of the Pan-American Highway, as a necessity, while the Ministry of Culture is of the view that such an expansion is not in line with the Master Plan and national legislation, and would negatively affect the property.

Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2019

The State Party should be commended for its continued commitment to the conservation of the property and for its sustained efforts to implement the current Master Plan and the corrective measures identified by the Committee with the view to achieving the DSOCR.

It should be recognized that numerous activities were implemented in 2018, particularly through the PIPs and the PECACH programme in the areas of research, conservation, documentation, cleaning, maintenance, monitoring and awareness raising that have contributed to the overall protection of the property. The robust programme of public use activities are designed to strengthen community involvement, create economic opportunities, and encourage the preservation of traditional knowledge and intangible heritage elements. It may be concluded that important advances have been made in the implementation of the corrective measures and the achievement of the DSOCR.

It should be noted, however, that once again, no substantial progress has been made in the implementation of the three remaining key issues that the Committee identified in its Decision 41 COM 7A.26, namely:

  • Adoption of the updated Master Plan, which is still pending formal approval by the Ministry of Culture;
  • Delimitation and regulation of the buffer zone, which has been awaiting the response of the management office of the Trujillo Provincial Municipality’s Urban Development Plan since April 2016;
  • Approval of regulations for Law 28261 regarding illegal occupations.

It should be reiterated that these are essential components of the programme of corrective measures that have been awaiting implementation for many years. Without them, the DSOCR cannot be achieved. It is therefore recommended that the Committee urge again the State Party to proceed with these issues as a matter of extreme urgency. Without the conclusion of these matters and proof of their effectiveness, the Committee will not be able to assess to what extent the DSOCR, as defined in its Decision 36 COM 7A.34, has been reached.

In March 2019, ICOMOS undertook a Technical Review of the proposed widening of the Trujillo ring road, which concludes that the project presented by the Ministry of Transport and Communications, in its present form, clearly endangers the integrity of the property, as well as its Outstanding Universal Value. Based on the available documentation, it is recommended that the State Party either a) improve the existing road ("pre-existing infrastructure") without widening it, and accompany any intervention with the necessary archaeological supervision, or b) identify a new trajectory for the road outside of the World Heritage property and its buffer zone. In the case that a new trajectory is identified, the existing road could be abandoned, recuperating an important aspect of the property's integrity and avoiding present and future problems connected to construction rubble and garbage disposal along the road, as well as future development pressures.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2019
43 COM 7A.51
Chan Chan Archaeological Zone (Peru) (C 366)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/19/43.COM/7A,
  2. Recalling Decision 42 COM 7A.11, adopted at its 42nd session (Manama, 2018),
  3. Commends the State Party for its continued commitment to the implementation of the Committee’s decisions and programme of corrective measures, with the aim of achieving the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR);
  4. Welcomes the progress made in the implementation of the current Master Plan through the Public Investment Projects, the Pan American Conservation Centre for Earthen Heritage Sites (PECACH), among others initiatives;
  5. Notes with deep regret that three essential components of the programme of corrective measures, as adopted in Decision 36 COM 7A.34, have remained pending for several years, and urges once again the State Party to take the necessary measures for the formal approval of the updated Master Plan, the formal delimitation and regulation of the proposed buffer zone, which is pending due to the lack of response from the management office of the Trujillo Provincial Municipality’s Urban Development Plan, as well as the implementation of the amended Law 28261 that would address the matter of illegal occupation;
  6. Considers that the proposal to widen the existing Trujillo ring road that passes through the property and the buffer zone endangers the property’s integrity and Outstanding Universal Value, and strongly urges the State Party to either improve the existing road or alternatively identify a new trajectory outside of the World Heritage property and its buffer zone;
  7. Requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2020, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, along with an assessment of the level of implementation of the effectiveness of all corrective measures, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 44th session in 2020;
  8. Decides to retain Chan Chan Archaeological Zone (Peru) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
43 COM 8C.2
Update of the List of World Heritage in Danger (Retained Properties)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC/19/43.COM/7A, WHC/19/43.COM/7A.Add, WHC/19/43.COM/7A.Add.2, WHC/19/43.COM/7A.Add.3 and WHC/19/43.COM/7A.Add.3.Corr),
  2. Decides to retain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
  • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Decision 43 COM 7A.41)
  • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision43 COM 7A.42)
  • Austria, Historic Centre of Vienna (Decision 43 COM 7A.45)
  • Bolivia (Plurinational State of), City of Potosí (Decision 43 COM 7A.48)
  • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.5)
  • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 43 COM 7A.6)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Garamba National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.7)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.8)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 43 COM 7A.9)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Salonga National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.10)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Virunga National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.11)
  • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 43 COM 7A.17)
  • Honduras, Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve (Decision 43 COM 7A.4)
  • Indonesia, Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (Decision 43 COM 7A.1)
  • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 43 COM 7A.18)
  • Iraq, Hatra (Decision 43 COM 7A.19)
  • Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 43 COM 7A.20)
  • Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (site proposed by Jordan) (Decision 43 COM 7A.22)
  • Kenya, Lake Turkana National Parks (Decision 43 COM 7A.12)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Cyrene (Decision 43 COM 7A.23)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna (Decision 43 COM 7A.24)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Sabratha (Decision 43 COM 7A.25)
  • Libya, Old Town of Ghadamès (Decision 43 COM 7A.26)
  • Libya, Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus (Decision 43 COM 7A.27)
  • Madagascar, Rainforests of the Atsinanana (Decision 43 COM 7A.13)
  • Mali, Old Towns of Djenné (Decision 43 COM 7A.53)
  • Mali, Timbuktu (Decision 43 COM 7A.54)
  • Mali, Tomb of Askia (Decision 43 COM 7A.55)
  • Micronesia (Federated States of), Nan Madol: Ceremonial Centre of Eastern Micronesia (Decision 43 COM 7A.43)
  • Niger, Aïr and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 43 COM 7A.14)
  • Palestine, Palestine: Land of Olives and Vines – Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir (Decision 43 COM 7A.30)
  • Palestine, Hebron/Al-Khalil Old Town (Decision 43 COM 7A.29)
  • Panama, Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo (Decision 43 COM 7A.50)
  • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 43 COM 7A.51)
  • Senegal, Niokolo-Koba National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.15)
  • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 43 COM 7A.46)
  • Solomon Islands, East Rennell (Decision 43 COM 7A.2)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Aleppo (Decision 43 COM 7A.31)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Bosra (Decision 43 COM 7A.32)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Damascus (Decision 43 COM 7A.33)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient Villages of Northern Syria (Decision 43 COM 7A.34)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din (Decision 43 COM 7A.35)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Site of Palmyra (Decision 43 COM 7A.36)
  • Uganda, Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Decision 43 COM 7A.56)
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City (Decision 43 COM 7A.47)
  • United Republic of Tanzania, Selous Game Reserve (Decision 43 COM 7A.16)
  • United States of America, Everglades National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.3)
  • Uzbekistan, Historic Centre of Shakhrisyabz (Decision 43 COM 7A.44)
  • Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Coro and its Port (Decision 43 COM 7A.52)
  • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 43 COM 7A.38)
  • Yemen, Old City of Sana’a (Decision 43 COM 7A.39)
  • Yemen, Old Walled City of Shibam (Decision 43 COM 7A.40)
Draft Decision: 43 COM 7A.51

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/19/43.COM/7A,
  2. Recalling Decision 42 COM 7A.11, adopted at its 42nd session (Manama, 2018),
  3. Commends the State Party for its continued commitment to the implementation of the Committee’s decisions and programme of corrective measures, with the aim of achieving the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR);
  4. Welcomes the progress made in the implementation of the current Master Plan through the Public Investment Projects, the Pan American Conservation Centre for Earthen Heritage Sites (PECACH), among others initiatives;
  5. Notes with deep regret that three essential components of the programme of corrective measures, as adopted in Decision 36 COM 7A.34, have remained pending for several years, and urges once again the State Party to take the necessary measures for the formal approval of the updated Master Plan, the formal delimitation and regulation of the proposed buffer zone, which is pending due to the lack of response from the management office of the Trujillo Provincial Municipality’s Urban Development Plan, as well as the implementation of the amended Law 28261 that would address the matter of illegal occupation;
  6. Considers that the proposal to widen the existing Trujillo ring road that passes through the property and the buffer zone endangers the property’s integrity and Outstanding Universal Value, and strongly urges the State Party to either improve the existing road or alternatively identify a new trajectory outside of the World Heritage property and its buffer zone;
  7. Requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2020, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, along with an assessment of the level of implementation of the effectiveness of all corrective measures, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 44th session in 2020;
  8. Decides to retain Chan Chan Archaeological Zone (Peru) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Report year: 2019
Peru
Date of Inscription: 1986
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (i)(iii)
Danger List (dates): 1986-present
Documents examined by the Committee
SOC Report by the State Party
Report (2019) .pdf
arrow_circle_right 43COM (2019)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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