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Chan Chan Archaeological Zone

Peru
Factors affecting the property in 2015*
  • Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community
  • Illegal activities
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Water (rain/water table)
  • Other Threats:

    Continuous deterioration of earthen architecture structures and decorated surfaces from lack of conservation and maintenance practices

Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Continuous deterioration of earthen architecture structures and decorated surfaces from lack of conservation and maintenance practices
  • Illegal occupation of the property
  • Unregulated farming activities
  • Rising water table levels
  • Delay in implementing protective measures (legislation and regulations already passed by the National Authorities)
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
  • Fragile state of conservation of earthen structures and decorated surfaces due to extreme climatic conditions (El Niño phenomena) and other environmental factors;
  • Inadequate management system in place;
  • Insufficient capacity and resources for the implementation of conservation measures;
  • Increase in the levels of the phreatic water table.
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger
Corrective Measures for the property
Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures
International Assistance: requests for the property until 2015
Requests approved: 5 (from 1987-1998)
Total amount approved : 118,700 USD
Missions to the property until 2015**

1997: ICOMOS mission; February 2007: Joint World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS and ICCROM mission; November 2010: Joint World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission; December 2014: Joint World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission.

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2015

A World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission visited the property in December 2014. Subsequently, the State Party submitted a state of conservation report on 6 February 2015. The reports are available at https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/366/documents. Progress on the implementation of the corrective measures is reported by the State Party as follows:

  • The update of the Management Plan for the Conservation and Management of Chan Chan is currently at its phase of finalization by the Ministry of Culture through the Special Project Chan Chan Archeaological Complex (PECACH) established in 2013. It will be integrated with other planning tools at the municipal and provincial level, along with the regulatory measures for the buffer zone of the property which has been already included in the Territorial Development Plan of the Provincial Municipality of Trujillo (PLANDET), as part of the Metropolitan Urban Development Plan of Trujillo for 2012-2022. The proposal of buffer zone contains administrative and technical scope (definitions, classification of Land Use and zoning and specific provisions prohibiting urbanization) and will be sent to the Municipality of Trujillo for final approval.
  • The approval of regulations of Law 28261, which will address the issue of illegal occupations, is in the final phase and will be sent to the Office of the Prime Minister for evaluation and final approval by Supreme Executive Order.
  • A Prevention Programme for the Niño Phenomenon ENSO 2014-2015 has also been submitted. Part of the activities inscribed within the programme have already been carried out, particularly maintenance works on the drainage system. A Project for the “Improvement and Expansion of Public Tourism Services at the Site Museum” is currently at its pre-feasibility study stage to be financed by MINCETUR. In this context, an Archaeological Assessment Project has determined that no architectural structures or remains may be affected by the project. Finally, the reports enlists a series of conservation and maintenance projects currently in process, in particular a conservation project for the implementation of research activities connected to the use of territory, implemented within the framework of international cooperation agreement signed by the Istituto per le Tecnologie Applicate ai Beni Culturali del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (ITABC-CNR).
  • The Inter-institutional and International Agreements have been included in the areas of research, conservation and maintenance, which are in full force. Moreover, PECACH is currently managing Inter-institutional Agreements proposals with local government entities focused on solid waste management. A Proposal for the Plan for Public Use has been provided and is currently under evaluation by PECACH before being sent to the Ministry of Culture.
Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2015

Significant progress has been made by the State Party in the implementation of the corrective measures. As noticed by the Reactive Monitoring mission, the backbone of the management structure of the site has improved considerably, permitting a seamless cooperation between the Ministry of Culture in Lima, the Decentralized Directorate in Trujillo and PECACH. The projected buffer zone surrounding the archaeological site seems to be appropriate and a set of restrictions with regard to urban development has been included in the regulatory measures. However, crucial aspects mentioned in the corrective measures are still in the process of implementation and requires to be finalized. This includes the resolution of the difficulties concerning the approval of the Regulation of Law 28261 and the updating process of the Management Plan and other planning tools.

Conservation and prevention measures to address the state of conservation of the archaeological site have largely contributed to control most of the factors that may affect the earthen architecture of the property. The 2014 mission considered positively the fact that the system of drains installed at the site has allowed monitoring and maintenance of the ground-water at a level that does not endanger the earthen construction and that the vegetation barrier has become a real protection for the property and not only an indicator of the site borders. Furthermore, the State Party has made great efforts to further ensure the appropriation of the property by the local community by disseminating information and promoting participation of the population in clean-up and conservation activities.  

In spite of the significant progress, it is recommended that the State Party finalize the process to ensure the updating of the planning tools, in particular the final approval of the updated version of the Management Plan, taking into consideration the views of the different stakeholders and to include natural and anthropogenic threats in the Integral Risk Prevention Plan. Moreover, a crucial step needs to be achieved with the final approval of the Regulations of Law 28261 which is necessary to address the issue of illegal occupants at the property.  As noted by the 2014 Reactive Monitoring mission, while the application of the existing law is still the best option, the lack of real progress in the discussion over the past ten years indicates that other solutions may be identified.

In order to allow the State Party to further complete the process of implementation of the corrective measures to ensure the long-term protection of the property, it is recommended that the Committee retain the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Based on the progress made in meeting the two pending issues referred to in the above paragraph, the Committee may consider the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger at its 40th session in 2016.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2015
39 COM 7A.47
Chan Chan Archaeological Zone (Peru) (C 366)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC-15/39.COM/7A,
  2. Recalling Decision 38 COM 7A.22 adopted at its 38th session (Doha, 2014),
  3. Commends the State Party for its long-term commitment and efforts to address the deterioration of the earthen architecture remains of the property and to put in place a sustainable and operational management system to continue to handle decay factors and threats;
  4. Notes with satisfaction the current measures being put in place by the State Party within the framework of the ENSO 2014-2015 Prevention Programme to protect the property of potential damages connected to heavy rains expected by El Niño phenomenon and encourages the State Party to explore more permanent possibilities that protect all structures within the complex;
  5. Notes the results of the December 2014 joint World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission, endorses its recommendations and requests the State Party to:
    1. Finalize:
      1. the approval process of the updated version of the Management Plan as soon as possible, taking into account the views of the different stakeholders and provide an electronic and three printed copies of the draft revised planning tools for review by the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies,
      2. the approval process of Law 28261 to ensure that the property is adequately protected from illegal occupation and seek for supplementary solutions to this issue in collaboration with the Advisory Bodies and the World Heritage Centre,
      3. the planning of the site museum renovation, together with the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism,
    2. Include natural and anthropogenic threats in the Integral Risk Prevention Plan,
    3. Include general aims and priorities of archaeological and conservation interventions in the property in the Archaeological Intervention Manual;
  6. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2016, an updated report, including a 1-page executive summary, on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 40th session in 2016, at which session the Committee may consider the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger;
  7. Decides to retain Chan Chan Archaeological Zone (Peru) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
39 COM 8C.2
Update of the List of the World Heritage in Danger

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-15/39.COM/7A and WHC-15/39.COM/7A.Add),
  2. Decides to retain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
  • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 39 COM 7A.38)
  • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Decision 39 COM 7A.39)
  • Belize, Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System (Decision 39 COM 7A.18)
  • Bolivia (Plurinational State of), City of Potosi (Decision 39 COM 7A.44)
  • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 39 COM 7A.1)
  • Chile, Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (Decision 39 COM 7A.45)
  • Côte d'Ivoire, Comoé National Park (Decision 39 COM 7A.2)
  • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 39 COM 7A.3)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Virunga National Park (Decision 39 COM 7A.4)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 39 COM 7A.5)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Garamba National Park (Decision 39 COM 7A.6)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Salonga National Park (Decision 39 COM 7A.7)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 39 COM 7A.8)
  • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 39 COM 7A.24)
  • Ethiopia, Simien National Park (Decision 39 COM 7A.10)
  • Georgia, Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery (Decision 39 COM 7A.40)
  • Georgia, Historical Monuments of Mtskheta (Decision 39 COM 7A.41)
  • Honduras, Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve (Decision 39 COM 7A.20)
  • Indonesia, Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (Decision 39 COM 7A.15)
  • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 39 COM 7A.25)
  • Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 39 COM 7A.26)
  • Jerusalem, Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (site proposed by Jordan) (Decision 39 COM 7A.27)
  • Madagascar, Rainforests of the Atsinanana (Decision 39 COM 7A.11)
  • Mali, Timbuktu (Decision 39 COM 7A.21)
  • Mali, Tomb of Askia (Decision 39 COM 7A.22)
  • Niger, Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 39 COM 7A.12)
  • Palestine, Birthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem (Decision 39 COM 7A.28)
  • Palestine, Palestine: Land of Olives and Vines – Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir (Decision 39 COM 7A.29)
  • Panama, Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo (Decision 39 COM 7A.46)
  • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 39 COM 7A.47)
  • Senegal, Niokolo-Koba National Park (Decision 39 COM 7A.13)
  • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 39 COM 7A.42)
  • Solomon Islands, East Rennell (Decision 39 COM 7A.16)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Damascus (Decision 39 COM 7A.30)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Bosra (Decision 39 COM 7A.31)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Site of Palmyra (Decision 39 COM 7A.32)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Aleppo (Decision 39 COM 7A.33)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din (Decision 39 COM 7A.34)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient Villages of Northern Syria (Decision 39 COM 7A.35)
  • Uganda, Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Decision 39 COM 7A.23)
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City (Decision 39 COM 7A.43)
  • United Republic of Tanzania, Selous Game Reserve (Decision 39 COM 7A.14)
  • United States of America, Everglades National Park (Decision 39 COM 7A.17)
  • Venezuela, Coro and its Port (Decision 39 COM 7A.48)
  • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 39 COM 7A.37)
Draft Decision:  39 COM 7A.47

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC-15/39.COM/7A,
  2. Recalling Decision 38 COM 7A.22 adopted at its 38th session (Doha, 2014),
  3. Commends the State Party for its long-term commitment and efforts to address the deterioration of the earthen architecture remains of the property and to put in place a sustainable and operational management system to continue to handle decay factors and threats;
  4. Notes with satisfaction the current measures being put in place by the State Party within the framework of the ENSO 2014-2015 Prevention Programme to protect the property of potential damages connected to heavy rains expected by El Niño phenomenon and encourages the State Party to explore more permanent possibilities that protect all structures within the complex;
  5. Notesthe results of the December 2014 joint World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission, endorses its recommendations and requests the State Party to:
    1. Finalize:
      1. the approval process of the updated version of the Management Plan as soon as possible, taking into account the views of the different stakeholders and provide an electronic and three printed copies of the draft revised planning tools for review by the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies,
      2. the approval process of Law 28261 to ensure that the property is adequately protected from illegal occupation and seek for supplementary solutions to this issue in collaboration with the Advisory Bodies and the World Heritage Centre,
      3. the planning of the site museum renovation, together with the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism,
    2. Include natural and anthropogenic threats in the Integral Risk Prevention Plan,
    3. Include general aims and priorities of archaeological and conservation interventions in the property in the Archaeological Intervention Manual;
  6. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2016, an updated report, including a 1-page executive summary, on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 40th session in 2016, at which session the Committee may consider the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger;
  7. Decides to retain Chan Chan Archaeological Zone (Peru) on the the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Report year: 2015
Peru
Date of Inscription: 1986
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (i)(iii)
Danger List (dates): 1986-present
Documents examined by the Committee
SOC Report by the State Party
Report (2015) .pdf
arrow_circle_right 39COM (2015)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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