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Chan Chan Archaeological Zone

Peru
Factors affecting the property in 2016*
  • Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community
  • Illegal activities
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Water (rain/water table)
  • Other Threats:

    Continuous deterioration of earthen architecture structures and decorated surfaces from lack of conservation and maintenance practices

Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Continuous deterioration of earthen architecture structures and decorated surfaces from lack of conservation and maintenance practices
  • Illegal occupation of the property
  • Unregulated farming activities
  • Rising water table levels
  • Delay in implementing protective measures (legislation and regulations already passed by the National Authorities)
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
  • Fragile state of conservation of earthen structures and decorated surfaces due to extreme climatic conditions (El Niño phenomenon) and other environmental factors
  • Inadequate management system in place
  • Insufficient capacity and resources for the implementation of conservation measures
  • Increase in the levels of the phreatic water table
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger
Corrective Measures for the property
Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures
International Assistance: requests for the property until 2016
Requests approved: 5 (from 1987-1998)
Total amount approved : 118,700 USD
Missions to the property until 2016**

1997: ICOMOS mission; February 2007: Joint World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS and ICCROM mission; November 2010: Joint World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission; December 2014: Joint World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission 

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2016

On 16 February 2016, the State Party submitted a state of conservation report; a summary of which is available at https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/336/documents. The report answers to the matters raised in Decision 39 COM 7A.47 and to the corrective measures as follows:

  • The Interinstitutional Cooperation Agreement for the execution of the project “Improvement and Expansion of Public Tourism Services at the Chan Chan site Museum” was revised by the Ministry of Culture in 2015 and thus submitted to the National COPESCO Plan for its approval;
  • Two activities have been scheduled for 2016: the study for the analysis of natural and anthropic threats in the framework of the elaboration of the Integral Risk Management Plan (first half of 2016) and the updating of the Archaeological Intervention Manual (included in the annual schedule of activities of the property).

Regarding the implementation of the corrective measures:

  • The updated version of the Master Plan for the Conservation and Management of the property is at its final stage of revision by the Ministry of Culture;
  • The draft regulations of Law 28261 are in the process of being submitted to the Office of the Prime Minister for evaluation by the Vice-Ministerial Coordinating Commission;
  • Archaeological research, conservation and maintenance activities were carried out in 2015 under the Public Investment Project approach;
  • Since 2014, many activities have been and continue to be implemented in the framework of El Niño Southern Oscillation Prevention Programme (ENSO);
  • An Earthen Architecture Laboratory, established in 2015 for the study of construction technologies and materials, has developed several meteorological monitoring programmes to be evaluated in the first half of 2016;
  • A unified system has been developed for all topographic works developed during research and conservation projects at the Archaeological Complex;
  • The improvement of the visitors centre of the Nik-An walled complex, the renovation of the architecture and urbanism room and the upgrading and implementation of the Museological and Museographic Script have been developed as part of 2015 Institutional Operating Plan;
  • The law and regulations in force at the property are strictly applied;
  • Surveillance operations are continuously maintained. The Title Clearance - Land Registration Bureau of the Ministry of Culture has started the delimitation process of the archaeological sites located within the Buffer Zone of the property;
  • By Ministerial Resolution 135-2015-MC, Executing Unit 009-La Libertad was created to further strengthen the management of the property, in particular interinstitutional cooperation and financial revenues at the property.
Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2016

The report gives a detailed account of the important progress achieved by the State Party on the implementation of most of the corrective measures adopted by the World Heritage Committee at its 36th session (Saint-Petersburg, 2012). It is important to note that most of them have achieved the expected results and have administrative, financial and management resources that guarantee their long-term implementation.

In this regard, the site museum renovation is considered as an important initiative undertaken by the State Party, and in this instance an Interinstitutional Cooperation Agreement for the execution of the project has been submitted to the National COPESCO Plan in 2015. 

The engagement to update the Archaeological Intervention Manual and the Integral Risk Prevention Plan in the course of 2016, as requested by the Committee at its last session, is also noted. Their submission to the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies is expected as soon as they become available for review.

The numerous research, conservation and maintenance activities implemented at the property are also noted with appreciation, particularly those developed in the framework of the ENSO. Likewise, the significant efforts invested by the local, regional and national authorities, as well as the international and interinstitutional cooperation agreements signed in order to jointly implement these activities are welcomed.

The establishment of an Earthen Architecture Laboratory is welcomed. It is expected that the results of these studies initiated will contribute to the better monitoring, evaluation and adaptation of the conservation works in place at the property.

Moreover, the reinforcement of the management structure for the property through the creation of Executing Unit 009 is welcomed, in particular as it will enable the enhancement of the interinstitutional cooperation between the Special Chan Chan Archaeological Complex Project (PECACH) and the Decentralized Directorate of Culture of La Libertad.

However, it is recommended that the Committee urge the State Party to finalize the approval of the draft regulation of Law 28261 and the Master Plan in order to properly address pressing matters at the property. Likewise, the finalization of the delimitation process of the buffer zone of the property and the elaboration of its regulatory measures becomes an urgent issue to be solved.

The finalization of these processes should be feasible in a one to two-year period. If the draft regulation of Law 28261, the Master Plan and the definition of the buffer zone with its respective regulatory measures, are approved the World Heritage Committee would then be in the position to assess if the Desired state of conservation of this property has been reached and its removal from the List of World Heritage in Danger can be considered.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2016
40 COM 7A.4
Chan Chan Archaeological Zone (Peru) (C 366)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/16/40.COM/7A,
  2. Recalling Decision 39 COM 7A.47, adopted at its 39th session (Bonn, 2015),
  3. Commends the State Party for the implementation of most of the corrective measures towards achieving the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR) and encourages the State Party to continue its efforts for their implementation;
  4. Notes with appreciation the significant efforts invested by the local, regional and national authorities, as well as the international and interinstitutional agreement for the implementation of research, conservation and maintenance activities for the conservation of the property, in particular in the framework of the El Niño Southern Oscillation Prevention Programme (ENSO);
  5. Welcomes the establishment of an Earthen Architecture Laboratory, the development of studies of construction technologies and materials, and meteorological research, as well as the creation of Executing Unit 009 to reinforce the management of the property and the interinstitutional cooperation between the Special Chan Chan Archaeological Complex Project (PECACH) and the Decentralized Directorate of Culture of La Libertad;
  6. Notes the submission of the Interinstitutional Cooperation agreement for the renovation of the site museum and also encourages the State Party to finalize its approval and start its implementation;
  7. Acknowledges the commitment expressed by the State Party to develop the updating of the Archaeological Intervention Manual and the Integral Risk Prevention Plan as requested by Decision 39 COM 7A.47 and requests the State Party to submit them to the World Heritage Centre as soon as they become available, for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  8. Also notes the progress achieved in the definition of the delimitation process of the property’s buffer zone and urges the State Party to finalize this process and elaborate its regulatory measures in collaboration with all concerned stakeholders;
  9. Reiterates its request to the State Party to finalize the approval process of:
    1. the updated version of the Master Plan for the Conservation and Management of the property as soon as possible, taking into account the views of all stakeholders, an electronic copy and three printed copies of which should be provided to the World Heritage Centre, for review by the Advisory Bodies,
    2. Law 28261, to ensure that the property is adequately protected from illegal occupation and seek for supplementary solutions to this issue;
  10. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2017, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 41st session in 2017;
  11. Decides to retain Chan Chan Archaeological Zone (Peru) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
40 COM 8C.2
Update of the list of World Heritage in Danger (retained sites)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC/16/40.COM/7A, WHC/16/40.COM/7A.Add and WHC/16/40.COM/7A.Add.2),
  2. Decides to retain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
  • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Decision 40 COM 7A.26)
  • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 40 COM 7A.27)
  • Belize, Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System (Decision 40 COM 7A.32)
  • Bolivia (Plurinational State of), City of Potosí (Decision 40 COM 7A.1)
  • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 40 COM 7A.34)
  • Chile, Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (Decision 40 COM 7A.2)
  • Côte d'Ivoire, Comoé National Park (Decision 40 COM 7A.35)
  • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 40 COM 7A.36)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Garamba National Park (Decision 40 COM 7A.37)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 40 COM 7A.38)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 40 COM 7A.39)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Salonga National Park (Decision 40 COM 7A.40)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Virunga National Park (Decision 40 COM 7A.41)
  • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 40 COM 7A.9)
  • Ethiopia, Simien National Park (Decision 40 COM 7A.43)
  • Georgia, Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery (Decision 40 COM 7A.28)
  • Honduras, Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve (Decision 40 COM 7A.33)
  • Indonesia, Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (Decision 40 COM 7A.48)
  • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 40 COM 7A.10)
  • Iraq, Hatra (Decision 40 COM 7A.11)
  • Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 40 COM 7A.12)
  • Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (site proposed by Jordan) (Decision 40 COM 7A.13)
  • Madagascar, Rainforests of the Atsinanana (Decision 40 COM 7A.44)
  • Mali, Timbuktu (Decision 40 COM 7A.6)
  • Mali, Tomb of Askia (Decision 40 COM 7A.7)
  • Niger, Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 40 COM 7A.45)
  • Palestine, Birthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem (Decision 40 COM 7A.14)
  • Palestine, Palestine: Land of Olives and Vines – Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir (Decision 40 COM 7A.15)
  • Panama, Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo (Decision 40 COM 7A.3)
  • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 40 COM 7A.4)
  • Senegal, Niokolo-Koba National Park (Decision 40 COM 7A.46)
  • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 40 COM 7A. 30)
  • Solomon Islands, East Rennell (Decision 40 COM 7A.49)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Aleppo (Decision 40 COM 7A.16)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Bosra (Decision 40 COM 7A.17)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Damascus (Decision 40 COM 7A.18)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient Villages of Northern Syria (Decision 40 COM 7A.19)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din (Decision 40 COM 7A.20)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Site of Palmyra (Decision 40 COM 7A.21)
  • Uganda, Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Decision 40 COM 7A.8)
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City (Decision 40 COM 7A.31)
  • United Republic of Tanzania, Selous Game Reserve (Decision 40 COM 7A.47)
  • United States of America, Everglades National Park (Decision 40 COM 7A.50)
  • Venezuela, Coro and its Port (Decision 40 COM 7A.5)
  • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 40 COM 7A.23)
  • Yemen, Old City of Sana’a (Decision 40 COM 7A.24)
  • Yemen, Old Walled City of Shibam (Decision 40 COM 7A.25).
Draft Decision: 40 COM 7A.4

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/16/40.COM/7A,
  2. Recalling Decision 39 COM 7A.47, adopted at its 39th session (Bonn, 2015),
  3. Commends the State Party for the implementation of most of the corrective measures towards achieving the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR) and encourages the State Party to continue its efforts for their implementation;
  4. Notes with appreciation the significant efforts invested by the local, regional and national authorities, as well as the international and interinstitutional agreement for the implementation of research, conservation and maintenance activities for the conservation of the property, in particular in the framework of the El Niño Southern Oscillation Prevention Programme (ENSO);
  5. Welcomes the establishment of an Earthen Architecture Laboratory, the development of studies of construction technologies and materials, and meteorological research, as well as the creation of Executing Unit 009 to reinforce the management of the property and the interinstitutional cooperation between the Special Chan Chan Archaeological Complex Project (PECACH) and the Decentralized Directorate of Culture of La Libertad;
  6. Notes the subsmission of the Interinstitutional Cooperation agreement for the renovation of the site museum and also encourages the State Party to finalize its approval and start its implementation;
  7. Acknowledges the commitment expressed by the State Party to develop the updating of the Archaeological Intervention Manual and the Integral Risk Prevention Plan as requested by Decision 39 COM 7A.47 and requests the State Party to submit them to the World Heritage Centre as soon as they become available, for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  8. Also notes the progress achieved in the definition of the delimitation process of the property’s buffer zone and urges the State Party to finalize this process and elaborate its regulatory measures in collaboration with all concerned stakeholders;
  9. Reiterates its request to the State Party to finalize the approval process of:
    1. the updated version of the Master Plan for the Conservation and Management of the property as soon as possible, taking into account the views of all stakeholders, an electronic copy and three printed copies of which should be provided to the World Heritage Centre, for review by the Advisory Bodies,
    2. Law 28261, to ensure that the property is adequately protected from illegal occupation and seek for supplementary solutions to this issue;
  10. Also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2017, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 41st session in 2017;
  11. Decides to retain Chan Chan Archaeological Zone (Peru) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Report year: 2016
Peru
Date of Inscription: 1986
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (i)(iii)
Danger List (dates): 1986-present
Documents examined by the Committee
SOC Report by the State Party
Report (2016) .pdf
arrow_circle_right 40COM (2016)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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