State of Conservation (SOC)
Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (1993)
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds
International Assistance granted to the property
Total Amount Ap proved:0USD
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
- Construction of a dam (issue resolved);
- Bodo people insurgency;
- Destruction of Park infrastructures;
- Illegal removal of vegetation;
Current conservation issues
The Bureau recalled that the Committee, at its sixteenth session, was informed that the damage caused by the invasion of this site by militants belonging to the Bodo tribe in Assam was estimated to be about US$1.6 million and that although the Park's infrastructure had suffered considerable damage, habitats in the inaccessible parts of the Sanctuary appeared to be intact.
Concerned by the information reported by the Representative of IUCN that the area is still not completely free from encroachments by militants belonging to the Bodo tribe, and that illegal cultivation was spreading into parts of the Sanctuary, the Committee at its last session, in accordance with Article 11, paragraph (4), of the Convention, included the Manas Wildlife Sanctuary in the List of World Heritage in Danger.
The Bureau was informed that the Centre had drawn the attention of the Indian authorities to the fact that they have not yet provided a formal written report on the state of conservation of Manas, despite repeated requests from the Committee since 1989, and had reiterated the Committee's request for a comprehensive report providing full assessment of the damage to the site and remedial measures that are being taken. Noting that the Indian authorities have not yet provided the report requested by the Committee, the Bureau asked the Centre to continue its efforts to obtain such a report for submission to the seventeenth session of the Committee.
A formal written response to these inquiries has not been provided, however, IUCN will report on further information it has received.
Link to the decision
Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (India)
The Committee recalled that the site was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger at its sixteenth session in 1992 due to threats caused by the encroachment of the Bodo tribe. No response had been received from the Government of India to several letters transmitting the Committee's previous requests for information since 1990. The Director of the World Heritage Centre informed the Committee furthermore that a mission to India was undertaken by a staff member of the Centre to contact the authorities directly. The Committee had an extensive discussion on the action to be taken, including the possibility of delisting the site. Several delegates voiced their concerns about the failure of the Government of India to respond to the Committee's request. However, the present situation makes a site mission impossible. The Committee agreed to take further steps: (i) to request the Director-General of UNESCO to express, by letter to the Prime Minister of India, the Committee's concern; and ii) that other diplomatic channels be used to transmit the Committee's concerns about the continuing threats to Park values by the invasion of the Bodo tribe, as well as subsequent encroachments and poaching activities.
No draft Decision
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Detailed List of SOC reports
Destruction of Park infrastructures;
Inscription on the Danger ListYear: 1992 -2011
Threats to the Site:
The Committee decided to include this site on the World Heritage in Danger List in 1992, when it was invaded by militants of the Bodo tribe in Assam. Damage to the sanctuary was estimated at more than two million US dollars.
The site's infrastructure suffered considerable damage during 1992-93. Political instability seems to have led to poaching during this period of thirty-three rhinos.
The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).