The mausoleum of Nakhichevan (#)
Azerbaijan National Commission for UNESCOMamedov Adalat, Mekhmandarova Gulnara
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At the beginning of the XII century Nakhichevan became the capital of Atabek's state and turned into a center of building art. In 1162 (557) a building of mausoleum of Sheikkh's head Yusif Kuseyir's son was accomplished by architector Adjemi, Abubekr's son. Ochtahedronical in plan building was raised with scorched brick (20x20x 4,5) and completed with tent in form of a pyramid. Every border of the mausoleum is notable by independent motive of geometrical ornament, marked of triangular haxahedronical in form of rbombus facing blocks attached to the fundamental laying. Along the top of the building there is a wide strip of furze with an inscription from Koran. Internal space of the mausoleum is dismembered to the spacious upper chamber and the tomb. The tomb is covered with a flat cupola. MAUSOLEUM IN KARABAGLAR VILLAGE. At the faced round socle there is a cylinder rising cone plan of the contour of which is composed by 12 closed half- cylinders in past, this cylinder was completed a conic tent. The surface of the building is covered with polychrome carpet of patterned facing. A combination of turquoise glazed and simple bricks is forming a net of big squares put to a corner filled with repeated inscription of Koranic maintenance. The pattern of the facing is completed with white frieze inscription, bordered by narrow terracottic wattles. Dairy - white glaze of the inscription and bright turquoise of vegetable ornament are rosarily displayed on the deep dark blue gilled of the frieze. External tent and internal cupola aren't kept preserved. Four portals of the upper chamber are effectively picked out. Thanks to deep niches arranged by the sides of the central quarter, the tomb of the mausoleum has a form of a cross with equivalents. It was recovered with a cross mirror arch. Characterizing an architecture of the mausoleum we should mark its gofer surface which determines in significant measures an artistic expression of the appearance. Play of light shadows in dependence of times of the year and days is adding and inimitable expression to the monument. In its far past method was indisputably constructive turining gradually into the decorative. During the appearing of new building materials primarely it was met in early feudal defensive constructions at the territory behind Caspian. Later it was implanted to creation of Azeri architectors who bessides the mausoleum of Karabaglar applied it to mausoleum of Djalaladdin Rumi, in a drum of cupola of Mirdjanit's mosque etc. Couple minarets with a portal entering a complex of Karabaglar are forming united architectural composition. On the high pedestals there are shapely cylindrical stems of minarets. Architectural adornment of minarets is carried out from burned and gazed brick. Terracotic placed at turquaise phone - rarely meeting method in architecture of Azerbaijan. Around the mausoleum in Karabaglar village remains of small mausoleums, walls of fortification, walls of towers and water- line witnessing about a large town population in former time, are kept. Momine - hatun's mausolenm was built by architector Adjemi ibn Abubekr in 585 ( 11 86) year in Nakhichevan for Momine hatun Atabek Eldegiz Muhammed Pehlevan's wife. The mausoleum represents a twenty five meter volume with ten borders. The base of mausoleum is a pedestral, faced with red diorites. In a prismatic volume of the mausoleum corner supports of rectangular frames drowned flatness, ornamented by decorative facing blocks, are picked out by plastic means. At the kept pictures and photos we can sce that mausoleum was a part of a large cultural complex of Nakhichevan of XII century. Architecor Adjemi was apparently not only a builder of mausoleums and portals, but of all the complex. It can be proved by conducting archeological excavations. GULUSTAN MAUSOLEUM. XII CENTURY. 1) Look at turnover 2) At powerful pedestal completed with a cornice, twelve bordered volume which was crowned by pyramidical tent in former times raises. Vertical composition of mausoleum is laconic and expressive. Quadrangular pedestal at the height of three rows of laying by means of wedge-shaped flatness crosses to twelvehedron. As an opposition of smooth basis, upper volume is richly decorated. Its flatness is covered with geometrical interlacing of different patterns. 3) In architectural appearance of Gulustan mausoleum the underlining of vertical devidings and wealth o f dec or are si gni s ic ant feature s whi ch as s i ste d the creation of majesticity and paradeness.