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Météores

Meteora

In a region of almost inaccessible sandstone peaks, monks settled on these 'columns of the sky' from the 11th century onwards. Twenty-four of these monasteries were built, despite incredible difficulties, at the time of the great revival of the eremetic ideal in the 15th century. Their 16th-century frescoes mark a key stage in the development of post-Byzantine painting.

Météores

Dans un paysage de pitons de grès presque inaccessibles, des moines anachorètes s'installèrent sur les « colonnes du ciel » dès le XIe siècle. Lors du grand renouveau de l'idéal érémitique au XVe siècle, vingt-quatre monastères avaient été bâtis au prix d'incroyables difficultés. Leurs fresques du XVIe siècle marquent une étape fondamentale dans l'histoire de la peinture postbyzantine.

الأديرة الأرثوذكسية المعروفة باسم متيورا

عند أمكنة مكونة من نتوء الصخر الصلصالي استقر رهبان متنسكون على "أعمدة السماء" هذه منذ القرن الحادي عشر. وفي القرن الخامس عشر، ومع عودة روح التنسك من جديد، جرى بناء 24 ديراً على الرغم من الصعوبات الجمة. وتدلّ جداريات هذه الأديرة على حقبة بارزة من تاريخ الرسم التي تلت المرحلة البيزنطية.

source: UNESCO/ERI

曼代奥拉

从11世纪起,一些修道士就在这个几乎不可抵达的砂岩峰地区定居了下来,住在“天空之柱”上。15世纪,隐士思想大复兴,这些修道士克服了超乎想象的困难,在这里修建了24座修道院。这里的16世纪壁画代表了后拜占庭绘画艺术发展的一个重要阶段。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Монастыри Метеоры

Начиная с XI в. на вершинах этих практически недоступных песчаниковых останцов монахи обустраивали скиты и строили монастыри. 24 монастыря из числа построенных были сооружены здесь, несмотря на огромные трудности в период возрождения идеалов монашества XV в. Росписи, датируемые XVI в., знаменуют собой важный этап в развитии поствизантийской живописи.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Meteoros

En este sitio emergen del suelo gigantescos pilares de arenisca prácticamente inaccesibles. Fue en estas “columnas del cielo” donde empezaron a asentarse monjes anacoretas desde el siglo XI. El renacimiento del ideal eremítico en el siglo XV tuvo como consecuencia que se edificaran veinticuatro monasterios, pese a las increíbles dificultades que entrañó su construcción. Los frescos del siglo XVI que ornan sus paredes marcaron un hito fundamental en la historia de la pintura posbizantina.

source: UNESCO/ERI

メテオラ

source: NFUAJ

Meteora

Het gebied van de meteora (Grieks voor in de lucht zweven) omvat bijna ontoegankelijke zandsteen pieken (menora), meer dan 400 meter boven de Peneas vallei. Vanaf de 11e eeuw vestigden monniken zich op deze rotspunten, de ‘zuilen van de hemel’. Ondanks grote moeilijkheden werden er vierentwintig kloosters gebouwd ten tijde van de grote herleving van het kluizenaarsideaal in de 15e eeuw. Dit ideaal bracht een eigen type kloosterbouw mee. Hun 16e-eeuwse fresco’s markeren een belangrijke fase in de ontwikkeling van de post-Byzantijnse schilderkunst. De kloosters bloeiden tot de 17e eeuw. Tegenwoordig huisvesten slechts vier kloosters – de Hagia Stephanos, Hagia Trias, Varlaam en Meteron – nog religieuze gemeenschappen.

Source : unesco.nl

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Météores © Sacred Sites
Description longue
[Uniquement en anglais]

'Suspended in the air' (the meaning of Meteora in Greek), these monasteries represent a unique artistic achievement and are one of the most powerful examples of the architectural transformation of a site into a place of retreat, meditation and prayer. The Meteora provide an outstanding example of the types of monastic construction which illustrate a significant stage in history, that of the 14th and 15th centuries when the eremitic ideals of early Christianity were restored to a place of honour by monastic communities, both in the Western world (in Tuscany, for example) and in the Orthodox Church.

Built under impossible conditions, with no practicable roads, permanent though precarious human habitations subsist to this day in the Meteora, but have become vulnerable under the impact of time. The net in which intrepid pilgrims were hoisted up vertically alongside the 373 m cliff where the Varlaam monastery dominates the valley symbolizes the fragility of a traditional way of life that is threatened with extinction.

The monasteries are built on rock pinnacles of deltaic origin, known as Meteora, which rise starkly over 400 m above the Peneas valley and the small town of Kalambaka on the Thessalian plain. Chemical analysis suggests that the pinnacles were created some 60 million years ago in the Tertiary period, emerging from the cone of a river and further transformed by earthquakes. The Meteora are enormous residual masses of sandstone and conglomerate which appeared through fluvial erosion. Seismic activity increased the number of fault lines and fissures and hewed the shapeless masses into individual sheer rock columns. Hermits and ascetics probably began settling in this extraordinary area in the 11th century. In the late 12th century a small church called the Panaghia Doupiani or Skete was built at the foot of one of these 'heavenly columns', where monks had already taken up residence.

During the fearsome time of political instability in 14th century Thessaly, monasteries were systematically built on top of the inaccessible peaks so that by the end of the 15th century there were 24 of them. They continued to flourish until the 17th century. Today, only four monasteries - Aghios Stephanos, Aghia Trias, Varlaam and Meteoron - still house religious communities.

The area includes forested hills and river valley with riverine forests of Platanus orientalis and species such as the endemic Centaurea lactifolia (found near Koniskos village) and Centaurea kalambakensi. The nearest protected area is Trikala Aesthetic Forest (28 ha), created in 1979, which has been planted with Pinus halepensis and Cupressus sempervivens. The potential vegetation cover is described as supra-Mediterranean, with climax cover of Quercus and Ostrya species and Fagus sylvatica beech forest above 700 m.

Source : UNESCO/CLT/WHC