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Tiwanaku: Spiritual and Political Centre of the Tiwanaku Culture

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
Factors affecting the property in 2014*
  • Governance
  • Legal framework
  • Management systems/ management plan
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Lack of a management plan for the site;
  • Lack of coordinated conservation policies and interventions between the national government and the Municipality of Tiwanaku;
  • Need for the designation of a national counterpart for the JFIT project and a site manager at the local level;
  • Lack of governance.
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2014

Total amount granted: USD 870,000 for the project “Preservation and Conservation of Tiwanaku and the Akapana Pyramid” (UNESCO/Japan Funds-in-Trust for World Heritage). Moratorium from March 2010 to May 2012.

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2014
Requests approved: 1 (from 1995-1995)
Total amount approved : 4,000 USD
Missions to the property until 2014**

November 2007: World Heritage Centre Preparatory Mission; February-March 2009: World Heritage Centre Technical Assessment Mission for the implementation of the JFIT project; November 2009: World Heritage Centre. UNESCO Quito Office monitoring mission; November 2010: joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission; August 2012: World Heritage Centre mission.

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2014

On 31 January 2014, the State Party submitted a State of conservation report, which is available at https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/567/documents/. Progress is reported on the following:

  • Conservation and management plan: an executive director has been appointed for the Research Centre, Archaeological, Anthropological and Management Tiwanaku (CIAAAT) who is expected to carry the development of these plans forward. Negotiations are currently in process to allocate required human and final resources for the development of both the conservation and the management plan, with the assistance of an international expert. A preliminary draft was submitted for review on the general criteria for preparation of both plans and ICOMOS has submitted its technical evaluation to assist the process. The process is expected to conclude in 2014 with the articulation of the plan with other planning tools.
  • Management arrangements: the director for CIAAAT has been appointed and the board of directors has approved the management structure. No information is provided on whether resources have been allocated for the CIAAAT and approved staff to become fully operational.
  • Buffer zone: the State Party reports that the management planning process should establish additional criteria for the establishment of the buffer zone, enlarging the currently protected polygonal of 100 yards from the protected areas. Provisions should also be made in the Urban Management Plan and the Municipality’s Land Use Plan to protect archaeological remains in the modern town and to control its sprawl.
  • Planned projects and interventions: project proposals will be submitted for review upon approval by the board of directors of CIAAAT. However, information included in the Annexes of the report shows that the Autonomous Municipal Government of Tiwanaku carried out extensive interventions at southern sector of Puma Punku. These range from improvements to the drainage systems to clearing of vegetation to reconstruction of walls and new earthen renderings and wall capping. New signalization system for visitors has been set up. The Municipality also implemented a conservation project at the Akapana pyramid throughout 2013 which included waterproofing works, new earthen capping and renders on walls, and interventions for drainage systems. Work was also reported on the conservation of archaeological material deposits.
Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2014

The measures implemented to improve coordinated work among the central and local governments, particularly the appointment of the director for the CIAAAT are well noted.  However, given the recent approval of the management structure, progress has been limited in establishing a fully operational system.  Extensive interventions have continued at the property without having a comprehensive conservation plan in place. It is not clear how the implemented actions respond to conservation assessments and priorities. A significant amount of work has been done on reconstruction and new renders and these interventions are not responsive to the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property.

There is some concern that without a clear framework for action and a sound conservation policy in place, continuing with these extensive measures could erode the conditions of authenticity of the property and can potentially threaten its OUV. The need to ensure the stability of the physical fabric is recognized, but that clear limits and strategies for conservation and restoration need to be set under a conservation policy driven by the OUV of the property.  Conservation decision-making needs also to be based on the results from condition assessment and monitoring, and also in consideration to the evaluation of results from previous interventions, particularly on mortars, as was recommended by the Expert meeting.

Finally, an adequate buffer zone, responsive to protection requirements, needs to be established and that regulatory measures ought to be defined in a participatory and inclusive process to ensure their adoption by the local government and communities. This measure is essential to ensure that the conditions of integrity of the property are sustained.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2014
38 COM 7B.39
Tiwanaku: Spiritual and Political Centre of the Tiwanaku Culture (Bolivia, Plurinational State of) (C 567rev)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC-14/38.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decision 37 COM 7B.92 adopted at its 37th session (Phnom Penh, 2013),
  3. Notes the appointment of the director for the Research Centre, Archaeological, Anthropological and Management Tiwanaku (CIAAAT) and the approval of the management structure for the property and urges the State Party to secure the necessary resources to make it fully operational;
  4. Notes with appreciation the progress made by the national and local authorities in the development of the management and conservation plan for the property;
  5. Expresses its concern about the extent of restoration interventions undertaken at the Akapana pyramid and the Puma Punku sector that can potentially erode the conditions of authenticity of the property and requests the State Party to halt these interventions until the Conservation and the Management plans have been developed;
  6. Also requests the State Party to finalise the conservation and management planning process and to provide an electronic and three printed copies of the draft revised management plan and the conservation plan by 1 October 2014 for review by the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies;
  7. Reiterates its request to establish a buffer zone for the property and adopt the necessary regulatory measures to ensure the protection of its Outstanding Universal Value and conditions of authenticity and integrity;
  8. Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2015, an updated report, including a 1-page executive summary, on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 40th session in 2016.
Draft Decision:   38 COM 7B.39

The World Heritage Committee,

1.  Having examined Document WHC-14/38.COM/7B,

2.  Recalling Decision 37 COM 7B.92 adopted at its 37th session (Phnom Penh, 2013),

3.  Notes the appointment of the director for the Research Centre, Archaeological, Anthropological and Management Tiwanaku (CIAAAT) and the approval of the management structure for the property and urges the State Party to secure the necessary resources to make it fully operational;

4.  Expresses its concern about the extent of restoration interventions undertaken at the Akapana pyramid and the Puma Punku sector that can potentially erode the conditions of authenticity of the property and requests the State Party to halt these interventions until the Conservation and the Management plans have been developed;

5.  Also requests the State Party to finalise the conservation and management planning process and to provide an electronic and three printed copies of the draft revised management plan and the conservation plan by 1 December 2014 for review by the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies;

6.  Reiterates its request to establish a buffer zone for the property and adopt the necessary regulatory measures to ensure the protection of its Outstanding Universal Value and conditions of authenticity and integrity;

7.  Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2016, an updated report, including a 1-page executive summary, on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 40th session in 2016.

Report year: 2014
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
Date of Inscription: 2000
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (iii)(iv)
Documents examined by the Committee
SOC Report by the State Party
Report (2014) .pdf
arrow_circle_right 38COM (2014)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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