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Tiwanaku: Spiritual and Political Centre of the Tiwanaku Culture

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
Factors affecting the property in 2013*
  • Governance
  • Legal framework
  • Management systems/ management plan
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Lack of a management plan for the site;
  • Lack of coordinated conservation policies and interventions between the national government and the Municipality of Tiwanaku;
  • Need for the designation of a national counterpart for the JFIT project and a site manager at the local level;
  • Lack of governance.
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2013

Total amount granted: USD 870,000 for the project ‘Preservation and Conservation of Tiwanaku and the Akapana Pyramid (UNESCO/Japan Funds-in-Trust for World Heritage). Moratorium from March 2010 to May 2012.

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2013
Requests approved: 1 (from 1995-1995)
Total amount approved : 4,000 USD
Missions to the property until 2013**

November 2007: World Heritage Centre Preparatory Mission; February – March 2009: World Heritage Centre Technical Assessment Mission for the implementation of the JFIT project; November 2009: World Heritage Centre. UNESCO Quito Office monitoring mission; November 2010: joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission; August 2012: World Heritage Centre Mission.

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2013

On 8 March 2013, the State Party submitted a report addressing the recommendations of the World Heritage Committee in Decision 35 COM 7B.119 on management and conservation measures taken at the property since 2010. The final draft Statement of Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) for the property is submitted for approval by the World Heritage Committee at its 37th session.

a)  Legislative and regulatory frameworks

The lack of coordination among the institutions of the central and local governments, the traditional authorities of the mallkus and mayors of adjacent villages was identified as a crucial management issue at the property to be addressed. The State Party reported that in October 2011, the Plurinational State of Bolivia adopted Presidential Decree 1004, which created the Centre of Archaeological and Anthropological Research and Management of Tiwanaku (CIAAAT) to provide a clear distribution of responsibilities and decision-making process between national and local levels for the management of the property. It is expected that the CIAAAT will enable stable cooperation between institutional, political and technical working environments in order to facilitate and ensure efficient implementation of the conservation plan. The CIAAAT has been created as a decentralized body that will act under the direct supervision of the Ministry of Cultures. It has the entire responsibility for the management of the property, with its own administrative, financial and technical resources. Moreover, the CIAAAT holds overall responsibility over the Tiwanaku regional museums.

b)  Institutional Arrangements

The Ministry of Cultures appointed the General Directorate of Cultural Heritage, and its related Archaeology and Museums Unit, as the focal point for management issues regarding the property and a site manager in charge of the archaeological site. Terms of reference under the administrative national system to hire qualified experts to undertake research and conservation work were put in place. Despite these institutional arrangements, which are expected to improve co-ordination and facilitate dialogue among the national and local stakeholders, the process for the appointment of the Executive Director of the CIAAAT is still pending.

c)  Preventive conservation projects

The State Party provided extensive reports on the interventions and conservation activities made in 2010-2012 for the following buildings: Akapana Pyramid, Puma Punku (2010-2012), Putuni (2010-2012) and the Headless Monolith (2010). The Municipality of Tiwanaku, in compliance with the decisions made by the CIAAAT’s Board, has managed eight preventive conservation actions at the site. Other conservation measures were implemented at the museums’ building affected by water infiltration and structural problems, in particular with the roof. In the case of the Ceramic Museum the roof was renovated and adequate maintenance ensured. These interventions were financed by the resources generated from visitor revenue, in accordance with Article 10 of the Supreme Decree 1004 of 2011.

d)  Installation of an integrated water drainage system for the property

While the conservation plan for the property has been developed together with an integrated drainage system based on interdisciplinary studies and assessments, the State Party reports that in order to control flow of rainwater and ensure proper drainage of the main buildings, preventive conservation projects were undertaken between (2010-2012), contributing to ensure adequate protection. In spite of the conservation measures undertaken in the main buildings, Akapana, Putuni, Pumapunku and Headless Monolith, the integrated conservation plan is far from complete and a monitoring system should be put in place as a matter of urgency.

e)  International Meeting of experts in Tiwanaku (27-29 August 2012)

The State Party reports that following Decision 35 COM 7B.119 adopted by the World Heritage Committee, an International Expert’s meeting on the elaboration of a Conservation Plan for Tiwanakuwas held in Tiwanaku from 27 to 29 August 2012. Organized by the Ministry of Cultures, in close coordination with the World Heritage Centre and the Quito UNESCO Office and with financing from the UNESCO/Japan Funds in Trust for the Preservation of the World Heritage, the meeting formulated a set of recommendations which will serve as the basis for the development of Tiwanaku’s Conservation plan. International experts in several fields, such as archaeology, architecture, engineering, geology/geomorphology, biology, as well as intervention, participated in the meeting together with national specialists, including the national focal point for culture and Tiwanaku’s site manager.

The multidisciplinary group of experts adopted a set of recommendations together with a work-plan including the institutions responsible for each proposed activity. In the field of conservation, it was considered important to elaborate an integral and interdisciplinary plan for archaeological investigation of the site with emphasis on (i) defining the intangible and public use zones, research, protection and corresponding regulatory measures and (ii) identifying, registering, and rehabilitating the pre-hispanic drainage system in the different areas of the site. A continuous monitoring and research of mortars, both in-situ and in laboratory, to evaluate their physical and chemical behaviour was also recommended, among others. The experts made a call for the immediate appointment of the new Director of CIAAAT and for the appointment of a new Director of Archaeology in the research area foreseen in the Presidential Decree. In the legal field, it was recommended to promote and support the development of an urban plan for Tiwanaku’s town (identification of areas for urban growth, height of buildings, building materials and architectural typology) with particular emphasis on the area adjacent to the protected area and to establish an adequate buffer zone to ensure the protection of the property.

f)  UNESCO Project for the Conservation and Preservation of Tiwanaku and Akapana Pyramid

The State Party reports that the guidelines provided by the meeting and the conservation measures identified will serve as a basis for the revision of the extra-budgetary project entitled “Preservation and Conservation of Tiwanaku and the Akapana Pyramid” financed by UNESCO/Japan FIT for the Preservation of World Heritage, in collaboration with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies. The role of the CIAAAT as a focal point for activities to be undertaken within the framework of the project should enhance and ensure the level of coordination among national stake-holders to facilitate the project’s implementation.

Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2013

Despite the progress made by the State Party regarding the implementation of preventive conservation measures and the adoption of the Presidential Decree for the creation of CIAAAT, as well as the organization of the International Expert’s meeting in September 2012, it is crucial to proceed with the revision of the work plan of the JFIT project and to establish close monitoring for the implementation of conservation measures. In this process, a close cooperation with CIAAAT regarding its functioning and the immediate appointment of its Executive Director is essential. In addition, the process for the establishment of an adequate buffer zone and land use plans at the municipality level should be finalized in order to ensure that the integrity of the site is maintained.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2013
37 COM 7B.92
Tiwanaku: Spiritual and Political Centre of the Tiwanaku Culture (Bolivia, Plurinational State of) (C 567rev)

The World Heritage Committee,

1.  Having examined Document WHC-13/37.COM/7B.Add,

2.  Recalling Decision 35 COM 7B.119 , adopted at its 35th session (UNESCO, 2011),

3.  Notes with satisfaction the adoption of the Presidential Decree of September 2011, creating the Centre of Archaeological and Anthropological Research and Management of Tiwanaku (CIAAAT);

4.  Also notes the results of the International Meeting of experts held at Tiwanaku, Bolivia in August 2012 and organized within the framework of the Japanese Funds-in-Trust project to define regulations and guidelines for the development of a conservation plan for the property, and endorses its recommendations;

5.  Requests the State Party to finalize the Conservation Plan for Tiwanaku and submit it to the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies for review by 1 February 2014 ;

6.  Also requests the State Party upon approval of the Conservation plan, to develop the Management Plan for the property, which should include risk preparedness and public use components; and articulate it with other existing planning tools, such as the land use plan and submit the draft to the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies for evaluation;

7.  Further requests the State Party to finalize the process of appointment of the Executive Director of the CIAAAT, to ensure adequate staffing for the implementation of the conservation measures and the management plan of the property, and to inform the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies on the activities undertaken by the CIAAAT.

8.  Requests furthermore the State Party to establish a buffer zone for the property to ensure the protection of its Outstanding Universal Value and conditions of authenticity and integrity;

9.  Requests moreover the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, as per Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines , technical specifications on planned projects relating to interventions at the property and its museums, for consideration and review prior to implementation;

10.   Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2014 , an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 38th session in 2014.

37 COM 8E
Adoption of retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value
The World Heritage Committee,

1.  Having examined Documents WHC-13/37.COM/8E and WHC-13/37.COM/8E.Add,

2.  Congratulates States Parties for the excellent work accomplished in the elaboration of retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value for World Heritage properties in their territories;

3.  Adopts the retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value, as presented in the Annex of Document WHC-13/37.COM/8E, for the following World Heritage properties:

  • Andorra: Madriu-Perafita-Claror Valley;
  • Argentina: Cueva de las Manos, Río Pinturas; Jesuit Block and Estancias of Córdoba; Quebrada de Humahuaca; Iguazu National Park;
  • Australia: Shark Bay, Western Australia; Greater Blue Mountains Area; Royal Exhibition Building and Carlton Gardens; Willandra Lakes Region; Kakadu National Park;
  • Austria / Hungary: Fertö / Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape;
  • Bangladesh: The Sundarbans; Ruins of the Buddhist Vihara at Paharpur;
  • Belgium : La Grand-Place, Brussels;
  • Belgium / France: Belfries of Belgium and France;
  • Bolivia: Fuerte de Samaipata; Tiwanaku: Spiritual and Political Centre of the Tiwanaku Culture; Historic City of Sucre; Jesuit Missions of the Chiquitos;
  • Brazil: Serra da Capivara National Park;
  • Chile: Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works; Rapa Nui National Park; Churches of Chiloé; Sewell Mining Town; Historic quarter of the Seaport City of Valparaiso;
  • China: Huanglong Scenic and Historic Interest Area; Mount Huangshan; Mountain Resort and its Outlying Temples, Chengde; Ancient City of Ping Yao; Classical Gardens of Suzhou; Summer Palace, an Imperial Garden in Beijing; Ancient Villages in Southern Anhui – Xidi and Hongcun; Longmen Grottoes; Yungang Grottoes; Yin Xu; Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties; Historic center of Macao; Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor;
  • Colombia: Port, Fortresses and Group of Monuments, Cartagena; Historic Centre of Santa Cruz de Mompox; San Agustín Archaeological Park; National Archeological Park of Tierradentro;
  • Costa Rica: Area de Conservación Guanacaste;
  • Cuba: Trinidad and the Valley de los Ingenios; Desembarco del Granma National Park; Alejandro de Humboldt National Park; Old Havana;
  • Cyprus: Choirokoitia; Painted Churches in the Troodos Region;
  • Denmark: Kronborg Castle;
  • Ecuador: City of Quito; Historic Centre of Santa Ana de los Ríos de Cuenca; Galápagos Islands;
  • El Salvador: Joya de Cerén Archaeological Site;
  • Ethiopia: Aksum; Fasil Ghebbi;
  • Finland / Sweden: High Coast / Kvarken Archipelago;
  • Guatemala: Archeological Park and Ruins of Quirigua; Antigua Guatemala;
  • Germany: Classical Weimar; Messel Pit Fossil Site; Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier; Aachen Cathedral; Cologne Cathedral; Hanseatic City of Lübeck; Historic Centres of Stralsund and Wismar; Museumsinsel (Museum Island), Berlin; Old town of Regensburg with Stadtamhof; Speyer Cathedral; Town Hall and Roland on the Marketplace of Bremen; Town of Bamberg;
  • Greece: Mount Athos;
  • Honduras: Maya Site of Copan;
  • Hungary: Old Village of Hollókő and its Surroundings; Millenary Benedictine Abbey of Pannonhalma and its Natural Environment; Early Christian Necropolis of Pécs (Sopianae); Tokaj Wine Region Historic Cultural Landscape; Hortobágy National Park - the Puszta; Budapest, including the Banks of the Danube, the Buda Castle Quarter and Andrássy Avenue;
  • Hungary / Slovakia: Caves of Aggtelek Karst and Slovak Karst;
  • India: Sun Temple, Konârak; Group of Monuments at Hampi; Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya; Elephanta Caves; Great Living Chola Temples; Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus); Mountain Railways of India;
  • Indonesia: Ujung Kulon National Park; Komodo National Park; Lorentz National Park; Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra; Sangiran Early Man Site;
  • Iran (Islamic Republic of): Pasargadae; Takht-e Soleyman;
  • Ireland: Archaeological Ensemble of the Bend of the Boyne;
  • Italy: Venice and its Lagoon;
  • Japan: Yakushima; Shirakami-Sanchi; Buddhist Monuments in the Horyu-ji Area; Shiretoko; Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto (Kyoto, Uji and Otsu Cities); Shrines and Temples of Nikko; Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Routes in the Kii Mountain Range; Itsukushima Shinto Shrine; Himeji-jo;
  • Latvia: Historic Centre of Riga;
  • Lao People’s Democratic Republic: Town of Luang Prabang;
  • Lithuania: Vilnius Historic Centre;
  • Luxembourg: City of Luxembourg: its Old Quarters and Fortifications;
  • Malaysia: Kinabalu Park;
  • Mauritius: Aapravasi Ghat;
  • Mexico: Pre-Hispanic City of Teotihuacan; Historic Centre of Morelia; Earliest 16th-Century Monasteries on the Slopes of Popocatepetl; Historic Monuments Zone of Querétaro; Historic Fortified Town of Campeche; Franciscan Missions in the Sierra Gorda of Querétaro; Agave Landscape and the Ancient Industrial Facilities of Tequila; Whale Sanctuary of El Vizcaino; Ancient Maya City of Calakmul, Campeche; Archaeological Monuments Zone of Xochicalco; Historic Monuments Zone of Tlacotalpan; Pre-Hispanic City of Chichen-Itza; Historic Centre of Zacatecas; Historic Centre of Oaxaca and Archaeological Site of Monte Albán; Sian Ka’an; Luis Barragán House and Studio; Rock Paintings of the Sierra de San Francisco; Archaeological Zone of Paquimé, Casas Grandes; Historic Centre of Puebla; Historic Town of Guanajuato and Adjacent Mines; Pre-hispanic town of Uxmal; Hospicio Cabañas, Guadalajara; Islands and Protected Areas of the Gulf of California; Historic Centre of Mexico City and Xochimilco; Pre-Hispanic City and National Park of Palenque; El Tajin, Pre-Hispanic City;
  • Netherlands: Ir.D.F. Woudagemaal (D.F. Wouda Steam Pumping Station); Schokland and Surroundings; Droogmakerij de Beemster (Beemster Polder); Rietveld Schröderhuis (Rietveld Schröder House);
  • Nicaragua: Ruins of León Viejo;
  • Nigeria: Sukur Cultural Landscape;
  • Norway: Rock Art of Alta; Urnes Stave Church; Bryggen;
  • Oman: Archaeological Sites of Bat, Al-Khutm and Al-Ayn;
  • Pakistan: Taxila; Historical Monuments at Makli, Thatta; Rohtas Fort; Buddhist Ruins of Takht-i-Bahi and Neighbouring City Remains at Sahr-i-Bahlol;
  • Panama: Darien National Park; Archaeological Site of Panamá Viejo and Historic District of Panamá;
  • Paraguay: Jesuit Missions of La Santísima Trinidad de Paraná and Jesús de Tavarangue;
  • Peru: City of Cuzco; Chavin (Archaeological Site); Historic Centre of Lima; Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu;
  • Philippines: Historic town of Vigan;
  • South Africa: uKhahlamba / Drakensberg Park;
  • Switzerland: Abbey of St Gall; Benedictine Convent of St John at Müstair; Old City of Berne; Three Castles, Defensive Wall and Ramparts of the Market-Town of Bellinzona;
  • Thailand: Dong Phayayen-Khao Yai Forest Complex; Thungyai-Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuaries; Historic Town of Sukhothai and Associated Historic Towns; Ban Chiang Archaeological Site;
  • Turkey: Göreme National Park and the Rock Sites of Cappadocia; Nemrut Dağ; Great Mosque and Hospital of Divriği; Hierapolis-Pamukkale;
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: Blaenavon Industrial Landscape; Blenheim Palace; Canterbury Cathedral, St Augustine's Abbey, and St Martin's Church; Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd; City of Bath; Durham Castle and Cathedral; Giant's Causeway and Causeway Coast; Heart of Neolithic Orkney; Ironbridge Gorge; Maritime Greenwich; New Lanark; Old and New Towns of Edinburgh; Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites; Studley Royal Park including the Ruins of Fountains Abbey; Tower of London; St Kilda; Westminster Palace, Westminster Abbey and Saint Margaret's Church;
  • Uruguay: Historic Quarter of the City of Colonia del Sacramento;
  • Uzbekistan: Itchan Kala;
  • Venezuela : Coro and its Port; Ciudad Universitaria de Caracas;

4.  Decides that retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value for World Heritage properties in Danger will be reviewed by the Advisory Bodies in priority;

5.  Further decides that, considering the high number of retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value to be examined, the order in which they will be reviewed by the Advisory Bodies will follow the Second Cycle of Periodic Reporting, namely:

  • World Heritage properties in the Arab States;
  • World Heritage properties in Africa;
  • World Heritage properties in Asia and the Pacific;
  • World Heritage properties in Latin America and the Caribbean;
  • World Heritage properties in Europe and North America;

6.  Requests the World Heritage Centre to harmonise all sub-headings in the adopted Statements of Outstanding Universal Value where appropriate and when resources and staff time allow to carry out this work;

7.  Also requests the State Parties, Advisory Bodies and World Heritage Centre to ensure the use of gender-neutral language in the Statements proposed for adoption to the World Heritage Committee;

8.  Further requests the World Heritage Centre to keep the adopted Statements in line with subsequent decisions by the World Heritage Committee concerning name changes of World Heritage properties, and to reflect them throughout the text of the Statements, in consultation with States Parties and Advisory Bodies;

9.  Finally requests the States Parties to provide support to the World Heritage Centre for translation of the adopted Statements of Outstanding Universal Value into English or French respectively, and finally requests the Centre to upload these onto its web-pages.

Draft Decision:  37 COM 7B.92

The World Heritage Committee,

1.  Having examined Document WHC-13/37.COM/7B.Add,

2.  Recalling Decision 35 COM 7B.119, adopted at its 35th session (UNESCO, 2011),

3.  Notes with satisfaction the adoption of the Presidential Decree of September 2011, creating the Centre of Archaeological and Anthropological Research and Management of Tiwanaku (CIAAAT);

4.  Also notes the results of the International Meeting of experts held at Tiwanaku, Bolivia in August 2012 and organized within the framework of the Japanese Funds-in-Trust project to define regulations and guidelines for the development of a conservation plan for the property, and endorses its recommendations;

5.  Requests the State Party to finalize the Conservation Plan for Tiwanaku and submit it to the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies for review by 1 February 2014;

6.  Also requests the State Party upon approval of the Conservation plan, to develop the Management Plan for the property, which should include risk preparedness and public use components; and articulate it with other existing planning tools, such as the land use plan and submit the draft to the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies for evaluation;

7.  Further requests the State Party to finalize the process of appointment of the Executive Director of the CIAAAT, to ensure adequate staffing for the implementation of the conservation measures and the management plan of the property, and to inform the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies on the activities undertaken by the CIAAAT.

8.  Requests furthermore the State Party to establish a buffer zone for the property to ensure the protection of its Outstanding Universal Value and conditions of authenticity and integrity;

9.  Request moreover the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, as per Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, technical specifications on planned projects relating to interventions at the property and its museums, for consideration and review prior to implementation;

10.  Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2014, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 38th session in 2014.

 

Report year: 2013
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
Date of Inscription: 2000
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (iii)(iv)
Documents examined by the Committee
arrow_circle_right 37COM (2013)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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