Take advantage of the search to browse through the World Heritage Centre information.

Tiwanaku: Spiritual and Political Centre of the Tiwanaku Culture

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
Factors affecting the property in 2018*
  • Governance
  • Housing
  • Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation
  • Legal framework
  • Management systems/ management plan
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Lack of a management plan (issue resolved)
  • Governance
  • Lack of coordinated conservation policies and interventions between the national government and local stakeholders
  • Impacts of tourism / visitor / recreation
  • Legal framework
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Urban high rise/ urban sprawl
  • Lack of conservation policy
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2018

Total amount granted: USD 870,000 for the project “Preservation and Conservation of Tiwanaku and the Akapana Pyramid” (UNESCO/Japan Funds-in-Trust for World Heritage)

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2018
Requests approved: 1 (from 1995-1995)
Total amount approved : 4,000 USD
Missions to the property until 2018**

August 2002: Experts Mission; November 2007: World Heritage Centre Preparatory mission; February-March 2009: World Heritage Centre Technical mission for the implementation of the JFIT project; November 2009: World Heritage Centre/UNESCO Quito Office Monitoring mission; November 2010: World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission; August 2012: World Heritage Centre mission; April 2014: ICOMOS Advisory mission

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2018

On 19 December 2017, the State Party submitted a state of conservation report, available at http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/567/documents/. Moreover, the complete version of the Management Plan in Spanish was received on 13 February 2018. In the report, the State Party addresses the following:

  • The Management Plan is the result of coordinated efforts between the Archaeological, Anthropological and Administrative Research Centre of Tiwanaku (CIAAAT) and the Ministry of Cultures and Tourism under the UNESCO/Japan Funds-in-Trust (JFIT) project “Preservation and conservation of Tiwanaku and the Akapana Pyramid”. The Plan comprises eight chapters: Management and Administration, Conservation, Investigation, Tourism, Education and Cultural Action, Museology and Museography, Risks and Forecast of Disasters, and Communication;
  • Due to its complexity, the Integral Conservation Plan (ICP) is still under development and is expected to be finalized by end of 2018;
  • The property as inscribed on the World Heritage List consists of three components surrounded by a 100 meter wide buffer zone. The Management Plan now proposes the definition of five protection areas: the Intensive Area (the central area of the town of Tiwanaku with the church and two blocks around it), the Extensive Area (the remaining part of the urban zone of the town), the Protection Area (areas that deserve special conservation treatment such as the Green Lagoon), the Archaeological Area (the actual World Heritage property) and the Buffer Zone or the 100-metre zone. It is specified that the buffer zone is managed by the CIAAAT and the Municipality of Tiwanaku for the urban zones, whilst the rural zone is regulated by the Council of Ayllus and Originating Communities of Tiwanaku (CACOT), a social entity representative of the local inhabitants, also in coordination with the Municipality. The above implies an extension of the buffer zone to include the urban areas of the town. The State Party emphasizes that, in order to respond to the urban growth towards the property, the overall protection of the property requires the adoption of specific regulations for the urban areas and buffer zone by the Municipality of Tiwanaku. A small area adjacent to Puma Punku is part of the urban zone, but under the authority of the local communities and cannot be used for agriculture or housing;
  • Finally, the State Party reports that CIAAAT has established a conservation laboratory at the site with a focus on the movable objects in the museum collection and storage spaces. Preventive and conservation interventions in the archaeological zones are being prepared with other institutions.
Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2018

The elaboration and submission of a comprehensive Management Plan for the property should be commended. ICOMOS’ comments on the Management Plan are as follows:

  • The planning process was, for the first time, based on the participation of 23 communities and three villages that belong to the Tiwanaku municipality. This sustains significantly the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the site. In addition, municipal authorities, artisan groups, hotel managers, tourism guides, and neighbourhood councils, amongst others, participated in the process;
  • The document compiles all past archaeological diagnoses and research. Several “Memory Workshops” were held with the communities that worked on earlier excavations;
  • The Management Plan extends beyond the property limits, including the urban area of Tiwanaku, signifying an important advancement in regulating developments adjacent to the archaeological zone;
  • The results of specific studies on Conservation, Education, Museums and Collections, Tourism, and Risk Management and Disaster Prevention, amongst others, are incorporated as programmes of the Management Plan;
  • The document has project charts for each programme, outlining deadlines and the entities responsible.

In order to complement and complete the Management Plan it is recommended to:

  • Complete the conservation programme;
  • Establish tourism and risk management committees;
  • Develop a Museums and Collections programme taking into account the plan of the Ministry of Cultures and Tourism to construct a new site museum, which is not sufficiently addressed in the document;
  • Recruit a professional preservationist within the CIAAAT’s organic structure as a permanent staff.

Considering the additional factors that influence the proper management and conservation of the property, it is also recommended that the State Party:

  • Establishes its actions and priorities for research and excavations towards the optimal maintenance of the property's Outstanding Universal Value (OUV). These should be clearly defined in the Integral Conservation Plan;
  • Finalize the Integral Conservation Plan which should be of the highest priority and submit it to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  • Ensure a close coordination of the actions at the local level through a reinforced involvement of the Ministry of Cultures and Tourism. This coordination should enable the CIAAAT to implement the required actions for the effective management of the property;
  • Continue and strengthen the participation of and communication with local communities and authorities; encourage further efforts to improve awareness-raising campaigns among the inhabitants of the surrounding rural zones to guarantee that land uses are aligned with the maintenance of the property's OUV;
  • Initiate a process to review the boundaries of the property and buffer zones on the basis of the detailed cartography of more than 400 hectares that is now available;
  • Work with the local authorities of Tiwanaku to draw up the regulations for the urban buffer zone and formalise the buffer zone extension proposal, according to the required national and local processes. Following the formal approval, the proposal should be presented to the World Heritage Centre in accordance with Paragraph 164 of the Operational Guidelines concerning Minor Boundary Modification, for adoption by the World Heritage Committee.
Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2018
42 COM 7B.34
Tiwanaku: Spiritual and Political Centre of the Tiwanaku Culture (Bolivia, Plurinational State of) (C 567rev)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/18/42.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decision 40 COM 7B.2, adopted at its 40th session (Istanbul/UNESCO, 2016),
  3. Notes with appreciation the efforts made by the State Party to maintain the key attributes that convey the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property;
  4. Recognizes the contribution of the UNESCO/Japan Funds-in-Trust (JFIT) for the project “Preservation and conservation of Tiwanaku and the Akapana Pyramid” to improve the level of conservation and management of the property;
  5. Acknowledging the submission of the Management Plan for the property, requests the State Party to incorporate ICOMOS’ comments and to provide an electronic copy of the revised and officially approved Management Plan;
  6. Regrets that the State Party did not submit the Integral Conservation Plan (ICP) requested in past Decisions and urges it to submit the finalized version by 1 December 2018, for review by the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies;
  7. Also requests the State Party to give priority to efforts to guarantee the optimal state of conservation of the identified attributes that convey the property’s OUV prior to pursuing any new archaeological projects, and to ensure that this priority is clearly defined in the ICP;
  8. Reiterates its request to formalize the buffer zone extension and regulations for the urban and rural zones, involving the relevant local and national authorities, to enable the integral protection of the entire property, and further requests that, following this approval, the State Party submits a formal Minor Boundary Modification request, as per Paragraph 164 of the Operational Guidelines;
  9. Recommends that the State Party continue and improve the awareness-raising campaigns, and its communication with and the participation of the local communities in the region in regard to the property’s conservation and management objectives, especially with the communities in the buffer zone;
  10. Requests furthermore the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2019, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 44th session in 2020.
Draft Decision: 42 COM 7B.34

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/18/42.COM/7B,
  2. Recalling Decision 40 COM 7B.2, adopted at its 40th session (Istanbul/UNESCO, 2016),
  3. Notes with appreciation the efforts made by the State Party to maintain the key attributes that convey the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property;
  4. Recognizes the contribution of the UNESCO/Japan Funds-in-Trust (JFIT) for the project “Preservation and conservation of Tiwanaku and the Akapana Pyramid” to improve the level of conservation and management of the property;
  5. Acknowledging the submission of the Management Plan for the property, requests the State Party to incorporate ICOMOS’ comments and to provide an electronic copy of the revised and officially approved Management Plan;
  6. Regrets that the State Party did not submit the Integral Conservation Plan (ICP) requested in past Decisions and urges it to submit the finalized version by 1 December 2018, for review by the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies;
  7. Also requests the State Party to give priority to efforts to guarantee the optimal state of conservation of the identified attributes that convey the property’s OUV prior to pursuing any new archaeological projects, and to ensure that this priority is clearly defined in the ICP;
  8. Reiterates its request to formalize the buffer zone extension and regulations for the urban and rural zones, involving the relevant local and national authorities, to enable the integral protection of the entire property, and further requests that, following this approval, the State Party submits a formal Minor Boundary Modification request, as per Paragraph 164 of the Operational Guidelines;
  9. Recommends that the State Party continue and improve the awareness-raising campaigns, and its communication with and the participation of the local communities in the region in regard to the property’s conservation and management objectives, especially with the communities in the buffer zone;
  10. Requests furthermore the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2019, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 44th session in 2020.
Report year: 2018
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
Date of Inscription: 2000
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (iii)(iv)
Documents examined by the Committee
SOC Report by the State Party
Report (2017) .pdf
arrow_circle_right 42COM (2018)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


top