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Chan Chan Archaeological Zone

Peru
Factors affecting the property in 2013*
  • Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community
  • Illegal activities
  • Livestock farming / grazing of domesticated animals
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Water (rain/water table)
  • Other Threats:

    Continuous deterioration of earthen architecture structures and decorated surfaces from lack of conservation and maintenance practices

Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports

a)  Continuous deterioration of earthen architecture structures and decorated surfaces from lack of conservation and maintenance practices;

b)  Illegal occupation of the property;

c)  Unregulated farming activities;

d)  Rising water table levels;

e)  Delay in implementing protective measures (legislation and regulations already passed by the National Authorities).

Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
  • Fragile state of conservation of earthen structures and decorated surfaces due to extreme climatic conditions (El Niño phenomena) and other environmental factors;
  • Inadequate management system in place;
  • Insufficient capacity and resources for the implementation of conservation measures;
  • Increase in the levels of the phreatic water table.
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger

Adopted, See page https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/4647

Corrective Measures for the property

Adopted, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/4647

Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures
Adopted, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/4647
International Assistance: requests for the property until 2013
Requests approved: 5 (from 1987-1998)
Total amount approved : 118,700 USD
Missions to the property until 2013**

1997: ICOMOS mission; February 2007: Joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS and ICCROM mission; November 2010: Joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission. 

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2013

The State Party submitted, as requested by the World Heritage Committee at its 36th session (Saint-Petersburg, 2012), a report on the state of conservation of the property on 31 January 2013, and three annexes containing a record of photographs and plans, the analysis of the current state of the Site Museum and a record of the main activites planned and developed in 2012. The report provides information on the progress made on the adopted Desired state of conservation and the related corrective measures.

a)  Management system

Since 2006, Public Investment Projects have been carried out at the property in accordance with the provisions set forth in the conservation and management plan. The Special Project for the Chan Chan Archaeological Complex has been incorporated into the Ministry of Culture and its institutional structure has been modified, though no further details are given on those institutional changes.

The report includes a table showing the overwiew of projects with their assigned and modified budget for the biennium 2012-2013. After prioritizing activities around research and restoration, the allocated budget for the implementation of the Master Plan in 2012 was reduced by 10.5%. A budget of 7,034,030 soles (i.e. an increase of 38% since 2012) has been allocated for 2013. 

b)  Approval of Management Plan and integration with other planning tools

Throughout 2012, meetings have been held with local and regional authorities regarding disaster risk management and the management of the buffer zone. As for the latter, work has continued with the Provincial Municipality of Trujillo for the definition of a final proposal for the regulations of the buffer zone, which is pending approval. No additional information is provided on the type of regulations, the expected timeframe for the completion of the update of the Master Plan, which, along with the Risk and Contingency Management Plan and the Public Use Plan, had to be rescheduled for 2013 given the lack of available budgets.

c)  Implementation of conservation and maintenance measures

The State Party reports on several projects that were implemented throughout 2012 which include archaeological research, conservation of perimeter walls, implementation and maintenance of physical delineation of the property (vegetation barriers and perimeter walls) and maintenance activities of the architecture, the existing drainage systems and protective shelters. Work carried out corresponds to priorities identified through condition assessments and preventive measures in response to potential impacts derived from El Niño phenomenon. These priorities are set out in the “Guidelines for an Integral Plan for Risk Prevention in the Chan Chan Archaeological Complex”. In addition, monitoring of decorated surfaces that were covered with fibreglass replicas was carried out at the beginning of 2012. Preliminary results indicate that the measure is effective in protecting original surfaces. Still, there is no mention of the monitoring system in place for a systematic monitoring strategy.

The State Party recalls the principle of minimum intervention for a better handling of surfaces. No additional information is provided in this respect so as to ascertain whether it might constitute a feasible conservation alternative for the extensive decorated surfaces at the site. Monitoring of the state of conservation of the property has continued, including the monitoring of water table levels through the 33 control wells and the maintenance of the drains built to address the potential threat of increased water table levels. The State Party also reports on the guidelines for conservation interventions, which are consistent with standards set at the international level. No data is provided however on whether these have been formally adopted. The State Party further reports on the continuous maintenance of physical delineation of the property, including punctual restorations of the vegetation barriers, though no explicit information is provided on the maintenance of the perimeter walls.

In regard to the site museum, it is noted that the assessment has been carried out. A project proposal for the Improvement and Extension of the Public Tourist Service in the Site Museum at Chan Chan is being developed in cooperation with the National Copesco Plan. It is expected the project will be included in the Public Use Plan for the property, although no indication is provided on the timeframe for implementation.

As for solid waste management, two days of cleaning were undertaken and areas along access roads and the northeast sector were cleared. Although these actions are significant, there still needs to be a sustained programme to ensure the frequent cleaning of waste, but most importantly to ensure that people living in adjacent areas do not continue this practice.

d)  Legislative and regulatory measures to address illegal occupations

As in past years, the State Party reports that technical and legal actions have continued to ensure the permanent monitoring of the protected archaeological zone and prevent unauthorized agricultural activities or illegal occupation for housing, including police surveillance and legal prosecutions. Surveillance has also been carried out to monitor the transit of vehicles on unauthorized roadways and the disposal of solid waste. As for the finalization of regulations for Law 28261, Supreme Resolution 019-2012-MC amended the conformation of the Multisectorial Commission that was created for the comprehensive recovery of the Chan Chan Archaeological Complex. Ministerial Resolution 386-2012-MC appointed the Regional Director of Culture of La Libertad, as representative before the Commission and appointed a technical secretary. Other agencies that make up the aforementioned Commission are accrediting their respective representatives. No additional information is provided on the timeframe for achieving the corrective measure, and no explicit description of the decision-making process is provided.

e)  Other issues

The State Party also reports on the dissemination, awareness raising and capacity building activities. These continue to be part of the programme for social awareness and educational institutions that has been consistently implemented in past years. It would be important to evaluate the impact the sustained carrying out of these activities has had in terms of increased protection and conservation of the property.

As for the securing of long-term funding, as mentioned above, the Government remains the main source of financing at the moment. Nevertheless, the State Party reports on an international intervention, as a result of a partnership with the Italian public institution, Istituto per le Tecnologie Applicate ai Beni Culturali del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, as well as an intersectorial agreement between national and local authorities concerning the improvement of the tourist infrastructure, under the responsibility of the Provincial Municipality of Trujillo. The execution of the latter is still pending and no further details are provided on it.

Concerning the finalization of the definition of the buffer zone and its regulatory measures, the State Party reports that the work process is continuing, in collaboration with local authorities. The participation of an urban specialist architect in the process is planned for 2013. 

Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2013

The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies note the sustained efforts of the State Party in implementing the corrective measures so as to achieve the Desired state of conservation adopted for the property. They consider that significant progress has been made in addressing the state of conservation of the built heritage and the decorated surfaces. However, the updating of the management plan and the adoption of regulatory measures, pending over the last eight years, will continue to be crucial issues in ensuring the long term conservation and protection of the property and for considering the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger, where it was inscribed in 1986.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2013
37 COM 7A.38
Chan Chan Archaeological Zone (Peru) (C 366)

The World Heritage Committee,

1.  Having examined Document WHC-13/37.COM/7A,

2.  Recalling Decision 36 COM 7A.34, adopted at its 36th session (Saint-Petersburg, 2012),

3.  Notes the progress made by the State Party in the implementation of the adopted corrective measures and urges to continue its sustained efforts so as to meet the Desired state of conservation within the expected timeframe;

4.  Requests the State Party to submit a report on the conservation strategy for decorated surfaces and its related monitoring strategy;

5.  Urges the State Party to approve and enforce the required legislation and regulations for each archaeological component of the property as well as the buffer zone to ensure their adequate protection, including the submission of legal texts and the related strategy for their implementation;

6.  Reiterates its request to the State Party to update the Master Plan, including a public use plan and a comprehensive risk preparedness plan for the property by 1 February 2014 ;

7.  Takes note of the documents “Guidelines for an Integral Plan for Risk Prevention”, “Plan for the Conservation of the Chan Chan Archaeological Complex in View of the El Niño Phenomenon” and “Guidelines for a comprehensive Plan for Risk Prevention in the Chan Chan Archaeological Complex”, and requests the submission, by 30 November 2013 , of three printed copies and one electronic version to the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies for evaluation;

8.  Also requests that the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2014 , an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 38th session in 2014;

Decides to retain Chan Chan Archaeological Zone (Peru) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

37 COM 8C.2
Update of the List of World Heritage in Danger (retained properties)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-13/37.COM/7A, WHC-13/37.COM/7A.Add and WHC-13/37.COM/7A.Add.
  2. Decides to maintain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
  • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 37 COM 7A.29 )
  • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Decision 37 COM 7A.30 )
  • Belize, Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System (Decision 37 COM 7A.16 )
  • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.1)
  • Chile, Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (Decision 37 COM 7A.37 )
  • Colombia, Los Katíos National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.17 )
  • Côte d'Ivoire, Comoé National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.2 )
  • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 37 COM 7A.3 )
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Virunga National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.4 )
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.5 )
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Garamba National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.6 )
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Salonga National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.7 )
  • Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 37 COM 7A.8 )
  • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 37 COM 7A.23 )
  • Ethiopia, Simien National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.10 )
  • Georgia, Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery (Decision 37 COM 7A.32 )
  • Georgia, Historical Monuments of Mtskheta (Decision 37 COM 7A.33 )
  • Honduras, Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve (Decision 37 COM 7A.18 )
  • Indonesia, Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (Decision 37 COM 7A.14 )
  • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 37 COM 7A.24 )
  • Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 37 COM 7A.25 )
  • Jerusalem, Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (Decision 37 COM 7A.26 )
  • Madagascar, Rainforests of the Atsinanana (Decision 37 COM 7A.11 )
  • Mali, Timbuktu (Decision 37 COM 7A.19 )
  • Mali, Tomb of Askia (Decision 37 COM 7A.20 )
  • Niger, Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 37 COM 7A.12 )
  • Palestine, Birthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem (Decision 37 COM 7A.27 )
  • Panama, Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo (Decision 37 COM 7A.36 )
  • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 37 COM 7A.38 )
  • Senegal, Niokolo-Koba National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.13 )
  • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 37 COM 7A.34 )
  • Uganda, Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Decision 37 COM 7A.21 )
  • United Republic of Tanzania, Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (Decision 37 COM 7A.22 )
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City (Decision 37 COM 7A.35 )
  • United States of America, Everglades National Park (Decision 37 COM 7A.15 )
  • Venezuela, Coro and its Port (Decision 37 COM 7A.39 )
  • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 37 COM 7A.28 )
37 COM 8D
Clarifications of property boundaries and areas by States Parties in response to the Retrospective Inventory

The World Heritage Committee,

1. Having examined Document WHC-13/37.COM/8D,

2. Recalling Decision 36 COM 8D, adopted at its 36th session (Saint Petersburg, 2012),

3. Acknowledges the excellent work accomplished by States Parties in the clarification of the delimitation of their World Heritage properties and thanks them for their efforts to improve the credibility of the World Heritage List;

4. Recalls that the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies will not be able to examine proposals for minor or significant modifications to boundaries of World Heritage properties whenever the delimitation of such properties as inscribed is unclear;

5. Takes note of the clarifications of property boundaries and areas provided by the following States Parties in response to the Retrospective Inventory, as presented in the Annexes of Document WHC-13/37.COM/8D:

  • Algeria: Kasbah of Algiers;
  • Brazil: Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Congonhas; Brasilia; Historic Centre of São Luís;
  • Cuba: San Pedro de la Roca Castle, Santiago de Cuba;
  • Dominican Republic: Colonial City of Santo Domingo;
  • Germany: Hanseatic City of Lübeck; Völklingen Ironworks;
  • Jordan: Petra;
  • Mexico: Sian Ka’an; Pre-Hispanic City and National Park of Palenque; Historic Centre of Puebla; Historic Town of Guanajuato and Adjacent Mines; Historic Centre of Morelia; Whale Sanctuary of El Vizcaino; Historic Centre of Zacatecas; Rock Paintings of the Sierra de San Francisco; Archaeological Zone of Paquimé, Casas Grandes; Historic Monuments Zone of Tlacotalpan;
  • Panama: Darien National Park;
  • Paraguay: Jesuit Missions of La Santísima Trinidad de Paraná and Jesús de Tavarangue;
  • Peru: City of Cuzco; Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu; Chavin (Archaeological Property); Chan Chan Archaeological Zone; Historic Centre of Lima; Río Abiseo National Park; Lines and Geoglyphs of Nasca and Pampas de Jumana;
  • Russian Federation: Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments; Kizhi Pogost;
  • Spain: Old Town of Ávila with its Extra-Muros Churches; Historic City of Toledo; Historic Walled Town of Cuenca; Palau de la Música Catalana and Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona;
  • Viet Nam: Complex of Hué Monuments;

6. Requests the States Parties which have not yet answered the questions raised in the framework of the Retrospective Inventory to provide all clarifications and documentation as soon as possible and by 1 December 2013 at the latest.

Draft Decision:  37 COM 7A.38

The World Heritage Committee,

1.  Having examined Document WHC-13/37.COM/7A,

2.  Recalling Decision 36 COM 7A.34, adopted at its 36th session (Saint-Petersburg, 2012),

3.  Notes the progress made by the State Party in the implementation of the adopted corrective measures and urges to continue its sustained efforts so as to meet the Desired state of conservation within the expected timeframe;

4.  Requests the State Party to submit a report on the conservation stategy for decorated surfaces and its related monitoring strategy;

5.  Urges the State Party to approve and enforce the required legislation and regulations for each archaeological component of the property as well as the buffer zone to ensure their adequate protection, including the submission of legal texts and the related strategy for their implementation;

6.  Reiterates its request to the State Party to update the Master Plan, including a public use plan and a comprehensive risk preparedness plan for the property by 1 February 2014;

7.  Takes note of the documents “Guidelines for an Integral Plan for Risk Prevention”, “Plan for the Conservation of the Chan Chan Archaeological Complex in View of the El Niño Phenomenon” and “Guidelines for a comprehensive Plan for Risk Prevention in the Chan Chan Archaeological Complex”, and requests the submission, by 30 November 2013, of respective printed copies to the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies for evaluation;

8.  Also requests that the State Party submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2014, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 38th session in 2014;

9.  Decides to retain Chan Chan Archaeological Zone (Peru) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

 

Report year: 2013
Peru
Date of Inscription: 1986
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (i)(iii)
Danger List (dates): 1986-present
Documents examined by the Committee
arrow_circle_right 37COM (2013)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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