English Français
Help preserve sites now!

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus)

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus)

The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, formerly known as Victoria Terminus Station, in Mumbai, is an outstanding example of Victorian Gothic Revival architecture in India, blended with themes deriving from Indian traditional architecture. The building, designed by the British architect F. W. Stevens, became the symbol of Bombay as the ‘Gothic City’ and the major international mercantile port of India. The terminal was built over 10 years, starting in 1878, according to a High Victorian Gothic design based on late medieval Italian models. Its remarkable stone dome, turrets, pointed arches and eccentric ground plan are close to traditional Indian palace architecture. It is an outstanding example of the meeting of two cultures, as British architects worked with Indian craftsmen to include Indian architectural tradition and idioms thus forging a new style unique to Bombay.

Gare Chhatrapati Shivaji (anciennement gare Victoria)

La gare Chhatrapati Shivaji, autrefois appelée gare Victoria, à Mumbai, est un remarquable exemple d’architecture néogothique victorienne en Inde, mêlée à des éléments issus de l’architecture traditionnelle indienne. Le bâtiment, conçu par l’architecte britannique F.W. Stevens, allait devenir le symbole de Bombay, la « ville gothique » et le plus important port marchand d’Inde. Le terminal, dont la construction, commencée en 1878, dura dix ans, obéit à une conception du gothique victorien s’inspirant des modèles de la fin du Moyen Âge en Italie. Certains éléments remarquables comme le dôme de pierre, les tourelles, les arcs brisés et le plan excentré rappellent l’architecture des palais indiens traditionnels. C’est un exemple exceptionnel de la rencontre de deux cultures, les architectes britanniques ayant fait appel à des artisans indiens pour intégrer la tradition architecturale indienne afin de créer un style nouveau, propre à Bombay.

محطة تشاتراباتي شيفاجي المعروفة آنفاً بمحطة فكتوريا

إنّ محطة تشاتراباتي شيفاجي المعروفة آنفاً بمحطة فكتوريا في مومباي هي مثال مُلفت للهندسة القوطية الجديدة الفكتورية في الهند، ممزوجة بعناصر صادرة عن الهندسة الهندية التقليدية. أصبح فيما بعد البناء الذي صمّمه المهندس البريطاني ف. و. ستيفنز رمزَ بومباي المدينة القوطية وأهمّ مرفأ تجاري في الهند. وتخضع المحطة التي بدأ تشييها عام 1878 واستمرّ عشرة أعوام لتصوّر قوطي فكتوري يُستوحى من نماذج أواخر القرون الوسطى في إيطاليا. وتُعيد بعض العناصر المُلفتة كالقبّة الحجرية، والأبراج الصغيرة، والأقواس الحادة، والتصميم الغريب، إلى الذاكرة هندسة القصور الهندية التقليدية. وتشكّل المحطة مثالاً استثنائياً لتلاقي ثقافي إذ أنّ المهندسين استدعوا فنانين هنودا في سبيل دمج الهندسة الهندية بهدف خلق أسلوب جديد خاص ببمباي.

source: UNESCO/ERI

贾特拉帕蒂•希瓦吉终点站(前维多利亚终点站)

贾特拉帕蒂·希瓦吉终点站旧名孟买的维多利亚终点站,是印度维多利亚时代哥特式复兴风格的建筑典范,融合了印度传统建筑的主题。由英国建筑师F.W.Stevens设计的这座建筑成为孟买这个“哥特式城市”和印度重要的国际商业港口城市的象征。终点站根据中世纪晚期意大利模式的哥特式设计建造,从1878年开始,历时十年以上。其引人注目的石头圆屋顶、塔楼、尖拱和不规则的地面设计, 都接近传统的印度宫殿建筑。英国建筑师和印度工匠相互协作,融合了印度的建筑传统和风格,形成了孟买独一无二的新风格,这是两种文化交汇的杰出典范。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Вокзал Чхатрапати-Шиваджи, бывший Виктория-Терминус (город Мумбаи)

Вокзал Чхатрапати-Шиваджи в Мумбаи (Бомбее), ранее известный как Виктория-Терминус, – это выдающийся пример викторианской неоготической архитектуры в Индии, сочетающийся с мотивами, заимствованными из традиционной индийской архитектуры. Здание, спроектированное британским архитектором Ф.У. Стивенсом, и строившееся в течение 10 лет, начиная с 1878 г., стало символом Бомбея как «города готики» и главного международного торгового порта Индии. Его замечательный каменный купол, башенки, стрельчатые арки и замысловатый план близки к традиционной архитектуре индийских дворцов.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Chhatrapati Shivaji (ex Estación Victoria)

Situada en la ciudad de Mumbai (antes, Bombay), la estación ferroviaria de Chhatrapati Shivaji –antaño denominada Estación Victoria– es un destacado ejemplo de la mezcla del estilo arquitectónico neogótico de la época victoriana con la temática de la arquitectura india tradicional. Este edificio, diseñado por el arquitecto británico F.W. Stevens, se convirtió en el símbolo del principal puerto comercial de la India, Mumbai, llamada por algunos la “ciudad gótica”. Su construcción, iniciada en 1878 y finalizada diez años después, se llevó a cabo con arreglo a un proyecto arquitectónico de estilo gótico victoriano, inspirado en los monumentos italianos de finales de la Edad Media. El plano excéntrico de su planta, su cúpula de piedra, sus torrecillas y sus arcos puntiagudos presentan semejanzas con la arquitectura palacial clásica de la India. Chhatrapati Shivaji es un ejemplo excepcional del encuentro entre dos culturas, ya que los arquitectos británicos trabajaron con los artesanos indios para incorporar las tradiciones y los estilos arquitectónicos autóctonos, creando así un nuevo estilo, exclusivamente característico de Mumbai.

source: UNESCO/ERI

チャトラパティ・シヴァージー・ターミナス駅(旧名ヴィクトリア・ターミナス)
インド最大の貿易港ムンバイにある駅舎、チャトラパティ・シヴァージ・ターミナス(旧ビクトリア・ターミナス)は19世紀末の竣工。インドの伝統的な建築様式を融合した、ヴィクトリア・ゴシック建築の傑作である。イギリスのF.W.スティーヴンスが設計し、「ゴシック建築の都市」としてだけでなくムンバイを象徴する建築物となった。ヴィクトリア・ゴシック様式は、イタリアの中世末期をモデルにした格調高い様式。卓越した石のドームやタレット、尖塔アーチや奇抜な平面図などは、伝統的なインドの宮殿に見られる建築様式と類似している。

source: NFUAJ

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (voorheen Victoria Terminus)

Dit treinstation in Mumbai is een prachig voorbeeld van Victoriaans-neogotische Indiase architectuur, vermengd met traditionele architectuur van India. Het gebouw, ontworpen door de Britse architect F.W. Stevens, werd het symbool van Bombay als gotische stad en grote Indiase internationale handelshaven. De bouw duurde tien jaar (vanaf 1878). Het station is naar hoog Victoriaans-gotisch ontwerp gebouwd, gebaseerd op laatmiddeleeuwse Italiaanse modellen. De stenen koepel, torentjes, spitsbogen en excentrieke plattegrond tonen gelijkenis met de traditionele Indiase paleisarchitectuur. Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus is een mooi voorbeeld van samensmeltende culturen, aangezien de Britse architecten werkten met Indiase ambachtslieden om Indiase architectonische tradities in de bouw op te nemen.

Source: unesco.nl

  • English
  • French
  • Arabic
  • Chinese
  • Russian
  • Spanish
  • Japanese
  • Dutch
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) © UNESCO
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis  

The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) is located in Mumbai on the Western Part of India touching the shores of the Arabian Sea. This building, designed by F. W. Stevens, is spread across a 2.85 hectare area. The terminal was built over a period of 10 years starting in 1878. This is one of the finest functional Railway Station buildings of the world and is used by more than three million commuters daily. This property is an outstanding example of Victorian Gothic Architectural Revival in India, blended with the themes derived from Indian Traditional Architecture. Its remarkable stone dome, turrets, pointed arches and eccentric ground plan are close to traditional Indian palace architecture. It is an outstanding example of the fusion of two cultures, as British architects worked with Indian craftsmen to include Indian architectural tradition and idioms thus forging a new style unique to Mumbai. This was the first terminus station in the subcontinent. It became a commercial palace representing the economic wealth of the nation.

Criterion (ii): Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) of Mumbai (formerly Bombay) exhibits an important interchange of influences from Victorian Italianate Gothic Revival architecture, and from Indian Traditional buildings. It became a symbol for Mumbai as a major mercantile port city on the Indian subcontinent within the British Commonwealth.

Criterion (iv): Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) is an outstanding example of late 19th century railway architecture in the British Commonwealth, characterized by Victorian Gothic Revival and traditional Indian Features, as well as its advanced structural and technical solutions.

Integrity

The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) building is the expression of the British, Italian and Indian architectural planning and its use for Indian Railways. The entire building retains entire structural integrity. Its façade, outer view and usage are original. The premise of the building is a strictly protected area maintained by Indian Railways. The property is protected by a 90.21 hectare buffer zone. The Terminus is one of the major railway stations in the Metropolis of Mumbai and more than 3 million rail commuters use it everyday. In addition to the initial 4 railway tracks, the terminus now facilitates 7 suburban and 11 separate out-station tracks. This has led to the restructuring of several areas in the surroundings, and the addition of new buildings. Indian Railways are working to decongest this terminus and to deviate some of the traffic to other stations.

The property is located in the southern part of the city, and it is subject to huge development pressures and potential redevelopment. However, considering the business interests in such a central place, there is a continuous challenge regarding development control. Another risk comes from intensive traffic flow and the highly polluted air in the region around the railway station. Industrial pollution in the area has been reduced due to reduction in industrial and harbour activities. Another problem is the saline air from the sea.
The fire protection system needs to be checked and upgraded.

Authenticity

The heritage building retains a large percentage of its original structural integrity. The authenticity of the structure expresses the rich Italian gothic style through the eye catching 3D-stone carvings of local species of animals, flora and fauna, symbols, arched tympana, portrait roundels of human faces, and stone mesh works on the decorated rose windows. The elaborate detailing of the heritage building is original. It has carvings made in local yellow malad stones blended with Italian marble and polished granite in a few places. The architectural detailing is achieved through white limestone. The doors and windows are made of Burma teak wood with some steel windows mounted in the drum of the octagonal ribbed masonry dome with the coats of arms and corresponding paintings in stained glass panels. There are large numbers of other embellishments in statuary, which the architect has introduced in decorating the grand frontage. These further include gargoyles, allegorical grotesques carrying standards and battle-axes, and figures of relief busts representing the different castes and communities of India. In prominent places on the façade the bas-reliefs of the ten directors of the old Great Indian Peninsula Railway Company (GIPR) are shown. The entrance gates to Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) carry two columns, which are crowned, one with a lion (representing the United Kingdom) and the other with a tiger (representing India) and there are tympana portraying peacocks.

However, internal modifications and external additions effected a moderate change in the authenticity. These changes were generally reversible and have since listing been reverted to bring the building and surroundings to its original glory.

Protection and management requirements

The property has been declared as a “Heritage Grade – I” structure under the resolution of Maharashtra State Government Act on 21st April 1997. Continual efforts are being made to improve the overall state of the property and to ensure that the same does not decay due to its use by commuters and visitors. The buffer zone is established to prevent and reduce negative development in the surroundings. All legal rights of the property are vested in the Ministry of Railways, Government of India. Mumbai was the first city in India to have heritage legislation, enacted by Government Regulation in 1995 (N° 67). The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) and the Fort area, of which it is part, are protected on the basis of this legislation. A multidisciplinary committee, called Mumbai Heritage Conservation Committee (MHCC) was established to ensure the protection of heritage buildings. There are 624 listed buildings in the whole city, out of which 63 buildings are Grade-I structures: this includes the Terminus building. The administrative control and the management of this property lie with the Divisional Railway Manager, Mumbai Division of Central Railway. The day-to-day maintenance and protection of the building is also the responsibility of the Divisional Railway Manager. The Chhatrapati Shivajhi Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) has also been considered to be developed as a World Class Station by Indian Railways; this would lead to decongesting and reducing the pressures on this Terminus Station, which is now over-crowded by traffic.

The Mumbai Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (MMRDA) is working on the Mumbai Urban Transportation Plan, aiming at up-grading the transport network. On the local level, there will be changes in the management system, which will have consequences for the area of the eastern water front of the city. The Terminus, which is situated in this area is in a strategic position, and will therefore also be affected by these developments.

The long term management plan for the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) was initiated in 1997 by Indian Railways by appointing the Architectural Conservation Cell (ACC) as Consultant. At the moment, the second phase works are under progress involving the restoration of the Terminus station; this includes conservation works on the property, management of traffic around the site, tourism management, and training of personnel.

The funds for the management of the Terminus station are provided by the Indian Government. Indian Railways have the means to set aside funds for conservation work required for the upkeep of their buildings. The technical management system of the railway operates adequately, and from this fundamental viewpoint it provides full guarantees for the conservation of the property’s Outstanding Universal Value. An agency experienced in the conservation field has been appointed to ensure the architectural conservation of the station buildings and its annexes. The management plan needs to be improved in terms of architectural conservation, and by involving the territorial authorities.

Long Description

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus is an outstanding example of late 19th-century railway architecture in the British Commonwealth, characterized by Victorian Gothic Revival and traditional Indian features, as well as its advanced structural and technical solutions. It became a symbol for Bombay (now Mumbai) as a major mercantile port city on the Indian subcontinent within the British Commonwealth.

The site on which this property is situated is associated with the origins of Mumbai as a city. Bombay Island had formed a coastal outpost of the Hindu in western India, but was not used for commerce. It was first passed to the Portuguese and then, in 1661, to the British. In 1667, the island was transferred to the East India Company, who was principally responsible for its commercial development. Merchants settled here from elsewhere, and the shipbuilding industry and the cotton trade prospered.

The town flourished, especially after the building of railway connections with the inland and the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. With the development of trade, the Governor of Bombay planned a series of works aiming at the construction of a more representative city. This involved land reclamation and the construction of a magnificent ensemble of High Victorian public buildings along the seafront. The Victoria Terminus, the most impressive of these buildings, was named after Queen Victoria, Empress of India, on whose Golden Jubilee it was formally opened in 1887. The terminus, now called Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, was designed by the British architect Frederick William Stevens (1848-1900). Work began in 1878 and was completed 10 years later. Originally intended only to house the main station and the administrative offices of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, a number of ancillary buildings have been added subsequently, all designed to harmonize with the main structure. A new station to handle main-line traffic was erected in 1929. The original building is still in use for suburban traffic and is used by over 3 million commuters daily. It is also the administrative headquarters of the Central Railway.

The terminus is one of the first and the best products of use of industrial revolution technology merged with the Gothic Revival style, which was based on late medieval Italian models. This style was acceptable to both European and Indian taste, as it is compatible in its use of colour and ornamentation with the Mughal and Hindu architecture of the subcontinent. The skyline, turrets, pointed arches and eccentric ground plan are close to traditional Indian palace architecture. The centrally domed office structure has a deep platform connected to a train shed, and its outline provides the skeleton plan for building. The terminus dome of dovetailed ribs, built without centering (framing for an arch), was a novel achievement of the era. The interior of the building was conceived as a series of large rooms with high ceilings. It is a utilitarian building and has had various changes required by the users, not always sympathetic. Its C-shaped plan is symmetrical on an east-west axis. All the sides of the building are given equal value in the design. It is crowned by a high central dome, which acts as the focal point. The dome is an octagonal ribbed structure with a colossal female figure symbolizing Progress, holding a torch pointing upwards in her right hand and a spoked wheel in her left. The side wings enclose the courtyard, which opens on to the street. The wings are anchored by monumental turrets at each of their four corners, which balance and frame the central dome.

The facades present the appearance of well-proportioned rows of windows and arches. The ornamentation in the form of statuary, bas-reliefs and friezes is exuberant yet well controlled. The columns of the entrance gates are crowned by figures of a lion (representing Great Britain) and a tiger (representing India). The main structure is built from a judicious blend of India sandstone and limestone, while high-quality Italian marble was used for the key decorative elements. The main interiors are also lavishly decorated: the ground floor of the North Wing, known as the Star Chamber, which is still the booking office, is embellished with Italian marble and polished Indian blue stone. The stone arches are covered with carved foliage and grotesques.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description
[in French only]

Le lieu d'édification de ce bien, Bori Bunder, d'une grande importance historique, est associé aux origines de la ville de Bombay (aujourd'hui appelée Mumbai). La ville tire son nom de la déesse Mumba Devi, et le premier temple, qui lui était dédié, est supposé se trouver à l'emplacement de la gare Victoria. Le temple d'origine fut détruit en 1317 par Mubarak Shah, puis reconstruit. Ce deuxième temple fut à son tour détruit par les Portugais en 1760.

L'île de Bombay formait un avant-poste côtier des Hindous en Inde de l'Ouest, mais n'était pas utilisé pour le commerce. Elle fut d'abord remise aux Portugais, puis, en 1661, aux Britanniques. En 1667, l'île fut cédée à la Compagnie anglaise des Indes orientales qui fut principalement chargée de son développement commercial. Les marchands étrangers y affluèrent et l'industrie de la construction navale et du coton s'y développèrent. La ville prospéra surtout après la construction des liaisons ferroviaires avec l'intérieur des terres et l'ouverture du canal de Suez en 1869.

Avec le développement du commerce, le gouverneur de Bombay planifia une série de constructions pour rendre la ville plus représentative. Il était prévu de viabiliser des terrains et de construire un magnifique ensemble de bâtiments publics de style victorien sur le front de mer. La gare Victoria, le plus impressionnant de ces bâtiments, fut nommée en l'honneur de la reine Victoria, impératrice des Indes, dont le vingt-cinquième anniversaire de règne coïncida avec l'inauguration officielle de la gare en 1887. Destinée à l'origine à accueillir uniquement la gare principale et les bureaux de l'administration du Great Indian Peninsula Railway (Les chemins de fer de la grande péninsule indienne), un certain nombre de bâtiments annexes lui furent ajoutés, tous conçus de manière à s'harmoniser avec la structure principale. Une nouvelle gare pour le trafic des grandes lignes fut érigée en 1929. Le bâtiment d'origine est aujourd'hui utilisé pour le service de la banlieue et fréquenté quotidiennement par plus de trois millions de voyageurs. C'est également le siège de l'administration de la Central Railway (Chemins de fer Centraux).

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation