State of Conservation
Island of Mozambique
Factors affecting the property in 2018*
- Financial resources
- Human resources
- Major visitor accommodation and associated infrastructure
- Management activities
- Management systems/ management plan
- Solid waste
- Other Threats:
Growing number of collapsed or seriously dilapidated buildings
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
- Management Plan not yet finalized
- Growing number of collapsed or seriously dilapidated buildings
- Threats to authenticity through inappropriate repairs
- Lack of development control
- Lack of adequate sewage and water systems
- Lack of adequate financial and human resources
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2018
Total amount provided to the property: For the rehabilitation of the Saint Sebastian Fortress: USD 1,108,078 by Japan Funds in Trust; USD 526,015 by UCCLA; USD 397,122 by Portugal/IPAD; USD 270,000 by Flanders Funds in Trust; USD 729,729 by the Netherlands Funds in Trust. For other conservation and management projects: USD 50,000 by World Heritage Cities Programme (Netherlands); USD 89,000 by IPAD; USD 23,175 by Africa 2009; USD 13,450 by the African World Heritage Fund (AWHF)
International Assistance: requests for the property until 2018
Requests approved: 6
Total amount approved : 209,880 USD
|2009||Structural repair and reconstruction of collapsed ... (Approved)||75,000 USD|
|2001||Preparation of a management/conservation plan for the ... (Approved)||29,980 USD|
|1999||Rehabilitation of the Market- Island of Mozambique (Approved)||30,000 USD|
|1996||Finalisation of an integral conservation plan for ... (Approved)||19,900 USD|
|1995||2 high-level missions on the conservation and ... (Approved)||20,000 USD|
|1994||Financial contribution to repairs for the roofs of Sao ... (Approved)||35,000 USD|
Missions to the property until 2018**
2005, 2006, 2007, 2008: World Heritage Centre missions; February 2007: ICOMOS mission; February 2009: World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission; April 2010: ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission; March 2018: joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS/ICCROM Reactive Monitoring mission
|2018||Report on the Joint World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS / ICCROM Reactive Monitoring Mission to Island of Mozambique ...|
|1995||UNESCO Expert Mission Report, Island of Mozambique, July 1995|
Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2018
On 8 December 2017, the State Party submitted a state of conservation report available at http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/599/documents/. A joint World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS/ICCROM Reactive Monitoring mission to the property was undertaken from 7 to 12 March 2018. The mission report is also available online at the above-mentioned web address. The State Party reports the following:
- A Regulation for Classification and Management of Mozambique Island Built Heritage and Landscape has been adopted, leading to the creation of an inventory and the classification of the built heritage of the property in a formal register;
- A stakeholder consultation process has been completed to finalize the Mozambique Island Management and Conservation Plan, which in turn has been informed by the UNESCO Historic Urban Landscapes approach and by the U.N. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs);
- Further activities, including stakeholder engagement, have been undertaken to define a revised buffer zone for the property, including allowing for the protection of underwater archaeological heritage;
- Matching private conservation initiatives with local needs remains a challenge;
- The need exists for experts to advise the State Party in finding an appropriate use for the Sao Lourenço Fortress, as the proposal to convert it to a hotel has been rejected by the State Party;
- Building rehabilitation has been undertaken to improve the state of conservation of the property;
- The State Party has indicated that it will rehabilitate the historical hospital for use as a hospital. An architect has been appointed and funds made available;
- A project to adaptively reuse a sports complex (‘Complex Desportivo’) as a hotel was submitted to the World Heritage Centre and was reviewed by ICOMOS in its November 2017 technical review. The project includes the rehabilitation of the existing buildings, the building of further hotel facilities, and the provision of new sports facilities for the community of the island in the macuti town-area of the property. The March 2018 mission visited the project site and recommendations for its improvement were provided in the mission report.
Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2018
The State Party has made progress in addressing the challenges faced by the property, including in revising the Management and Conservation Plan for Mozambique Island. This process has been guided by the 2016 Committee Decision (40 COM 7B.15), especially as regards the inclusive engagement of stakeholders and the community. It is commendable that the document was informed by the Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape and the SDGs. However, the March 2018 mission reported that the Management Plan has yet to be finalized, and that, because the writing and discussion of this Plan has taken such a long time, the period of validity of the Plan should be extended. This process should therefore be completed with haste.
The State Party’s engagement with the legislative controls required to conserve the tangible fabric of the property is also welcomed. The creation of mechanisms to identify, grade and list structures within the property will contribute to their safeguarding. However, it must be noted that only structures in the stone and lime town of the property have been entered onto this register, omitting the macuti town structures. These structures remain especially under threat due to a limited supply of materials as well as new constructions, which utilize inappropriate materials. The challenges with living conditions, including the sanitary conditions, in the macuti town, which forms an essential component of the property, remain and require urgent addressing.
The 2018 mission further reports that:
- The Conservation Office of the Island of Mozambique (GACIM) requires strengthening through capacity building, additional appropriately-qualified staff, and awareness raising on a municipal level;
- The regulations governing GACIM need to be adopted to give this organisation the final veto on construction projects it deems to have an inappropriate impact on the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property;
- Conservation regulations need to be amended to address terminology confusion that leads to inappropriate construction and adaptation projects;
- It is necessary to integrate procedures of disaster risk management for cultural heritage within the overall National Risk Management Plan and embed these in the Conservation and Management Plan for the property. Provisions for Heritage Impact Assessments (HIAs), and conservation guidelines to steer renovation and restoration projects, should also be included in the conservation plan. The lack of this latter aspect is currently having a negative impact on the property.
The mission further expressed its concern regarding the fast pace of transformation processes in the property, which are leading to social inequality. The increased vehicular traffic occurring as a result is having a negative impact on the property. Population growth in the macuti town has also continued and requires addressing.
As regards the re-use projects for important monuments, the 2018 mission reports that the hospital restoration project has been halted, leaving the building without a roof. This requires high-priority emergency measures to ensure the safeguarding of this structure. Inappropriate restorations and lack of maintenance remain a problem within the property and in its buffer zone, affecting, for instance, the Sao Lourenço Fortress.
The State Party has engaged with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies regarding the Complexo Desportivo project. The March 2018 mission provided recommendations regarding the project, including finding a new site. Discussions about the project are on-going. Special attention should be given to new projects to avoid conjectural reconstructions without proper documentation.
The delineation of the buffer zone is an ongoing process as the State Party hopes to include maritime archaeological heritage within its boundaries. This process remains urgent and haste should be made to submit the proposed buffer zone in accordance with the procedure for Minor Boundary Modifications.
Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2018
Draft Decision: 42 COM 7B.47
The World Heritage Committee,
- Having examined Document WHC/18/42.COM/7B.Add,
- Recalling Decision 40 COM 7B.15, adopted at its 40th session (Istanbul/UNESCO, 2016),
- Takes note of the findings and recommendations of the 2018 joint Reactive Monitoring mission to the property;
- Welcomes the progress made in the completion of the Conservation and Management Plan, especially as regards the inclusive process undertaken and the application of the Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape and of the Sustainable Development Goals;
- Urges the State Party to complete this process promptly and to include within the Conservation and Management Plan provisions for Disaster risk management, Heritage Impact Assessments, as well as Conservation guidelines to steer renovation and restoration project;
- Requests the State Party to complete with haste the proposed buffer zone modification to facilitate the submission of the buffer zone proposal as a Minor Boundary Modification to the World Heritage Centre, for evaluation by the Advisory Bodies and consideration by the World Heritage Committee, in accordance with Paragraph 164 of the Operational Guidelines;
- Also requests the State Party to undertake emergency conservation and consolidation work to safeguard the hospital building and expedite the resumption of the renovation project;
- Notes the provision of a legislative framework for the identification categorisation of structures on the island, and the completion of an inventory for the stone and lime town area of the property, and further requests the State Party to extend this to include the macuti area of the property;
- Requests furthermore the State Party to:
- Amend the regulations guiding the Conservation Office of the Island of Mozambique (GACIM), to give this body the appropriate authority to have the final approval of proposed developments in order to safeguard the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property,
- Appoint suitably-qualified staff to strengthen GACIM appropriately and ensure that this organisation can fulfil its appointed tasks;
- Requests moreover the State Party to develop strategies that:
- Institute a regular maintenance regime for all publicly-owned buildings on the property,
- Address the living conditions in the macuti town in a way that is appropriate regarding the OUV of the property,
- Counter traffic increase in the property,
- Further educate the property’s inhabitants on their role as custodians of the OUV of the property,
- Ensure appropriate maintenance and repair regimes for both the stone and lime town as well as for the macuti town,
- Provide for capacity building at the national and local levels to ensure the proper management and conservation of the property,
- Address the reported growing social inequality on the property;
- Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 December 2019, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 44th session in 2020.
The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).