State of Conservation (SOC)
Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds
International Assistance granted to the property
Requests Approved: 0
Total Amount Ap proved: 161,625USD
|1992||Financial contribution for a training workshop on architectural ...||19,325 USD|
|1992||Organization of a training course for technicians, administrators ...||19,500 USD|
|1991||Preparation of a Master Plan for Machu Picchu||40,000 USD|
|1991||Additional costs for technical consultancy for the preparation of ...||6,000 USD|
|1991||Contribution to a monitoring exercise of the following sites: ...||3,300 USD|
|1991||Additional cost for technical consultancy for the preparation of ...||4,000 USD|
|1989||Preparation of a technical cooperation project for a Master Plan ...||15,000 USD|
|1988||Contribution to purchase of fire-fighting equipment and repairing ...||20,000 USD|
|1986||Support for associated training activities related to Machu Picchu||8,000 USD|
|1986||Financial support for the implementation of the management plan ...||26,500 USD|
1997: joint ICOMOS/IUCN mission; October 1999: joint ICOMOS/IUCN mission
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
- Dam construction;
- Power line development;
- Wild fires (issue resolved);
- Urbanization of the valley;
- Helicopters flights
Current conservation issues
Twenty-second session of the Committee - Chapter VII.29
Twenty-third session of the Bureau - Chapter IV.50
New information: The Bureau at its twenty-third session requested the World Heritage Centre, IUCN and ICOMOS to undertake a mission to Machu Picchu.
The mission will take place from 17 to 25 October 1999. The results of the mission will be presented to the Bureau during its session.
Analysis and Conclusion
Link to the decision
The Secretariat informed the Bureau that the Permanent Delegation of Peru to UNESCO had invited an expert mission to Peru to observe in situ the application of the Master Plan for Machu Picchu. It also informed that the National Institute for Natural Resources (INRENA) and the National Institute for Culture (INC) had provided information on the creation of a Management Unit for the Sanctuary that was foreseen in the Master Plan for Machu Picchu and in the National Plan for Protected Areas and that its first meeting was scheduled for 26 June 1999. This Management Unit will prepare short and middle-term operational plans for the implementation of the Master Plan. As to the cable car system, INRENA and INC had informed that the Environmental Impact Assessment had been reviewed critically and had not been accepted yet.
The Secretariat furthermore informed that it had received a great number of communications and appeals in which individuals, scientists and non-governmental organizations expressed concerns and opposition to the plans for the cable car system. These communications stated that its impact would seriously affect the natural and cultural values, and could increase the level of tourists to unacceptable levels.
Both IUCN and ICOMOS stated that the Master Plan provides a good strategic framework, but that operation plans will be required to implement it effectively. Particular attention should be given to the management of tourism and the research and preservation of the archaeological resources of the Park.
The Director of the National Institute for Natural Resources (INRENA) emphasized the commitment of INRENA and INC to protect the integrity of the Park in a joint effort through the management structure that is foreseen in the Master Plan, i.e. the Management Unit. She noted concerns about the quality and quantity of tourism to the site and expected that a tourism management plan would be ready in a few months. As to the cable car, she stated that the Master Plan does not propose or endorse the cable car and that the Environmental Impact Assessment so far has not provided sufficient information for a thorough evaluation. On other projects, she noted that an hotel extension had been firmly rejected and that information on any other project would be made available to the Secretariat. She concluded by saying that the Government would welcome an expert mission as proposed by the Secretariat.
Recalling (i) the decision of the Committee at its twenty-second session, (ii) the invitation from the Government of Peru that IUCN and ICOMOS undertake a second expert mission and (iii) the concerns expressed by the advisory bodies, the Bureau adopted the following:
“The Bureau takes note of the information provided by the Government of Peru through its letters dated 18 and 23 June 1999. It also notes the comments and observations made by IUCN and ICOMOS on the Master Plan for the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu, as well as on projects that are, or may be, under discussion and that would have serious impacts on the World Heritage site.
The Bureau considers that the Master Plan is in general a good strategic framework to enhance the protection of the site but that it lacks a comprehensive programme of implementation. It notes that the recently established Management Unit will prepare a short and medium-term plan for its implementation. The Bureau compliments the State Party for the creation of the Management Unit for the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu and it urges the State Party to organise and promote the work of the Management Unit as a first step to implement the Master Plan. It also urges the State Party to consider the observations and recommendations made by IUCN and ICOMOS on the Master Plan and its implementation.
With reference to the cable car system and other possible works or projects, the Bureau regrets that no detailed information has been provided particularly on the plan for the cable car and the corresponding Environmental Impact Study. It reiterates the request made by the World Heritage Committee at its twenty-second session that all relevant documentation and provisions with regard to the management structure and Master Plan for the Sanctuary, the cable car system (Environmental Impact Study, detailed plans, etc) as well as other works or projects that are or will be considered for implementation within the boundaries of the World Heritage site, or outside the site but likely to impact on it, be transmitted as soon as they become available to the World Heritage Centre for review by IUCN and ICOMOS and examination by the Bureau and/or the Committee.
The Bureau requests IUCN, ICOMOS and the World Heritage Centre to undertake a second expert mission to Machu Picchu to assess:
- the implementation and effectiveness of the Master Plan and management arrangements for the Sanctuary (with particular reference to tourism);
- the status of the project of the cable car system and its possible impact on the World Heritage value of the Sanctuary, as well as the viability of alternatives to the cable car system;
- the status of the eventual extension or modification of the hotel at Machu Picchu and other major works that may be planned inside or outside the site, as well as their possible impact on the World Heritage value of the Sanctuary;
- options for extensions to the site, and to bring forward recommendations in this respect;
- the overall state of cultural and natural conservation of the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu.
The report of the mission should be presented to the World Heritage Committee at its twenty-third session for examination and further action.
As suggested by the Rapporteur, the Secretariat, the advisory bodies and the Peruvian authorities will collaborate in drawing up detailed terms of reference for the mission.
Link to the decision
X.31 Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu (Peru)
The Committee recalled the reports from the twenty-third ordinary and the twenty-third extraordinary session of the Bureau on the state of conservation of this property and adopted the following decision:
"The Committee, having examined the report of the World Heritage Centre-IUCN-ICOMOS mission to the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu (made available to the Committee as Information Document WHC-99/CONF.209/INF.21), endorsed the conclusions and recommendations contained in it.
The Committee congratulated the Government of Peru on the adoption of the Master Plan and the establishment of the Management Unit. It urged the Government of Peru to ensure that all institutions, authorities and agencies involved in the Sanctuary give their full support to the Management Unit for the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu so that this unit can effectively and efficiently fulfil the tasks entrusted to it.
The Committee recognized that there is strong tourism pressure on the site and that the studies proposed in recommendations 6, 7 and 8 of the mission report would allow this matter to be addressed in an integrated manner.
The Committee requested the Government of Peru to submit, by 15 April 2000 for transmission to and examination by the Bureau at its twenty-fourth session, a report that should include its response to the mission's conclusions and recommendations, as well as information on the progress made in the preparation and execution of operational plans for the implementation of the Master Plan for the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu."
The Bureau may wish to examine information that will be provided at the time of its session and take the appropriate decision thereupon.
Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu
- Fire (widlfires)
- Ground transport infrastructure
- Management systems/ management plan
The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).