State of Conservation (SOC)
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds
International Assistance granted to the property
Total Amount Ap proved:85,000USD
|1994||Consolidation of the Pre Rupt monument in Angkor||50,000 USD|
|1993||Financial contribution for the installation of an alarm system at ...||20,000 USD|
|1992||Mission to prepare a Tentative List and a nomination dossier for ...||15,000 USD|
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
- Inadequate protective legislation;
- Inadequately staffed national protection agency;
- No permanent boundaries established and defined buffer zones;
- Need for monitoring and coordination of the international conservation effort
Current conservation issues
At its eighteenth session, the Bureau applauded the progress made by the Royal Government of Cambodia in meeting the requests made by the Committee at its sixteenth session when Angkor was inscribed on the World Heritage List and List of World Heritage in Danger:
The UNESCO-executed project Zoning and the Environmental Management Plan for Angkor (ZEMP), served as the basis of the definition of four categories of protected zones, (i) monumental sites, (ii) protected archaeological reserves, (iii) protected cultural landscapes, (iv) archaeological, anthropological and historic areas of interest.
At the time of writing, approval by the National Assembly of the legislation on protected areas and their categories was still pending, although a Decree had been issued in May 1994.
Confirmation on the official establishment of a management agency for Angkor, APSARA, and copy of its statutes were also awaited.
A mission of a UNESCO legal consultant to assist the National Assembly in reviewing legislations on the protection of cultural property is scheduled to take place in October 1994.
The UNESCO Secretariat assisted the Cambodian authorities in the preparation of an emergency project for the consolidation ar of the fragile brick monument of Pre Rup in Angkor. Financial assistance of US$ 50,000 was provided under the World Heritage Fund to supplement funds from the National Federation of UNESCO Associations in Japan and the Government of Italy.
Link to the decision
The Committee noted that at its eighteenth session, the Bureau expressed satisfaction with the progress accomplished by the Royal Cambodian Government in response to the requests formulated by the Committee at its sixteenth session, when Angkor was inscribed on the World Heritage List and List of World Heritage in Danger.
At the invitation of UNESCO and at the request of the Chairperson of the Committee, the Minister of State of the Kingdom of Cambodia, H.E. Mr Vann Molyvann, made a presentation to Committee members, highlighting the main tasks undertaken by the Royal Government to ensure the safeguarding of Angkor (401 sq.km.) and the development of its historical, archaeological and anthropological heritage, in the region of Siem Reap (10,000 sq.km).
In particular, he emphasized, the implementation of the recommendations made in the framework of the UNESCO-implemented project "Zoning and the Environmental Management Plan for Angkor (ZEMP)", and which defined five categories of protected zones:
i) monumental sites
ii) protected archaeological reserves
iii) protected cultural landscapes
iv) areas of archaeological, anthropological and historical interest;
v) perimeter for socio-economic and cultural development of the region of Siem-Reap.
The Minister of State also recalled that legislation concerning the protection of cultural properties had been prepared and that proposals had been submitted to the Royal Government concerning the official establishment of a management organism for Angkor (the so-called APSARA Agency). Subsequently, he reviewed all actions undertaken by donor countries in the framework of the programmes implemented under the aegis of the International Coordinating Committee for the Safeguard and the Development of the Historic site of Angkor (ICC), created by the Intergovernmental Conference of Tokyo in October 1993 and co-chaired by France and Japan. Finally, after having warmly thanked UNESCO and its Director-General, the members of the ICC and their co-chairs, he addressed an appeal to States Parties to the 1972 Convention concerning the Protection of the World Heritage, requesting strong and massive support to the Kingdom of Cambodia in its fights against illicit traffic of cultural heritage.
Following this presentation, for which the Chairperson warmly thanked the Representative of the Royal Government of Cambodia, the Committee took note of the Report of Activities for 1994 established by the ICC Secretariat and presented by Mr A. Beschaouch.
Action by the Committee: The Committee adopted the following Declaration:
Having taken note of the huge efforts undertaken by the Cambodian authorities despite the difficult conditions prevailing in the country, the Committee congratulated the the Royal Government of Cambodia for so far responding to the recommendations of the sixteenth session of the Committee. On the one hand, the Committee congratulated the International Coordinating Committee for Angkor, co-chaired by France and Japan, and on the other, UNESCO, which provides the Secretariat for this Committee, for the successful mobilization of a vast network of international aid for the safeguarding action and for devising the conceptual framework linking archaeological conservation as an integral process in the promotion of sustainable development of the Angkor-Siem Reap region, as exemplified by the UNESCO-implemented project "Zoning and Environmental Management Plan for Angkor (ZEMP)".
The Committee urged the Royal Government of Cambodia and its National Assembly to vote without delay the legislation concerning the protection of cultural properties. The Committee also requested the Royal Government of Cambodia to approve the creation of a management organism to enforce the application of the national legislation and regulations concerning the protection of Angkor in view of its status as a World Heritage property. The above-mentioned legislative texts and the statutes of the management organism for Angkor will be presented to the nineteenth session of the Committee for information purposes, together with cartographic data indicating the permanent boundaries of the Angkor World Heritage area and its buffer zone.
The Committee may wish to adopt the following:
The Committee, having noted the tremendous efforts made by the Cambodian authorities in spite of the difficult conditions of the country, commends the Royal Cambodian Government for the achievements to date in meeting the recommendations of the sixteenth Session of the Committee. The Committee also applauds UNESCO for its success in mobilizing wide international support for the safeguarding effort and for devising the conceptual framework linking archaeological conservation as an integral process in the promotion of sustainable development of the Angkor-Siem Reap region, as exemplified by the UNESCO-executed project, Zoning and Environmental Management Plan for Angkor (ZEMP).
The Committee urges the Royal Cambodian Government and its National Assembly to enact the laws on the protection of cultural property and protected areas scheme as soon as possible. The Committee further requests the Royal Cambodian Government to establish a management body to ensure the implementation of national legislations and regulations relevant to the protection of Angkor as a World Heritage Site. The texts of the above mentioned laws and the statute of the Angkor management body should be submitted to the nineteenth session of the Committee, together with the cartographic data indicating the permanent boundaries of the Angkor World Heritage area and its buffer zone.
View inscribed site documents, nomination file, reports, decisions, ...
SOC Reports2010 2008 2006 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993
Detailed List of SOC reports
Urgent problems of conservation
Inscription on the Danger ListYear: 1992 -2004
Threats to the Site:
Given the unique situation in Cambodia, which, in accordance with the Paris Accords, has been placed under the temporary administration of the United Nations since July 1991, and in order to deal with the urgent problems of conservation quickly and effectively, the Committee has inscribed the site of Angkor on the List of World Heritage in Danger, and has requested, on the recommendation of ICOMOS, that the authorities concerned take the necessary steps to meet the following conditions:
a) enact adequate protective legislation;
b) establish an adequately staffed national protection agency;
c) establish permanent boundaries based on the UNDP project;
d) define meaningful buffer zones;
e) establish monitoring and coordination of the international conservation effort.
The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).