State of Conservation
Factors affecting the property in 1994*
- Human resources
- Legal framework
- Management systems/ management plan
- Other Threats:
Urgent problems of conservation
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
- Inadequate protective legislation;
- Inadequately staffed national protection agency;
- No permanent boundaries established and defined buffer zones;
- Need for monitoring and coordination of the international conservation effort
International Assistance: requests for the property until 1994
Requests approved: 3
Total amount approved : 85,000 USD
|1994||Consolidation of the Pre Rupt monument in Angkor (Approved)||50,000 USD|
|1993||Financial contribution for the installation of an alarm system at ... (Approved)||20,000 USD|
|1992||Mission to prepare a Tentative List and a nomination dossier for ... (Approved)||15,000 USD|
Missions to the property until 1994**
Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 1994
At its eighteenth session, the Bureau applauded the progress made by the Royal Government of Cambodia in meeting the requests made by the Committee at its sixteenth session when Angkor was inscribed on the World Heritage List and List of World Heritage in Danger:
The UNESCO-executed project Zoning and the Environmental Management Plan for Angkor (ZEMP), served as the basis of the definition of four categories of protected zones, (i) monumental sites, (ii) protected archaeological reserves, (iii) protected cultural landscapes, (iv) archaeological, anthropological and historic areas of interest.
At the time of writing, approval by the National Assembly of the legislation on protected areas and their categories was still pending, although a Decree had been issued in May 1994.
Confirmation on the official establishment of a management agency for Angkor, APSARA, and copy of its statutes were also awaited.
A mission of a UNESCO legal consultant to assist the National Assembly in reviewing legislations on the protection of cultural property is scheduled to take place in October 1994.
The UNESCO Secretariat assisted the Cambodian authorities in the preparation of an emergency project for the consolidation ar of the fragile brick monument of Pre Rup in Angkor. Financial assistance of US$ 50,000 was provided under the World Heritage Fund to supplement funds from the National Federation of UNESCO Associations in Japan and the Government of Italy.
Decisions adopted by the Committee in 1994
SOC: Angkor (Cambodia)
The Committee noted that at its eighteenth session, the Bureau expressed satisfaction with the progress accomplished by the Royal Cambodian Government in response to the requests formulated by the Committee at its sixteenth session, when Angkor was inscribed on the World Heritage List and List of World Heritage in Danger.
At the invitation of UNESCO and at the request of the Chairperson of the Committee, the Minister of State of the Kingdom of Cambodia, H.E. Mr Vann Molyvann, made a presentation to Committee members, highlighting the main tasks undertaken by the Royal Government to ensure the safeguarding of Angkor (401 sq.km.) and the development of its historical, archaeological and anthropological heritage, in the region of Siem Reap (10,000 sq.km).
In particular, he emphasized, the implementation of the recommendations made in the framework of the UNESCO-implemented project "Zoning and the Environmental Management Plan for Angkor (ZEMP)", and which defined five categories of protected zones:
i) monumental sites
ii) protected archaeological reserves
iii) protected cultural landscapes
iv) areas of archaeological, anthropological and historical interest;
v) perimeter for socio-economic and cultural development of the region of Siem-Reap.
The Minister of State also recalled that legislation concerning the protection of cultural properties had been prepared and that proposals had been submitted to the Royal Government concerning the official establishment of a management organism for Angkor (the so-called APSARA Agency). Subsequently, he reviewed all actions undertaken by donor countries in the framework of the programmes implemented under the aegis of the International Coordinating Committee for the Safeguard and the Development of the Historic site of Angkor (ICC), created by the Intergovernmental Conference of Tokyo in October 1993 and co-chaired by France and Japan. Finally, after having warmly thanked UNESCO and its Director-General, the members of the ICC and their co-chairs, he addressed an appeal to States Parties to the 1972 Convention concerning the Protection of the World Heritage, requesting strong and massive support to the Kingdom of Cambodia in its fights against illicit traffic of cultural heritage.
Following this presentation, for which the Chairperson warmly thanked the Representative of the Royal Government of Cambodia, the Committee took note of the Report of Activities for 1994 established by the ICC Secretariat and presented by Mr A. Beschaouch.
Action by the Committee: The Committee adopted the following Declaration:
Having taken note of the huge efforts undertaken by the Cambodian authorities despite the difficult conditions prevailing in the country, the Committee congratulated the the Royal Government of Cambodia for so far responding to the recommendations of the sixteenth session of the Committee. On the one hand, the Committee congratulated the International Coordinating Committee for Angkor, co-chaired by France and Japan, and on the other, UNESCO, which provides the Secretariat for this Committee, for the successful mobilization of a vast network of international aid for the safeguarding action and for devising the conceptual framework linking archaeological conservation as an integral process in the promotion of sustainable development of the Angkor-Siem Reap region, as exemplified by the UNESCO-implemented project "Zoning and Environmental Management Plan for Angkor (ZEMP)".
The Committee urged the Royal Government of Cambodia and its National Assembly to vote without delay the legislation concerning the protection of cultural properties. The Committee also requested the Royal Government of Cambodia to approve the creation of a management organism to enforce the application of the national legislation and regulations concerning the protection of Angkor in view of its status as a World Heritage property. The above-mentioned legislative texts and the statutes of the management organism for Angkor will be presented to the nineteenth session of the Committee for information purposes, together with cartographic data indicating the permanent boundaries of the Angkor World Heritage area and its buffer zone.
Mr. Mounir Bouchenaki, Director of the Division of Physical Heritage, recalled the recommendations made by the Committee at the time of the inscription of the Angkor site on the World Heritage List in December 1992, and informed the Bureau of the latest action taken by the Director-General of UNESCO for the safeguard of Angkor. The Director-General decided to give additional support to the UNESCO Office in Cambodia, by assigning Mr. Khamliène Nhouyvanisvong, former Acting Assistant Director-General for External Relations, to the post of Director of this Office, and also naming him Personal Representative of the Director-General. Mr. Richard Engelhardt was called upon to undertake new functions at UNESCO's Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific in Bangkok, as Regional Advisor for Culture. Mr. Bouchenaki also informed the Bureau of the nomination of Mr. Azedine Beschaouch to the post of Special Advisor to the Assistant Director-General for Culture. However, Mr. Beschaouch will continue to monitor the technical work for the safeguard of Angkor in his capacity of Special Representative of the Director-General.
Mrs. Minja Yang, who is responsible for the intersectoral programmes for Cambodia and Chief of the Angkor Unit, was invited to present the latest developments of the Zoning and Environmental Management Plan (ZEMP). Mrs. Yang defined the categories for the protection of the cultural sites which serve as a basis for establishing the different zones at Angkor: i) monumental sites; ii) protected archaeological reserves; iii) protected cultural landscapes; iv) archaeological, anthropological and historical points of interest. She stressed the importance of taking into consideration the sociological, touristic and economic aspects, with a view to integrated sustainable development in the region of Angkor.
As complementary information on the zoning of the Angkor site, Mr. Beschaouch presented the conclusions of his recent mission to Cambodia. He stressed the fact that the International Coordinating Committee for the Safeguarding and Development of Angkor, which had been created during the Intergovernmental Conference of Tokyo, and is co-chaired by France and Japan with UNESCO ensuring the secretariat, had strictly observed the recommendations of the World Heritage Committee. In this regard, on the basis of proposals made by the "ZEMP", the Royal Government of Cambodia, by a decree dated 4 June 1944 relating especially to the zoning and management of the Angkor site, defined a zone of safeguard, the total area of which (including Angkor, Banteay Srei and Roluos) covers an area of 401 squarekilometers. Mr. Beschaouch added that, during the next parliamentary session of the Kingdom of Cambodia, two legislative texts relating to the protection of cultural property and the administration of the Angkor site should be submitted for examination to the National Assembly. He stressed the exemplary effort of the Kingdom of Cambodia to set up a legal, legislative, technical and administrative structure for the integrated safeguarding of the site of Angkor.
Following this report, the Representative of ICOMOS expressed satisfaction with the action undertaken during the last eighteen months for the safeguarding of the site of Angkor and congratulated the UNESCO Secretariat for its work. The Delegate of Thailand proposed that a letter of congratulations be sent to the Royal Government of Cambodia. The Delegate of Senegal, after congratulating Mr. Beschaouch for his nomination at UNESCO, endorsed that initiative.
The Bureau approved this proposal.
As complementary information, Mr. Beschaouch stressed the volume and quality of the work undertaken by the French and Japanese teams at Angkor. He indicated that the "WMF" had proposed, in agreement with the Royal Government of Cambodia, to develop and diversify its action. Finally, as concerns the database produced with the "Integraph" software in the framework of the "GIS" programme, he drew attention to the interest in converting this data to the "SPANS" base, thanks especially to the collaboration of "Parks Canada".
The Committee may wish to adopt the following:
The Committee, having noted the tremendous efforts made by the Cambodian authorities in spite of the difficult conditions of the country, commends the Royal Cambodian Government for the achievements to date in meeting the recommendations of the sixteenth Session of the Committee. The Committee also applauds UNESCO for its success in mobilizing wide international support for the safeguarding effort and for devising the conceptual framework linking archaeological conservation as an integral process in the promotion of sustainable development of the Angkor-Siem Reap region, as exemplified by the UNESCO-executed project, Zoning and Environmental Management Plan for Angkor (ZEMP).
The Committee urges the Royal Cambodian Government and its National Assembly to enact the laws on the protection of cultural property and protected areas scheme as soon as possible. The Committee further requests the Royal Cambodian Government to establish a management body to ensure the implementation of national legislations and regulations relevant to the protection of Angkor as a World Heritage Site. The texts of the above mentioned laws and the statute of the Angkor management body should be submitted to the nineteenth session of the Committee, together with the cartographic data indicating the permanent boundaries of the Angkor World Heritage area and its buffer zone.
The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).