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Persepolis

Persepolis

Founded by Darius I in 518 B.C., Persepolis was the capital of the Achaemenid Empire. It was built on an immense half-artificial, half-natural terrace, where the king of kings created an impressive palace complex inspired by Mesopotamian models. The importance and quality of the monumental ruins make it a unique archaeological site.

Persépolis

Fondée par Darius Ier en 518 av. J.-C., Persépolis, capitale de l'Empire achéménide, fut construite sur une immense terrasse mi-naturelle, mi-artificielle où le roi des rois avait édifié un splendide palais aux proportions imposantes, inspiré de modèles mésopotamiens. C'est un site archéologique unique par l'importance et la qualité de ses vestiges monumentaux.

بيرسبوليس

إنها عاصمة الامبراطورية الأخيمينية، أنشأها داريوس الأول في العام 518 ق.م. وقد بنيت على مصطبة عملاقة نصف طبيعية ونصف اصطناعية كان ملك الملوك قد شيّد عليها قصرًا رائعًا بقياسات ضخمة ومستوحى من نماذج خاصة ببلاد ما بين النهرين. إنه موقع أثريّ فريد من حيث أهمية بقايا النصب الأثرية ونوعيتها.

source: UNESCO/ERI

波斯波利斯

波斯波利斯是古代阿契美尼德帝国的首都,兴建于公元前518年。在美索不达米亚诸都城的启发下,大流士一世在一块儿无垠的半人工半天然台地上修建了一座拥有众多宫殿的建筑群。波斯波利斯古城遗址提供了许多关于古代波斯文明的珍贵资料,具有重要的考古价值。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Древний город Персеполь

Основанный Дарием I в 518 г. до н.э., Персеполь являлся столицей империи Ахеменидов. Он был сооружен на огромной террасе, наполовину искусственной и наполовину естественной, где «Царь царей» создал впечатляющий дворцовый комплекс, вдохновленный шедеврами архитектуры из Месопотамии. Значительные размеры и художественное качество монументальных руин делают этот комплекс уникальным археологическим объектом.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Persépolis

Capital del imperio aqueménida fundada por Darío I en el año 518 a.C., Persépolis fue construida sobre una inmensa terraza, natural y artificial a la vez, en la que el rey de reyes erigió un espléndido conjunto palacial de proporciones colosales inspirado en los modelos mesopotámicos. Este sitio arqueológico es único en su género por la cantidad y la calidad de los vestigios monumentales que posee.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ペルセポリス

source: NFUAJ

Persepolis

Persepolis werd opgericht door Darius de Grote in 518 voor Christus en was de hoofdstad van het Achaemenidische Rijk. Het is gebouwd op een enorm half kunstmatig, half natuurlijk terras, waar de koning een indrukwekkend paleiscomplex creëerde, geïnspireerd door Mesopotamische modellen. Een inscriptie in het terras bewijst dat Darius de Grote de grondlegger was van Persepolis. Er ging echter ruim een eeuw voorbij voordat Artaxerxes de Eerste de stad voltooide. De mooie, monumentale ruïnes van Persepolis liggen aan de voet van Kuh-i-Rahmat (Berg van Barmhartigheid) ongeveer 650 kilometer ten zuiden van de huidige hoofdstad Teheran.

Source: unesco.nl

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Long Description

The magnificent ruins of Persepolis lie at the foot of Kuh-i-Rahmat (Mountain of Mercy) in the plain of Marv Dasht about 650 km south of the present capital city of Teheran.

Founded by Darius I in 518 BC (although more than a century passed before it was finally completed by Artaxerxes I), Persepolis was the capital of the Achaemenid Empire. An inscription carved on the southern face of the terrace proves that Darius the Great was the founder of Persepolis.

It was built on an immense half-artificial, half-natural terrace, where the King of Kings created an impressive palace complex inspired by Mesopotamian models. Before any of the buildings could be erected, considerable work had to be done: this mainly involved cutting into an irregular and rocky mountainside in order to shape and raise the large platform and to fill the gaps and depressions with rubble. The terrace of Persepolis, with its double flight of access stairs, its walls covered by sculpted friezes at various levels, contingent Assyrianesque propylaea, the gigantic winged bulls, and the remains of large halls, is a grandiose architectural creation. The studied lightening of the roofing and the use of wooden lintels allowed the Achaemenid architects to use, in open areas, a minimum number of astonishingly slender columns. They are surmounted by typical capitals where, resting on double volutes, the forequarters of two kneeling bulls, placed back-to-back, extend their coupled necks and their twin heads, directly under the intersections of the beams of the ceiling

Persepolis was the example par excellence of the dynastic city, the symbol of the Achaemenid dynasty, which is why it was burned by the Greeks of Alexander the Great in 330. According to Plutarch, they carried away its treasures on 20,000 mules and 5,000 camels. What remains today, dominating the city, is the immense stone terrace (530 m by 330 m), half natural, half artificial, backed against the mountains.

It seems that Darius planned this impressive complex of palaces not only as the seat of government but also, and primarily, as a show place and a spectacular centre for the receptions and festivals of the Achaemenid kings and their empire. Darius lived long enough to see only a small part of his plans executed. This ensemble of majestic approaches, monumental stairways, throne rooms (Apadana), reception rooms and annex buildings is classified among the world's greatest archaeological sites, among those which have no equivalent and which bear witness of a unique quality to a most ancient civilization.

During the following centuries many people travelled to and described Persepolis and the ruins of its Achaemenid palaces. The ruins were not excavated until the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago sponsored an archaeological expedition to Persepolis and its environs under the supervision of Ernst Herzfeld from 1931 to 1934, and Erich F. Schmidt from 1934 to 1939.

On a terrace, as if on a pedestal, the Achaemid kings, Darius (522-486 BC), his son Xerxes (486-65 BC) and his grandson Artaxerxes (465-24 BC) built a splendid palatial complex: propylaea, formal halls and private apartments opening in to courts linked by staggered corridors, based on Mesopotamian forerunners. The Persepolis visible today is mostly the work of Xerxes; the northern part of the terrace, consisting mainly of the Audience Hall of the Apadana, the Throne Hall and the Gate of Xerxes, represented the official section of the Persepolis complex, accessible to a restricted public. The other part held the palaces of Darius and Xerxes, the Harem, the Council Hall and such.

As in Mesopotamia, the principal building material was sun-dried brick; yet the ashlar, mainly used for supporting elements (jambs and lintels of doorways, casings, window-breasts, bases and capitals, etc.), for monumental doorways and for vast sculpted surfaces, has happily survived the vicissitudes of time.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC