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Coro and its Port

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
Factors affecting the property in 2021*
  • Flooding
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Water (rain/water table)
  • Other Threats:

    Serious deterioration of materials and structure

Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Flooding (and water damage)
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Water (rain/water table)
  • Serious deterioration of materials and structures
  • Deterioration of the architectural and urban coherence and integrity of the property
  • Lack of adequate management, planning and conservation mechanisms
  • Absence of detailed and technical information on the state of conservation of the property since 2007
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
  • Considerable decay of materials and structures resulting from lack of comprehensive conservation and maintenance, and torrential rains in 2004, 2005 and 2010
  • Deterioration of architectural and urban coherence compromising the integrity and authenticity of the property
  • Lack of adequate and efficient management, planning and conservation mechanisms, and institutional arrangements
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger
Corrective Measures for the property
Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2021

Total amount provided: USD 20,000 (Spanish Funds-in-Trust for World Heritage) for the planning, implementation and subsequent publications of participatory workshops and meetings with artisans and civil society in Coro and La Vela

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2021
Requests approved: 0
Total amount approved : 0 USD
Missions to the property until 2021**

December 2003 and September 2006: World Heritage Centre missions to assessment of the state of conservation; July 2002, April 2005, May 2008 and February 2011: Joint World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring missions; October 2015: ICOMOS Advisory mission; July 2018: ICOMOS Advisory mission

Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2021

On 30 January 2020, the State Party submitted a state of conservation report, which is available at http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/658/documents/, providing the following information:

  • Several restoration and conservation works have been implemented, under the guidance and supervision of the management authorities, and with the participation of Community Councils and the traditional mud artisans;
  • In mid-2019, the traditional mud artisan school was reactivated and currently has a total of 40 workers. These artisans form part of the management unit of the property and remain central to many conservation works undertaken;
  • Important preliminary measures have been undertaken to improve the functionality of existing drainage infrastructure. However, the main project for an improved drainage system still does not have secured financial resources as requested from the national government necessary to begin its implementation;
  • Updated maps and descriptions for the buffer zones of Coro and La Vela were developed taking into account the heritage value of these areas;
  • A timeline is included for the development of the Management Plan, indicating that it should be finalized and approved by all concerned stakeholders by 2021;
  • A large and multi-sectoral working group will be set up to discuss the development and approval, by 2021, of the disaster risk preparedness plan (“Plan de Riesgos”);
  • In order to address the persistent issue of building abandonment, authorities aim to work towards determining legal certainty regarding land ownership and look at options to expropriate certain abandoned properties of social or public interest, with the objective of ensuring adequate conservation and use of these structures;
  • The timeline (2019-2021) for completing all corrective measures indicated in the previous state of conservation report is reaffirmed as adequate.
On 11 and 17 March 2021, the State Party submitted updated information on the continuing advances made in drainage maintenance measures and in restoration and conservation projects, including a selection of technical documents on building interventions in the World Heritage property, details of the curriculum design for the Productive Training and Self-Training project (PFAP): Traditional Construction Techniques of Earth Structures, and the general and sectoral plans of Bolivar Street in La Vela in regard to the planned intervention to the façades.
Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2021

It should be reiterated once again that future state of conservation reports prepared by the State Party must provide clear and comprehensive information about the implementation of each of the corrective measures adopted by Decision 38 COM 7A.23 to reach the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR). It is also important to note that the majority of the recommendations of the 2018 ICOMOS Advisory mission were not addressed in the State Party’s report.

The progress made by the State Party in the restoration and conservation projects underway is commendable, with a number of buildings located in Coro and La Vela having been worked on, as well as the reactivation of the traditional mud artisan school, which is an important aspect of preserving traditional know-how. In this regard, it is important to highlight the importance of using traditional materials in the conservation projects when necessary.

Regarding the property’s vulnerability to flooding and water damage, it is clear that the State Party considers this issue of critical importance and has undertaken several interim mitigation measures. Drainage maintenance measures were carried out around the Casa de las Ventanas de Hierro and the Casa del Tesoro and preventative maintenance works implemented in the creeks that receive the surface drainage in order to avoid overflows and floods in the historic centre of Coro that could affect the World Heritage property. In addition, the cleaning of sewers located in the Federation Boulevard in La Vela and the weeding of some drainage channels took place. However, the financial resources necessary to undertake the comprehensive drainage system project have not yet been secured. In the meantime, and given the resources currently available, it will be necessary for the State Party to continue with the interim measures and react promptly in situations of flooding to protect areas of high heritage value. The implementation of the larger drainage system project should, nevertheless, begin as soon as possible, in order to address structural risks posed to heritage buildings and spaces in the property. While some planning has occurred regarding rainwater management (“Plan de Lluvia Parroquia La Vela”), it will be important to advance in the development of the disaster risk preparedness plan for the property, as part of the overall management planning underway.

It remains of great concern that no outline or draft of the property’s Management Plan has been presented since 2018. As such, the overarching concept and the progress to date on this important corrective measure remains unclear. The 2018 ICOMOS Advisory mission provided important recommendations regarding the Management Plan that should be taken into account in its preparation.  

The cartography submitted to define buffer zones for Coro and La Vela is based on proposals in the 2018 mission report and will serve to inform the development of the Management Plan. On the basis of these maps, the State Party will need to submit to the World Heritage Centre a Minor Boundary Modification request for La Vela, justifying the reduction in its buffer zone, with the accompanying documentation as per Paragraphs 163-164 and Annex 11 of the Operational Guidelines, to be considered by the World Heritage Committee. For the very small modifications proposed for the Coro buffer zone, a boundary clarification is sufficient.

Although there have been remarkable efforts and commitments on the part of the authorities and community organizations to protect and promote the heritage value of the property, there has been no significant improvement to the state of the property over the past five years. While it is appreciated that the State Party affirms its commitment made in 2019 to complete all corrective measures by 2021, it is considered that significant investment in financial and human resources will be needed over the coming year to successfully meet this deadline, given the conclusions of the 2018 mission, and the information provided in the present report and its update. The report and recommendations provided by the 2018 ICOMOS Advisory mission outline the status and pending steps necessary to achieve each of the corrective measures, which should serve as a useful guide for the State Party in its future actions and reporting. Pending issues mentioned in the 2018 mission report include the strengthening of the Mixed Commission, which is coordinated by the Institute of Cultural Heritage, and clarification of the role of Con Patrimonio in relation to property, ensuring that its responsibilities do not overlap with those of the Mixed Commission, as well incorporation of professionals that are trained and experienced in the management, conservation and restoration of heritage within the Institute of Cultural Heritage in order to strengthen its role as manager of the property. Finally, taking into consideration the necessity to finalize crucial issues for the adequate conservation and management of the property, it is recommended that the Committee retain Coro and its Port on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2021
44 COM 7A.38
Coro and its Port (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of) (C 658)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/21/44.COM/7A,
  2. Recalling Decision 43 COM 7A.52, adopted at its 43rd session (Baku, 2019),
  3. Takes note with appreciation of the ongoing restoration and conservation works undertaken in the property, and the reactivation of the traditional mud artisan school that participates in these works;
  4. Appreciates the interim measures undertaken to address ongoing drainage issues in the property, given the limited resources available, and requests the State Party to begin the implementation of the larger drainage system project as soon as possible;
  5. Takes note of the cartography submitted regarding modifications to the buffer zones of the two components sites of Coro and La Vela, and also requests the State Party to submit, in accordance with Paragraphs 163-164 and Annex 11 of the Operational Guidelines, a Minor Boundary Modification for La Vela, and a boundary clarification for Coro;
  6. Takes note with concern that insufficient information was provided by the State Party regarding its progress towards addressing each of the 11 corrective measures adopted in Decision 38 COM 7A.23 to reach the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR), and reiterates its request to the State Party that its future state of conservation reports on this property provide clear and complete information on all corrective measures and follow the mandatory report format contained in Annex 13 of the Operational Guidelines;
  7. Also reiterates its request to the State Party to implement the recommendations of the 2018 ICOMOS Advisory mission report, which provide important guidance on the actions needed to respond to the complete set of corrective measures;
  8. Expresses its concern that no updated outline or draft of the property’s Management Plan has been submitted since the 2018 state of conservation report, and that the status of the document’s development remains unclear, and therefore urges the State Party to submit the draft Management Plan to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies as soon as it is available;
  9. Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2022, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 45th session;
  10. Decides to retain Coro and its Port (Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
44 COM 8C.2
Update of the List of World Heritage in Danger (Retained Properties)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC/21/44.COM/7A, WHC/21/44.COM/7A.Add, WHC/21/44.COM/7A.Add.2, WHC/21/44.COM/7A.Add.2.Add),
  2. Decides to retain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
  • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Decision 44 COM 7A.28)
  • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 44 COM 7A.29)
  • Austria, Historic Centre of Vienna (Decision 44 COM 7A.32)
  • Bolivia (Plurinational State of), City of Potosí (Decision 44 COM 7A.35)
  • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 44 COM 7A.39)
  • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 44 COM 7A.40)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Garamba National Park (Decision 44 COM 7A.41)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 44 COM 7A.42)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 44 COM 7A.43)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Virunga National Park (Decision 44 COM 7A.45)
  • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 44 COM 7A.5)
  • Honduras, Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve (Decision 44 COM 7A.55)
  • Indonesia, Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (Decision 44 COM 7A.52)
  • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 44 COM 7A.6)
  • Iraq, Hatra (Decision 44 COM 7A.7)
  • Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 44 COM 7A.8)
  • Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (site proposed by Jordan) (Decision 44 COM 7A.10)
  • Kenya, Lake Turkana National Parks (Decision 44 COM 7A.47)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Cyrene (Decision 44 COM 7A.11)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna (Decision 44 COM 7A.12)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Sabratha (Decision 44 COM 7A.13)
  • Libya, Old Town of Ghadamès (Decision 44 COM 7A.14)
  • Libya, Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus (Decision 44 COM 7A.15)
  • Madagascar, Rainforests of the Atsinanana (Decision 44 COM 7A.48)
  • Mali, Old Towns of Djenné (Decision 44 COM 7A.1)
  • Mali, Timbuktu (Decision 44 COM 7A.2)
  • Mali, Tomb of Askia (Decision 44 COM 7A.3)
  • Mexico, Islands and Protected Areas of the Gulf of California (Decision 44 COM 7B.56)
  • Micronesia (Federated States of), Nan Madol: Ceremonial Centre of Eastern Micronesia (Decision 44 COM 7A.30)
  • Niger, Aïr and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 44 COM 7A.49)
  • Palestine, Palestine: Land of Olives and Vines – Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir (Decision 44 COM 7A.17)
  • Palestine, Hebron/Al-Khalil Old Town (Decision 44 COM 7A.16)
  • Panama, Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo (Decision 44 COM 7A.36)
  • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 44 COM 7A.37)
  • Senegal, Niokolo-Koba National Park (Decision 44 COM 7A.50)
  • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 44 COM 7A.33)
  • Solomon Islands, East Rennell (Decision 44 COM 7A.53)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Aleppo (Decision 44 COM 7A.18)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Bosra (Decision 44 COM 7A.19)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Damascus (Decision 44 COM 7A.20)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient Villages of Northern Syria (Decision 44 COM 7A.21)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din (Decision 44 COM 7A.22)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Site of Palmyra (Decision 44 COM 7A.23)
  • Uganda, Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Decision 44 COM 7A.4)
  • United Republic of Tanzania, Selous Game Reserve (Decision 44 COM 7A.51)
  • United States of America, Everglades National Park (Decision 44 COM 7A.54)
  • Uzbekistan, Historic Centre of Shakhrisyabz (Decision 44 COM 7A.31)
  • Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Coro and its Port (Decision 44 COM 7A.38)
  • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 44 COM 7A.25)
  • Yemen, Old City of Sana’a (Decision 44 COM 7A.26)
  • Yemen, Old Walled City of Shibam (Decision 44 COM 7A.27).
Draft Decision: 44 COM 7A.38

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/21/44.COM/7A,
  2. Recalling Decision 43 COM 7A.52, adopted at its 43rd session (Baku, 2019),
  3. Takes note with appreciation of the ongoing restoration and conservation works undertaken in the property, and the reactivation of the traditional mud artisan school that participates in these works;
  4. Appreciates the interim measures undertaken to address ongoing drainage issues in the property, given the limited resources available, and requests the State Party to begin the implementation of the larger drainage system project as soon as possible;
  5. Takes note of the cartography submitted regarding modifications to the buffer zones of the two components sites of Coro and La Vela, and also requests the State Party to submit, in accordance with Paragraphs 163-164 and Annex 11 of the Operational Guidelines, a Minor Boundary Modification for La Vela, and a boundary clarification for Coro;
  6. Takes note with concern that insufficient information was provided by the State Party regarding its progress towards addressing each of the 11 corrective measures adopted in Decision 38 COM 7A.23 to reach the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR), and reiterates its request to the State Party that its future state of conservation reports on this property provide clear and complete information on all corrective measures and follow the mandatory report format contained in Annex 13 of the Operational Guidelines;
  7. Also reiterates its request to the State Party to implement the recommendations of the 2018 ICOMOS Advisory mission report, which provide important guidance on the actions needed to respond to the complete set of corrective measures;
  8. Expresses its concern that no updated outline or draft of the property’s Management Plan has been submitted since the 2018 state of conservation report, and that the status of the document’s development remains unclear, and therefore urges the State Party to submit the draft Management Plan to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies as soon as it is available;
  9. Further requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2022, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 45th session in 2022;
  10. Decides to retain Coro and its Port (Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Report year: 2021
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
Date of Inscription: 1993
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (iv)(v)
Danger List (dates): 2005-present
Documents examined by the Committee
SOC Report by the State Party
Report (2020) .pdf
Initialy proposed for examination in 2020
arrow_circle_right 44COM (2021)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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