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Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi

Uganda
Factors affecting the property in 2019*
  • Ground transport infrastructure
  • Management activities
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Other Threats:

    Fire

Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Destruction by fire of the Muzibu-Azaala-Mpanga 
  • Ground transport infrastructure: Proposed widening of the Masiro Road
  • Management systems/management plan: lack of a Master Plan and a complete Management Plan with detailed disaster risk management plan and a tourism management plan
  • Management activities: Management structure
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger

Fire that resulted in the destruction of part of the property

Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger

Adopted, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/4351

Corrective Measures for the property

Adopted, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/4351 

Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures
Adopted, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/4351
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2019

Total amount granted: 2011-2012: USD 68,365 from the Japanese Funds-in-Trust for an Expert Appraisal Mission; 2013-2016 and 2019-2020: USD 650,000 from the Japanese Funds-in-Trust for the project: Technical and financial assistance for the reconstruction of Muzibu-Azaala-Mpanga, architectural masterpiece of the Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi, Uganda, World Heritage property in Danger. 2017: 4,300 USD from the World Heritage Fund for ICOMOS advisory consultancy for the finalization of the elaboration of the Master Plan

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2019
Requests approved: 4 (from 1998-2018)
Total amount approved : 135,363 USD
Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2019

On 30 January 2019, the State Party submitted a state of conservation report, which is available at https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1022/documents/.

The report addresses actions undertaken to halt the further deterioration of the Bujjabukula (Gate House) by removing its thatch layer, which also facilitated research on the structure to develop a stabilisation and restoration plan. International Assistance funds, approved in May 2018, allowed these activities to commence in November 2018. The restoration of the Bujjabukula is being undertaken in parallel with the completion of the reconstruction of the Mazibu Azaala Mpanga, which remains in process, following an updated timeline. The design of the firefighting system has been modified to reduce its visual presence on the property. The Mazibu Azaala Mpanga’s thatching should be completed by December 2019.

The State Party is collaborating with the Kampala City Authority in a multi-disciplinary and participatory project to assess the buffer zone and compose neighbourhood-scale development guidelines and reassess the development of Masiro and Hoima roads. This activity will be funded from July 2019 into 2020. The Master Plan for the property has been completed and the Disaster Risk Management Plan has been modified in response to comments from the World Heritage Centre and Advisory Bodies and integrated into the Master Plan. The Master Plan will be implemented over a period of ten years. The management of the property has reportedly improved after the Buganda Heritage and Tourism Board assumed its co-supervision in collaboration with the traditional custodians. The National Technical Committee (constituted as a temporary organ to oversee the reconstruction of the Mazibu Azaala Mpanga) has been given a permanent long-term oversight advisory role for the property. 

The final Master Plan, a progress report on the World Heritage International Assistance project “Restoration of the Bujjabukula (Gate House) at the Kasubi Royal Tombs of Buganda Kings”, and a reconstruction timeline for the Mazibu Azaala Mpanga were annexed to the State Party’s report. The Master Plan includes a timeframe to reach the Desired state of conservation for removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR) in 2028. The annexed document outlining the process on the Bujjabukula stabilization includes the communication that it was unfortunately structurally damaged when it was hit by a truck.

Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2019

The State Party has continued to progress towards achieving the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR). In doing so it has actively engaged the World Heritage Centre, the UNESCO Nairobi Office and the Advisory Bodies. The State Party has drafted a Master Plan for the property with aim to achieving the DSOCR. This plan takes a long-term view to reaching the DSOCR, which is deemed to be appropriate and achievable. It should be implemented after a final technical review thereof by the Advisory Bodies.

The reconstruction of the Mazibu Azaala Mpanga is progressing. The latter was dependent upon the re-opening of the Japan Funds-in-Trust project ‘Technical and financial assistance for the reconstruction of Muzibu-Azaala-Mpanga, architectural masterpiece of the Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi, Uganda, World Heritage property in Danger’, which was approved by the donor in December 2018 and is supporting an efficient risk prevention scheme at the site with all the equipment needed as well as qualified supervision for the reconstruction of the destroyed roof.  The reopening of the UNESCO/Japan Funds-in-Trust (FIT) project, the imminent installation of infrastructure for the firefighting system as well as training in its use are welcome. Despite the modifications to the design for the firefighting system already undertaken, the details of this system – especially that of the physical infrastructure – require further clarification before installation. The final design has been submitted to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies. With the technical support offered through the Japan FIT project, the National Technical Committee should continue to work on the Disaster Risk Management Plan for the site in view of its finalization by end of 2019. The timeline for the reconstruction of the Mazibu Azaala Mpanga submitted with the State Party’s report is already out-dated and an updated work plan should be submitted to UNESCO.

The removal of the heavy grass thatch from the Bujjabukula, is welcome; the truck accident is unfortunate. The Bujjabukula remains one of the most significant structures of the property, containing a high level of material, craft and technological authenticity of great importance to the maintenance of the Outstanding Universal Value of the property. The building also plays an important ceremonial role in the living cultural traditions associated with the property. It is appreciated and highly important that the works aim to restore, and not to reconstruct it. The restoration process will be very delicate and the focus thereof should be neither speed or efficiency but the retention of as much material as possible and development and maintenance of traditional construction technologies and crafts. It is therefore welcome that the building will be thoroughly investigated and documented, including its materials, construction and fixing details, before the process of designing the restoration methodology and details can be developed. Close coordination with the World Heritage Centre, the UNESCO Field Office in Nairobi and Advisory Bodies is advised.

The development of guidelines for the buffer zone remains a priority, especially seen in the light of the existing Kampala Physical Development Plan (2012) that foresees the upgrade of Hoima Road, which is adjacent to the property boundary in the buffer zone.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2019
43 COM 7A.56
Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Uganda) (C 1022)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/19/43.COM/7A,
  2. Recalling Decision 42 COM 7A.16, adopted at its 42nd session (Manama, 2018),
  3. Acknowledges the progress that the State Party has made in responding to previous Committee decisions, as well as the progress made towards achieving the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR) to date;
  4. Appreciates the support offered by the Government of Japan through the re-opening of the Japan Funds in Trust to UNESCO project ‘Technical and financial assistance for the reconstruction of Muzibu-Azaala-Mpanga, architectural masterpiece of the Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi, Uganda, World Heritage property in Danger’, and encourages the State Party to actively implement the project, which is offering support towards risk prevention, reconstruction and documentation as well as capacity building;
  5. Requests the State Party to implement the Master Plan for the property after its final technical review by the Advisory Bodies, and continue working towards finalising development guidelines for the buffer zone of the property as well as finalising the Disaster Risk Management Plan;
  6. Welcomes the measures taken by the State Party to ensure the safeguarding of the Bujjabukula (Gate House) through an ongoing World Heritage International Assistance project, which is supporting a comprehensive restoration and capacity building as well as research and documentation of the structure, construction techniques, materials, technological and craft authenticity, and also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre:
    1. A detailed catalogue, including a detailed photographic record, of the existing materials and construction techniques with which the Bujjabukula was constructed, including its extant foundations flooring, walls, structure, ceiling and roof,
    2. A detailed restoration plan including detailed architectural drawings, restoration methodology and documentation plan, focussed on the maximum retention of authentic materials and technologies, and aimed at developing and maintaining traditional construction crafts, for review by the Advisory Bodies before implementation;
  7. Also welcomes the State Party’s submission of the improved design for the physical fire-fighting infrastructure, through funding of the Japan Funds-in-Trust to UNESCO, to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies before implementation;
  8. Further requests that the State Party amend the Kampala Physical Development Plan to align it with the property’s Master Plan and buffer zone development guidelines, once these are complete and have been reviewed by the Advisory Bodies;
  9. Also urges the State Party to continue its work on the corrective measures adopted at its 35th session (UNESCO, 2011);
  10. Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2020, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 44th session in 2020;
  11. Decides to retain the Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Uganda) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
43 COM 8C.2
Update of the List of World Heritage in Danger (Retained Properties)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC/19/43.COM/7A, WHC/19/43.COM/7A.Add, WHC/19/43.COM/7A.Add.2, WHC/19/43.COM/7A.Add.3 and WHC/19/43.COM/7A.Add.3.Corr),
  2. Decides to retain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
  • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Decision 43 COM 7A.41)
  • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision43 COM 7A.42)
  • Austria, Historic Centre of Vienna (Decision 43 COM 7A.45)
  • Bolivia (Plurinational State of), City of Potosí (Decision 43 COM 7A.48)
  • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.5)
  • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 43 COM 7A.6)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Garamba National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.7)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.8)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 43 COM 7A.9)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Salonga National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.10)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Virunga National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.11)
  • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 43 COM 7A.17)
  • Honduras, Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve (Decision 43 COM 7A.4)
  • Indonesia, Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (Decision 43 COM 7A.1)
  • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 43 COM 7A.18)
  • Iraq, Hatra (Decision 43 COM 7A.19)
  • Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 43 COM 7A.20)
  • Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (site proposed by Jordan) (Decision 43 COM 7A.22)
  • Kenya, Lake Turkana National Parks (Decision 43 COM 7A.12)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Cyrene (Decision 43 COM 7A.23)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna (Decision 43 COM 7A.24)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Sabratha (Decision 43 COM 7A.25)
  • Libya, Old Town of Ghadamès (Decision 43 COM 7A.26)
  • Libya, Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus (Decision 43 COM 7A.27)
  • Madagascar, Rainforests of the Atsinanana (Decision 43 COM 7A.13)
  • Mali, Old Towns of Djenné (Decision 43 COM 7A.53)
  • Mali, Timbuktu (Decision 43 COM 7A.54)
  • Mali, Tomb of Askia (Decision 43 COM 7A.55)
  • Micronesia (Federated States of), Nan Madol: Ceremonial Centre of Eastern Micronesia (Decision 43 COM 7A.43)
  • Niger, Aïr and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 43 COM 7A.14)
  • Palestine, Palestine: Land of Olives and Vines – Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir (Decision 43 COM 7A.30)
  • Palestine, Hebron/Al-Khalil Old Town (Decision 43 COM 7A.29)
  • Panama, Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo (Decision 43 COM 7A.50)
  • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 43 COM 7A.51)
  • Senegal, Niokolo-Koba National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.15)
  • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 43 COM 7A.46)
  • Solomon Islands, East Rennell (Decision 43 COM 7A.2)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Aleppo (Decision 43 COM 7A.31)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Bosra (Decision 43 COM 7A.32)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Damascus (Decision 43 COM 7A.33)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient Villages of Northern Syria (Decision 43 COM 7A.34)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din (Decision 43 COM 7A.35)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Site of Palmyra (Decision 43 COM 7A.36)
  • Uganda, Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Decision 43 COM 7A.56)
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City (Decision 43 COM 7A.47)
  • United Republic of Tanzania, Selous Game Reserve (Decision 43 COM 7A.16)
  • United States of America, Everglades National Park (Decision 43 COM 7A.3)
  • Uzbekistan, Historic Centre of Shakhrisyabz (Decision 43 COM 7A.44)
  • Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Coro and its Port (Decision 43 COM 7A.52)
  • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 43 COM 7A.38)
  • Yemen, Old City of Sana’a (Decision 43 COM 7A.39)
  • Yemen, Old Walled City of Shibam (Decision 43 COM 7A.40)
Draft Decision: 43 COM 7A.56

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/19/43.COM/7A,
  2. Recalling Decision 42 COM 7A.16, adopted at its 42nd session (Manama, 2018),
  3. Acknowledges the progress that the State Party has made in responding to previous Committee decisions, as well as the progress made towards achieving the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR) to date;
  4. Appreciates the support offered by the Government of Japan through the re-opening of the Japan Funds in Trust to UNESCO project ‘Technical and financial assistance for the reconstruction of Muzibu-Azaala-Mpanga, architectural masterpiece of the Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi, Uganda, World Heritage property in Danger’, and encourages the State Party to actively implement the project, which is offering support towards risk prevention, reconstruction and documentation as well as capacity building;
  5. Requests the State Party to implement the Master Plan for the property after its final technical review by the Advisory Bodies, and continue working towards finalising development guidelines for the buffer zone of the property as well as finalising the Disaster Risk Management Plan;
  6. Welcomes the measures taken by the State Party to ensure the safeguarding of the Bujjabukula (Gate House) through an ongoing World Heritage International Assistance project, which is supporting a comprehensive restoration and capacity building as well as research and documentation of the structure, construction techniques, materials, technological and craft authenticity, and also requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre:
    1. A detailed catalogue, including a detailed photographic record, of the existing materials and construction techniques with which the Bujjabukula was constructed, including its extant foundations flooring, walls, structure, ceiling and roof,
    2. A detailed restoration plan including detailed architectural drawings, restoration methodology and documentation plan, focussed on the maximum retention of authentic materials and technologies, and aimed at developing and maintaining traditional construction crafts, for review by the Advisory Bodies before implementation;
  7. Also welcomes the State Party’s submission of the improved design for the physical fire-fighting infrastructure, through funding of the Japan Funds-in-Trust to UNESCO, to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies before implementation;
  8. Further requests that the State Party amend the Kampala Physical Development Plan to align it with the property’s Master Plan and buffer zone development guidelines, once these are complete and have been reviewed by the Advisory Bodies;
  9. Also urges the State Party to continue its work on the corrective measures adopted at its 35th session (UNESCO, 2011);
  10. Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2020, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 44th session in 2020;
  11. Decides to retain the Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Uganda) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Report year: 2019
Uganda
Date of Inscription: 2001
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (i)(iii)(iv)(vi)
Danger List (dates): 2010-present
Documents examined by the Committee
SOC Report by the State Party
Report (2019) .pdf
arrow_circle_right 43COM (2019)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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