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Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi

Uganda
Factors affecting the property in 2021*
  • Ground transport infrastructure
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Other Threats:

    Fire

Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Destruction by fire of the Muzibu-Azaala-Mpanga
  • Ground transport infrastructure: Proposed widening of the Masiro Road
  • Management systems/management plan: lack of a Master Plan and a complete Management Plan with detailed disaster risk management plan and a tourism management plan
  • Management activities: Management structure (issue resolved)
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger

Fire that resulted in the destruction of part of the property

Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger

Adopted, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/4351

Corrective Measures for the property

Adopted, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/4351 

Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures

Adopted in 2011 and revised in 2017 - see pages https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/4351 and https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/6977

UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2021

Total amount granted: USD 2011-2012: 68,365 from the Japanese Funds-in-Trust for an Expert Appraisal Mission; 2013-2016 and 2019-2020: USD 650,000 from the Japanese Funds-in-Trust for the project: Technical and financial assistance for the reconstruction of Muzibu-Azaala-Mpanga, architectural masterpiece of the Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi, Uganda, World Heritage property in Danger. 2017: USD 4,300 from the World Heritage Fund for ICOMOS advisory consultancy for the finalization of the elaboration of the Master Plan; USD 75,000 from Emergency assistance for installation of fire-fighting equipment, USD 30,000 from the Heritage Emergency Fund, USD 100,000 in 2021-2022 through UNESCO/Government of Norway cooperation

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2021
Requests approved: 5 (from 1998-2020)
Total amount approved : 210,363 USD
Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2021

On 6 February 2020, the State Party submitted a state of conservation report, which is available at https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1022/documents/ and reports progress in a number of conservation issues addressed by the Committee at its previous sessions, as follows:

  • Some of the corrective measures towards achieving the adopted Desired state of conservation for removal from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR) are reported, as follows:
    • Completion of appropriate reconstruction of the Mazibu-Azaala-Mpanga: The reconstruction is progressing, with the laying of the final thatch roofing layer ready to commence,
    • Adoption of an overall Master Plan for the property: The draft Master Plan 2018-2028 for the property has been completed and has been submitted to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies,
    • Existence of a disaster risk management strategy, including installation of an effective fire protection system for the whole of the property: This strategy was developed by the State Party in collaboration with the World Heritage Centre and reworked after review by the Advisory Bodies. Support from the Japan Funds-in-Trust (JFIT) for the installation of firefighting equipment will allow the infrastructure installation to be completed;
  • The State Party (at time of submission) expected to be able to develop an updated timeline for reaching the DSOCR by December 2020. But due to the COVID-19 situation, the timeline was extended to December 2021;
  • Development guidelines for the property’s buffer zone are being elaborated despite some challenges and through a phased multi-stakeholder process, which includes public consultation. The State Party expected this process to have been completed by October 2020, after which the Kampala Capital City Authority planning instruments would need to be amended to accommodate the guidelines;
  • Detailed documentation of the Bujjabukala (gate house) building–including documentation of on-site investigations, as well as detailed architectural drawings for its restoration–was annexed to the State Party’s report. The report also includes decision-making protocols for the restoration process. The building has been stabilized and protected against further weather-induced decay.

In addition, the State Party informed the World Heritage Centre that a fire at the property on 5 June 2020 destroyed the “Enyumba za Balongo”, one of the three spiritual houses in the courtyard. On 23 June, the State Party submitted a short report of the incidence to the World Heritage Centre, which informed that a detailed report will be shared after the full investigation by the local authorities.

Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2021

The State Party has actively engaged the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in the process of implementing the corrective measures to achieve the DSOCR. These ongoing engagements have been greatly beneficial to the property, as described below.

The reconstruction of the Mazibu-Azaala-Mpanga is reaching its final stages. The State Party should look towards augmenting the surviving collection of power insignia that were recovered from the building following the fire of 2010.

The Master Plan for the property was developed through repeat meetings and submission and review of material. The Master Plan, which has already been adopted by the Kampala Capital City Authority, should now be implemented.

The detailed documentation submitted by the State Party on the Bujjabukala provides a solid basis for decision-making on the restoration of this important building and has informed the detailed architectural drawings submitted. An ICOMOS Technical Review and further discussions between the State Party, the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies concluded that the State Party should further develop the proposal and submit further details for review.

Elaborating development guidelines for the buffer zone of the property is a complex and expensive task involving many stakeholders and fields of expertise. A crucial aspect that the State Party is already addressing is public engagement. It is recommended that the Committee encourage the State Party to invite the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies to collaborate in this process, guided by the approach carried by the Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape (2011). Final details of infrastructure upgrades, especially transport infrastructure, in the buffer zone of the property remain outstanding. The financial assistance through the UNESCO/Government of Norway cooperation provides timely support to the State Party to tackle this challenge.

The completion of the fire-fighting installation is critical to help safeguard the reconstructed structure and other structures in the property. The fire of 5 May 2020 could be contained and damage limited to one structure. The State Party is working with the local authorities and police to determine the source of the fire. The World Heritage Centre, the UNESCO Regional Office in East Africa and the State Party have developed emergency measures to protect the property from another fire disaster. Following a series of Technical Reviews by ICOMOS, final agreement on the details of the permanent system, except for the location and design of a fire station, was reached with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in January 2021.

The State Party is well on its way to completing the corrective measures and achieving the DSOCR. Some aspects, such as the reinstatement of fences and boundary trees, can be achieved within the short term, but proving that measures are in place to ensure the vitality of the property is sustained through the transfer of knowledge to future generations may take longer. In collaboration with the UNESCO Regional Office for East Africa, the State Party developed a matrix indicating progress made on the implementation of the corrective measures, which was submitted to the World Heritage Centre in April 2018. This matrix should be updated and submitted to the World Heritage Centre, indicating progress made, outstanding issues and a work plan towards achieving the DSOCR.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2021
44 COM 7A.4
Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Uganda) (C 1022)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/21/44.COM/7A,
  2. Recalling Decision 43 COM 7A.56, adopted at its 43rd session (Baku, 2019),
  3. Acknowledges the State Party’s continued engagement of the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in developing instruments and approaches to safeguarding the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property;
  4. Thanks the Governments of the Norway and Japan for their financial support to the property;
  5. Welcomes the continued progress that the State Party has made in responding to previous Committee decisions, in the reconstruction of the Mazibu-Azaala-Mpanga and the restoration of the Bujjabukala (gate house), as well as towards achieving the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR) to date;
  6. Expresses its solidarity with the State Party for the fire that occurred at the property on 5 May 2020, and notes with concern the damage caused to the “Enyumba za Balongo”, one of the three deity houses at the property;
  7. Also notes the State Party’s commitment to developing development guidelines for the property’s buffer zone, and recommends the State Party to engage with the World Heritage Centre and Advisory Bodies in this process, guided by the approach carried by the Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape (2011), as well as encourages the State Party to mobilize funds (through International Assistance for example) to facilitate the activity and submit the completed guidelines to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  8. Requests the State Party to implement the Master Plan and amend the Kampala Physical Development Plan to align it with the property’s Master Plan and buffer zone development guidelines, once the latter have been completed and reviewed by the Advisory Bodies;
  9. Also requests the State Party to:
    1. Complete the reconstruction of the Mazibu-Azaala-Mpanga and consider augmenting the surviving collection of power insignia that was recovered from the building following the fire of 2010,
    2. Submit further details for the restoration project of the Bujjabukala (gate house), for review by the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, specifically on details that have not yet been agreed to, especially relating to the roof pitch, introduction of contemporary technologies and infrastructure in the structure,
    3. Install with urgency the firefighting infrastructure for the Mazibu-Azaala-Mpanga and its ceremonial courtyard and buildings for which agreement has already been reached with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, and also develop proposals to extend the firefighting infrastructure to include buildings beyond the court yard around the Mazibu-Azaala-Mpanga, and submit these proposals to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies,
    4. Submit final details of the development guidelines for the buffer zone along with all infrastructure upgrade projects, including transport infrastructure, planned for the buffer zone of the property to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  10. Further requests the State Party to submit an update of the matrix with a timeframe and work plan for the implementation of the corrective measures to achieve the DSOCR to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  11. Requests furthermore the State Party to invite a World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission to the property to review the current state of conservation and evaluate whether the conditions for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger have been met;
  12. Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2022, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 45th session;
Decides to retain Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Uganda) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
44 COM 8C.2
Update of the List of World Heritage in Danger (Retained Properties)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC/21/44.COM/7A, WHC/21/44.COM/7A.Add, WHC/21/44.COM/7A.Add.2, WHC/21/44.COM/7A.Add.2.Add),
  2. Decides to retain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
  • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Decision 44 COM 7A.28)
  • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 44 COM 7A.29)
  • Austria, Historic Centre of Vienna (Decision 44 COM 7A.32)
  • Bolivia (Plurinational State of), City of Potosí (Decision 44 COM 7A.35)
  • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 44 COM 7A.39)
  • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 44 COM 7A.40)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Garamba National Park (Decision 44 COM 7A.41)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 44 COM 7A.42)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 44 COM 7A.43)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Virunga National Park (Decision 44 COM 7A.45)
  • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 44 COM 7A.5)
  • Honduras, Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve (Decision 44 COM 7A.55)
  • Indonesia, Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (Decision 44 COM 7A.52)
  • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 44 COM 7A.6)
  • Iraq, Hatra (Decision 44 COM 7A.7)
  • Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 44 COM 7A.8)
  • Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (site proposed by Jordan) (Decision 44 COM 7A.10)
  • Kenya, Lake Turkana National Parks (Decision 44 COM 7A.47)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Cyrene (Decision 44 COM 7A.11)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna (Decision 44 COM 7A.12)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Sabratha (Decision 44 COM 7A.13)
  • Libya, Old Town of Ghadamès (Decision 44 COM 7A.14)
  • Libya, Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus (Decision 44 COM 7A.15)
  • Madagascar, Rainforests of the Atsinanana (Decision 44 COM 7A.48)
  • Mali, Old Towns of Djenné (Decision 44 COM 7A.1)
  • Mali, Timbuktu (Decision 44 COM 7A.2)
  • Mali, Tomb of Askia (Decision 44 COM 7A.3)
  • Mexico, Islands and Protected Areas of the Gulf of California (Decision 44 COM 7B.56)
  • Micronesia (Federated States of), Nan Madol: Ceremonial Centre of Eastern Micronesia (Decision 44 COM 7A.30)
  • Niger, Aïr and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 44 COM 7A.49)
  • Palestine, Palestine: Land of Olives and Vines – Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir (Decision 44 COM 7A.17)
  • Palestine, Hebron/Al-Khalil Old Town (Decision 44 COM 7A.16)
  • Panama, Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo (Decision 44 COM 7A.36)
  • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 44 COM 7A.37)
  • Senegal, Niokolo-Koba National Park (Decision 44 COM 7A.50)
  • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 44 COM 7A.33)
  • Solomon Islands, East Rennell (Decision 44 COM 7A.53)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Aleppo (Decision 44 COM 7A.18)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Bosra (Decision 44 COM 7A.19)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Damascus (Decision 44 COM 7A.20)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient Villages of Northern Syria (Decision 44 COM 7A.21)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din (Decision 44 COM 7A.22)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Site of Palmyra (Decision 44 COM 7A.23)
  • Uganda, Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Decision 44 COM 7A.4)
  • United Republic of Tanzania, Selous Game Reserve (Decision 44 COM 7A.51)
  • United States of America, Everglades National Park (Decision 44 COM 7A.54)
  • Uzbekistan, Historic Centre of Shakhrisyabz (Decision 44 COM 7A.31)
  • Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Coro and its Port (Decision 44 COM 7A.38)
  • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 44 COM 7A.25)
  • Yemen, Old City of Sana’a (Decision 44 COM 7A.26)
  • Yemen, Old Walled City of Shibam (Decision 44 COM 7A.27).
Draft Decision: 44 COM 7A.4

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/21/44.COM/7A,
  2. Recalling Decision 43 COM 7A.56, adopted at its 43rd session (Baku, 2019),
  3. Acknowledges the State Party’s continued engagement of the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in developing instruments and approaches to safeguarding the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property;
  4. Thanks the Governments of the Norway and Japan for their financial support to the property;
  5. Welcomes the continued progress that the State Party has made in responding to previous Committee decisions, in the reconstruction of the Mazibu-Azaala-Mpanga and the restoration of the Bujjabukala (gate house), as well as towards achieving the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR) to date;
  6. Expresses its solidarity with the State Party for the fire that occurred at the property on 5 May 2020, and notes with concern the damage caused to the “Enyumba za Balongo”, one of the three deity houses at the property;
  7. Also notes the State Party’s commitment to developing development guidelines for the property’s buffer zone, and recommends the State Party to engage with the World Heritage Centre and Advisory Bodies in this process, guided by the approach carried by the Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape (2011), as well as encourages the State Party to mobilize funds (through International Assistance for example) to facilitate the activity and submit the completed guidelines to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  8. Requests the State Party to implement the Master Plan and amend the Kampala Physical Development Plan to align it with the property’s Master Plan and buffer zone development guidelines, once the latter have been completed and reviewed by the Advisory Bodies;
  9. Also requests the State Party to:
    1. Complete the reconstruction of the Mazibu-Azaala-Mpanga and consider augmenting the surviving collection of power insignia that was recovered from the building following the fire of 2010,
    2. Submit further details for the restoration project of the Bujjabukala (gate house), for review by the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, specifically on details that have not yet been agreed to, especially relating to the roof pitch, introduction of contemporary technologies and infrastructure in the structure,
    3. Install with urgency the firefighting infrastructure for the Mazibu-Azaala-Mpanga and its ceremonial courtyard and buildings for which agreement has already been reached with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, and also develop proposals to extend the firefighting infrastructure to include buildings beyond the court yard around the Mazibu-Azaala-Mpanga, and submit these proposals to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies,
    4. Submit final details of the development guidelines for the buffer zone along with all infrastructure upgrade projects, including transport infrastructure, planned for the buffer zone of the property to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  10. Further requests the State Party to submit an update of the matrix with a timeframe and work plan for the implementation of the corrective measures to achieve the DSOCR to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies;
  11. Requests furthermore the State Party to invite a World Heritage Centre/ICOMOS reactive monitoring mission to the property to review the current state of conservation and evaluate whether the conditions for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger have been met;
  12. Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2022, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 45th session in 2022;
  13. Decides to retain Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Uganda) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

    Report year: 2021
    Uganda
    Date of Inscription: 2001
    Category: Cultural
    Criteria: (i)(iii)(iv)(vi)
    Danger List (dates): 2010-present
    Documents examined by the Committee
    SOC Report by the State Party
    Report (2020) .pdf
    Initialy proposed for examination in 2020
    arrow_circle_right 44COM (2021)
    Exports

    * : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
    Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

    ** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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