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Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi

Uganda
Factors affecting the property in 2018*
  • Ground transport infrastructure
  • Management activities
  • Management systems/ management plan
  • Other Threats:

    Fire

Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Destruction by fire of the Muzibu-Azaala-Mpanga 
  • Ground transport infrastructure: Proposed widening of the Masiro Road
  • Management systems/management plan: lack of a Master Plan and a complete Management Plan with detailed disaster risk management plan and a tourism management plan
  • Management activities: Management structure
Threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger

Fire that resulted in the destruction of part of the property

Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger

Adopted, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/4351

Corrective Measures for the property

Adopted, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/4351 

Timeframe for the implementation of the corrective measures
Adopted, see page https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/4351
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds until 2018

Total amount granted: 2011-2012: USD 68,365 from the Japanese FIT for an Expert Appraisal Mission; 2013-2016 (project on hold pending completion of the Master Plan): USD 650,000 from the Japanese FIT for the project: Technical and financial assistance for the reconstruction of Muzibu-Azaala-Mpanga, architectural masterpiece of the Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi, Uganda, World Heritage property in Danger; 2017: USD 5,400 from the World Heritage Fund for ICOMOS Advisory consultancy for the finalization of the elaboration of the Master Plan

International Assistance: requests for the property until 2018
Requests approved: 4 (from 1998-2018)
Total amount approved : 135,363 USD
Conservation issues presented to the World Heritage Committee in 2018

On 28 February 2018, the State Party submitted a report on the state of conservation of the property, which is available at http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1022/documents/ and reports the following:

  • The reconstruction of Muzibu-Azaala-Mpanga (main tomb building) has progressed, with the ceiling installation underway. The reconstruction process is on track according to the timeline submitted with the State Party’s 2017 state of conservation report. Critical to this process is the implementation of the firefighting installation, which is dependent on the Japanese Funds-in-Trust (JFiT) extrabudgetary project funding being released;
  • The preparation of the disaster risk management plan is in process. The fire prevention installation design was adapted after review by the Advisory Bodies and awaits the approval of the Master Plan and the releasing of the JFiT extrabudgetary funds before it can be implemented;
  • A Master Plan (2018-2028) is under development by the State Party in cooperation with the Buganda Kingdom, the Kampala Capital City Authority (KCCA), the tomb custodians, the neighbourhood community, and Makerere University researchers. The development of the plan has advanced under the guidance of the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies. The draft plan encompasses various components: a reconstruction, restoration and recovery plan, disaster and risk management plan, tourism and education plan, custodian needs and the physical development of the property. In anticipation of the plan and in line with Decision 41 COM 7A.31, all new developments, except the reconstruction of the Muzibu-Azaala-Mpanga, have been halted;
  • The State Party has submitted an organizational chart presenting the amended management structure, including the newly-constituted Buganda Heritage Tourism Board. The temporary National Technical Committee, convened to oversee the reconstruction of the Muzibu-Azaala-Mpanga, has become a permanent management team and includes members representing traditional custodians, the Buganda Kingdom, the Ministry of Tourism, Wildlife and Antiquities, the National Commission for UNESCO and Makerere University. This committee will be responsible for supervisory, advisory and coordination activities;
  • The timelines submitted with the State Party’s 2017 report on the state of conservation are achievable, conditional to funding availability;
  • The state of conservation of the Bujjabukula (gatehouse) is rapidly deteriorating. The State Party notes that stabilization and restoration works must commence, in parallel with the further reconstruction of the Muzibu-Azaala-Mpanga. For this reason, an International Assistance Request was submitted by the State Party to the World Heritage Centre for the restoration of the Bujjabukula,

In April 2018, the State Party also submitted a matrix for the corrective measures and timeframe for implementation of the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR) as well as a workplan.

Analysis and Conclusion by World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2018

The State Party has addressed many factors affecting the property, including the reconstruction of the Muzibu-Azaala-Mpanga, the development of a functioning managing system and a Master Plan for the property. The State Party has also been in constant contact with UNESCO and the Advisory Bodies with regard to the firefighting installation and the development of disaster risk management plan and a Master Plan. In relation to the latter, progress has been sufficient to expect the Master Plan to be completed in 2018.

The revision of the management structure now accommodates the various important role-players, including the traditional custodians and craftspersons, and includes the Buganda Kingdom and university researchers as an essential part of the management team. The decision to extend the life of the National Technical Committee indefinitely in the monitoring and management structure is welcome and will fortify the management of the property. While the State Party does not explicitly report on the progress to date in achieving the DSOCR, the new management structure and draft management plan will improve the role and profile of custodians and craftspersons in relation to their knowledge of traditional practices. The new plan includes a disaster risk management strategy and capacity-building strategy and aims to embed the values of the property locally. The UNESCO Regional Office for Eastern Africa has played a crucial and constant supporting and guiding role in the development of these plans and strategies.

The timeframes for the completion of the reconstruction of the Muzibu-Azaala-Mpanga as submitted in 2017 remain feasible. However, the deterioration of the Bujjabukula is of grave concern. The Advisory Bodies share the State Party’s sense of urgency regarding the stabilization and restoration of this highly significant structure.  The World Heritage Centre and Advisory Bodies discussed the International Assistance Request at the panel meeting.  After ascertaining that sufficient material and skills were available to work on both the Muzibu-Azaala-Mpanga and the Bujjabukula contemporaneously, it received a positive recommendation and was approved in April 2018.

The Master Plan process has led to a number of inappropriate proposals for the property being modified or cancelled, and has helped to sensitise the Kampala Capital City Authority to the importance of the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (OUV). The Master Plan, once completed, needs to be embedded in the city’s own policies and plans. Many questions on the urban scale remain, especially with regard to the management of the buffer zone, its urban densities, and the development of Masiro and Hoima roads. The research conducted on traditional Ganda materials and techniques should continue unabated, and further efforts should be made to document and disseminate the results of this research.

Decisions adopted by the Committee in 2018
42 COM 7A.16
Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Uganda) (C 1022)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/18/42.COM/7A.Add,
  2. Recalling Decision 41 COM 7A.31, adopted at its 41st session (Krakow, 2017),
  3. Welcomes the progress made in the reconstruction of the Muzibu-Azaala-Mpanga and that the work is on track to be completed in 2019, and notes the importance of funds being released from the Japanese extrabudgetary project as a matter of urgency in order to implement the disaster management system;
  4. Also welcomes the progress made in developing a disaster risk strategy, appropriate management structure, draft management plan and draft Master Plan, in cooperation with the Buganda Kingdom Heritage and Tourism Board, the traditional custodians, the architects with knowledge of traditional building practices, and representatives of the Ministry of Tourism, Wildlife, and Antiquities, and commends the State Party for the collaborative nature in which these plans, strategies and systems have been developed;
  5. Further welcomes the progress made to submit a matrix with the corrective measures and a timeframe for implementation of the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR) as well as a workplan;
  6. Acknowledges the constructive contribution of all parties, including state and non-state agents, in achieving the progress to date;
  7. Encourages the State Party and all of the stakeholders involved in the management and use of the property to continue this active engagement, with support and guidance from the Advisory Bodies, with a view to implementing these strategies and plans at the earliest possible time, thereby achieving as soon as possible the DSOCR;
  8. Expresses its concern however at the rapid deterioration of the Bujjabukula, and also acknowledges the State Party’s willingness to address the state of conservation of this highly significant structure;
  9. Requests the State Party to:
    1. Urgently research and document the Bujjabukula, its construction and the individual elements that compose it,
    2. Urgently develop plans for its stabilization and restoration for submission to the Advisory Bodies,
    3. Implement the stabilization and restoration of the Bujjabukula as soon as possible and in parallel with the continuing process of the reconstruction of the Muzibu-Azaala-Mpanga;
  10. Also requests the State Party to further develop guidelines for the buffer zone of the property and reassess and align the development of Masiro and Hoima roads with the values for which the property was inscribed on the World Heritage List, and to duly reflect the urban dimension of the property and its OUV in the policies, measures and tools adopted by the State Party and the Kampala Capital City Authority, to ensure adequate conservation, using, if necessary, the approach carried by the Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape (2011);
  11. Further requests the State Party to keep the World Heritage Centre informed of any change to the 2017 timeline for reaching the DSOCR;
  12. Requests furthermore the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2019, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 43rd session in 2019;
  13. Decides to retain the Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Uganda) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
42 COM 8C.2
Update of the List of World Heritage in Danger (Retained Properties)

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC/18/42.COM/7A, WHC/18/42.COM/7A.Add and WHC/18/42.COM/7A.Add.2),
  2. Decides to retain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
  • Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Decision 42 COM 7A.1)
  • Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 42 COM 7A.2)
  • Austria, Historic Centre of Vienna (Decision 42 COM 7A.5)
  • Bolivia (Plurinational State of), City of Potosí (Decision 42 COM 7A.8)
  • Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 42 COM 7A.45)
  • Chile, Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (Decision 42 COM 7A.9)
  • Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 42 COM 7A.46)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Garamba National Park (Decision 42 COM 7A.47)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 42 COM 7A.48)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 42 COM 7A.49)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Salonga National Park (Decision 42 COM 7A.50)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, Virunga National Park (Decision 42 COM 7A.51)
  • Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 42 COM 7A.17)
  • Honduras, Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve (Decision 42 COM 7A.44)
  • Indonesia, Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (Decision 42 COM 7A.40)
  • Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 42 COM 7A.18)
  • Iraq, Hatra (Decision 42 COM 7A.19)
  • Iraq, Samarra Archaeological City (Decision 42 COM 7A.20)
  • Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (site proposed by Jordan) (Decision 42 COM 7A.21)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Cyrene (Decision 42 COM 7A.22)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna (Decision 42 COM 7A.23)
  • Libya, Archaeological Site of Sabratha (Decision 42 COM 7A.24)
  • Libya, Old Town of Ghadamès (Decision 42 COM 7A.25)
  • Libya, Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus (Decision 42 COM 7A.26)
  • Madagascar, Rainforests of the Atsinanana (Decision 42 COM 7A.53)
  • Mali, Old Towns of Djenné (Decision 42 COM 7A.13)
  • Mali, Timbuktu (Decision 42 COM 7A.14)
  • Mali, Tomb of Askia (Decision 42 COM 7A.15)
  • Micronesia (Federated States of), Nan Madol: Ceremonial Centre of Eastern Micronesia (Decision 42 COM 7A.3)
  • Niger, Aïr and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 42 COM 7A.54)
  • Palestine, Birthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem (Decision 42 COM 7A.27)
  • Palestine, Palestine: Land of Olives and Vines – Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir (Decision 42 COM 7A.29)
  • Palestine, Hebron/Al-Khalil Old Town (Decision 42 COM 7A.28)
  • Panama, Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo (Decision 42 COM 7A.10)
  • Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 42 COM 7A.11)
  • Senegal, Niokolo-Koba National Park (Decision 42 COM 7A.55)
  • Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 42 COM 7A.6)
  • Solomon Islands, East Rennell (Decision 42 COM 7A.41)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Aleppo (Decision 42 COM 7A.30)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Bosra (Decision 42 COM 7A.31)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient City of Damascus (Decision 42 COM 7A.32)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Ancient Villages of Northern Syria (Decision 42 COM 7A.33)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din (Decision 42 COM 7A.34)
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Site of Palmyra (Decision 42 COM 7A.35)
  • Uganda, Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Decision 42 COM 7A.16)
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City (Decision 42 COM 7A.7)
  • United Republic of Tanzania, Selous Game Reserve (Decision 42 COM 7A.56)
  • United States of America, Everglades National Park (Decision 42 COM 7A.42)
  • Uzbekistan, Historic Centre of Shakhrisyabz (Decision 42 COM 7A.4)
  • Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Coro and its Port (Decision 42 COM 7A.12)
  • Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 42 COM 7A.37)
  • Yemen, Old City of Sana’a (Decision 42 COM 7A.38)
  • Yemen, Old Walled City of Shibam (Decision 42 COM 7A.39)
Draft Decision: 42 COM 7A.16

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Having examined Document WHC/18/42.COM/7A.Add,
  2. Recalling Decision 41 COM 7A.31, adopted at its 41st session (Krakow, 2017),
  3. Welcomes the progress made in the reconstruction of the Muzibu-Azaala-Mpanga and that the work is on track to be completed in 2019, and notes the importance of funds being released from the Japanese extrabudgetary project as a matter of urgency in order to implement the disaster management system;
  4. Also welcomes the progress made in developing a disaster risk strategy, appropriate management structure, draft management plan and draft Master Plan, in cooperation with the Buganda Kingdom Heritage and Tourism Board, the traditional custodians, the architects with knowledge of traditional building practices, and representatives of the Ministry of Tourism, Wildlife, and Antiquities, and commends the State Party for the collaborative nature in which these plans, strategies and systems have been developed;
  5. Further welcomes the progress made to submit a matrix with the corrective measures and a timeframe for implementation of the Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR) as well as a workplan;
  6. Acknowledges the constructive contribution of all parties, including state and non-state agents, in achieving the progress to date;
  7. Encourages the State Party and all of the stakeholders involved in the management and use of the property to continue this active engagement, with support and guidance from the Advisory Bodies, with a view to implementing these strategies and plans at the earliest possible time, thereby achieving as soon as possible the DSOCR;
  8. Expresses its concern however at the rapid deterioration of the Bujjabukula, and also acknowledges the State Party’s willingness to address the state of conservation of this highly significant structure;
  9. Requests the State Party to:
    1. Urgently research and document the Bujjabukula, its construction and the individual elements that compose it,
    2. Urgently develop plans for its stabilization and restoration for submission to the Advisory Bodies,
    3. Implement the stabilization and restoration of the Bujjabukula as soon as possible and in parallel with the continuing process of the reconstruction of the Muzibu-Azaala-Mpanga;
  10. Also requests the State Party to further develop guidelines for the buffer zone of the property and reassess and align the development of Masiro and Hoima roads with the values for which the property was inscribed on the World Heritage List, and to duly reflect the urban dimension of the property and its OUV in the policies, measures and tools adopted by the State Party and the Kampala Capital City Authority, to ensure adequate conservation, using, if necessary, the approach carried by the Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape (2011);
  11. Further requests the State Party to keep the World Heritage Centre informed of any change to the 2017 timeline for reaching the DSOCR;
  12. Requests furthermore the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2019, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 43rd session in 2019;
  13. Decides to retain Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (Uganda) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Report year: 2018
Uganda
Date of Inscription: 2001
Category: Cultural
Criteria: (i)(iii)(iv)(vi)
Danger List (dates): 2010-present
Documents examined by the Committee
SOC Report by the State Party
Report (2018) .pdf
arrow_circle_right 42COM (2018)
Exports

* : The threats indicated are listed in alphabetical order; their order does not constitute a classification according to the importance of their impact on the property.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).

** : All mission reports are not always available electronically.


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