English Français

Ancient cities of Upper Myanmar: Innwa, Amarapura, Sagaing, Mingun, Mandalay

Date of Submission: 04/10/1996
Criteria: (i)(v)(vi)
Category: Cultural
Submitted by:
Department of Archaeology
Coordinates: Innwa:21°50'N / 95°59'E- Amar:21°54' N/96°02'ESag.:21°53'N / 95°58'E- Mingun:22°03'N / 96°01'EMandalay: 21°59' N / 96°06' E
Ref.: 823
Word File Word File

The Secretariat of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the World Heritage Centre do not represent or endorse the accuracy or reliability of any advice, opinion, statement or other information or documentation provided by the States Parties to the World Heritage Convention to the Secretariat of UNESCO or to the World Heritage Centre.

The publication of any such advice, opinion, statement or other information documentation on the World Heritage Centre’s website and/or on working documents also does not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of UNESCO or of the World Heritage Centre concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its boundaries.

Property names are listed in the language in which they have been submitted by the State Party


Subsequent foundations ort residences of Myanma kings: Sagaing from 1315 to 1364, Innwa from 1364 to 1841. Amarapura from 1841 to 1857, Mingun in 1810-1819, Mandalay after 1857. They are close to each other, inside a span of 30km on both banks of the Ayeyawady River. Innwa, Amarapura and Mandalay are noteworthy instances of city planning. The royal palace is located in a corner of the city wall at Innwa, at its centre in Amarapura and Mandalay. Numerous religious monuments, temples, stupas and monasteries.

A giant stupa was started at Mingun, intended to become the highest monument of Buddhism, but was never finished. Its base, severly cracked by an earthquake in 1819, is still an impressive mass of brick. The royal palace at Mandalay was destroyed during the

2nd world war, but the city wall is still in fair condition.

The cultural and religious life is still very active in these cities, with numerous Buddhist institutions. Collections of paintings, manuscripts, art objects and inscriptions are housed in various monasteries and museums. Traditional artifacts and handicrafts are produced in specialized streets in Amarapura and Mandalay.