Historic City of Harput
Permanent Delegation of Turkey to UNESCO
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Harput is located to the south of the Upper Euphrates Division of Eastern Anatolia Region. The "Harput Plateau" is located on the southern edge of the high mass. 1280 m from the sea. at 48° 43' north latitude and 39° 15' east latitude. According to excavations and researches made in and around Harput, the first settlement goes down to Paleolithic Age. Karasu, Arabkir creek and Murat river valleys and rocks in the work done by the people of the Palaeolithic era; Among the Elazığ-Pertek, a large rock-shelter underground called Karataş, flint and obsidian flint tools from the Early Bronze, Chalcolithic and Late Upper Paleolithic ages and hand axes are important finds. Harput, BC VIII. a hundred years, under the dominance of the Urartians, which were established in Eastern Anatolia and centralized in Tushpa (Van). Harput Castle was also built during the Urartian period. B.C. In the beginning of the 6th century, the Assyrians and then the Urartians were destroyed by the pressure of the Medes and the Persians, and the Harput region was dominated by the Persians. Sasani King II. Saphur totally captured the Euphrates region including Harput. A.D. At 379, the Roman Emperor had included the Harput district of Valens in the Roma dominion zone.
After the Arab conquest in the 7th century, Harput entered the sovereignty of the Büveyhoğulların (930-984) in the continuation of the Hamdan (930-980) until the Xth century. The dominance of Mervani in Harput was between 954-1085. Afterwards, Harput, which went to Byzantine administration, came under the domination of Turks together with Malazgirt Victory. The dominance of the Çubukoğulları Principality in Harput ended in 1113 with Artukids. 1203/1205 Harput Artukids, recognizing the Seljuk domination. After the invasion of Anatolia by the Mongols XIV. Up to the mid-18th Century, Harput, under the rule of Ilkhanians, was later dominated by Dulkadiroğulları. Uzun Hasan (Tall Hasan), the sovereign of the Akkoyunlu State, ruled in Harvut in 1465 and continues until 1507. When the Akkoyunlu State is destroyed by Shah Ismail, Safevi period begins in Harput with many cities in Eastern Anatolia. Yavuz Sultan Selim defeated the Safavid army in Çaldıran in 1514 and seized a large part of the region. In 1515, the region was completely under Ottoman rule. As the population in Harput began to descend from Agavat Mezras, the city became a new city center and later the name of the city was changed to Ma'muratü'l-Aziz with the name of the Sultan Abdulaziz. In the post-republic period, the deputy executive committee dated 10.12.1937 took the name "Elazık". Elazig showed a great improvement during the Republican era and became one of the most developed cities of Eastern Anatolia Region.
Justification of Outstanding Universal Value
Harput is located 5 km north-east of Elazığ city in Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Historical Harput City is a settlement center built on important trade routes (silk road) with watery and fertile landscapes in Upper Euphrates Basin. Harput, which was established as a sheltered castle city on the rocks and overflowed out of the castle over time, has come forward as a culture and art city with educational institutions. XI. has developed with various cultures up to a hundred years and has brought a very rich and meaningful life style with the self-values brought by the Turks from Central Asia.
For this reason, Harput is very rich in terms of cultural elements. It has taken its immortal place with its special features in our national culture with its historical buildings, customs, traditions and customs, ceremonies, folk songs and folklore, folk medicine, traditional handicrafts and folk dances that reflect public experience.
Criterion (iii): Harput has been one of the important settlement centers of Anatolia since the first era, especially Urartu, afterwards Persian, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuks, Emirates and Ottomans. The monumental constructions that the civilization, which had dominated the region, had built as a significant cultural heritage day by day. The most important of these are; Founded in May 2016; Harput relief, Harput inner castle, Roman Rock tombs, Mary main church, Harput Ulu mosque, Sare Hatun mosque. It is located 500 meters east of the castle in 2016, With the relief dated to the end of the 3rd millennium, the central settlement date of Harput was over four thousand years old. According to current historical sources, the oldest inhabitants of Harput are the Hurrilers who settled in Eastern Anatolia from 2000 BC. After the hurries, the region entered the Hittite domination. It was named as the Isuwa region during the Hittites period. In the inscription of the Hattusha period I, the idea that the site referred to as Henzuta City was probably Harput was accepted. After the Hittite domination BC. IX. Urartuians, which established the state in Eastern Anatolia since the 19th century, ruled for a long time in Harput. Today, the Inner Fort of Harput carries traces of the Urartu period. There are stairs carved into the rock, tunnels and cells, waterways, military equipment, daily life tools in the castle. A.D. From the 1st century until the 3rd century, we see that the Romans remain in political and military influence. A.D. III. Century. From the time of Emperor Dioclatianus, the Harput region was completely connected to the Roman Empire. The first period of Byzantine domination in Harput ran into the middle of the fourth century. We see that the Arabs captured Harput and its surroundings towards the middle of the fourth century. Harput ran into the ninth century, the second time in the Byzantine rule. In the Byzantine history, Harput is called "Harpote" very close to today's discourse. In fact, the Harput region is also called "Mesopotamia". Byzantine domination in Harput continued until about the end of the eleventh century.
The tomb monuments belonging to the Ahi organization in Harput belonging to the Ahi fathers are also meant to indicate that the system can be implemented to the desired extent. This systematic economic, political and social life has made "Culture", the name given to the whole of material and spiritual things, an understandable and continuously developing field. The cultural interaction that has emerged as an indispensable element of a social life has made it possible to reinforce itself with various organizations in communities living in centers with deeply rooted backgrounds such as Harput, creating a living, visible, tangible network of relationships.
Criterion (iv): Harput was originally established as a castle settlement on a ridge surrounded by craggy cliffs for the purpose of protection and defense during the periods of war, invasion and confusion. It can also be described as a natural castle consisting of a large limestone block. This castle, which emerged in the Urartu era as a castle city with its original style, became one of the most fortunate castles of the region and, as mentioned before, has been preserved for a long time and served as a trade center. Harput Castle has been a permanent residence by hosting Urartu, Byzantine, Artukids, Seljuks and Ottoman state. The existence of an Ottoman Quarter built in the 17th century is known and there are water cisterns, dungeons, inner fortress mosques, magnificent remains belonging to the Artuklu Palace, hidden tunnels that allow passage to the outside. Lehmann Haupt gives information about someone in these secret tunnels in his book. One of the secret passages provides connection between the castle and the Church of the Virgin Mary, while the other writes in historical sources that provide links between the Castle Bath and the Inner Castle. The dungeon in the castle was built in 1123 by Belek Gazi, the King of Jerusalem II. It is known that Boudouin captured a large number of Counts and Knights.
In May 2016, a relief found during the afforestation work in the field called the Harputta Nevroz Forests, the history of Harput known in BC. He has gone to 2200 years. In May 2016, in the area called the Nevroz Forests in Harput, a relief found during the afforestation work, the known history of Harput, He has gone to 2200 years. In the work called Harput relief, a storytelling expression style is used. In the relief, the main subject is depicted as the conquest of a fortress and the arrival of prisoners before the king. The relief, measuring 2.72 x 2.42, was processed on a local sandstone rock. In the middle of the embossment separated by the horizontal bands are depicted the burning of the tower with a wheeled tower approaching the city walls. In the relief, it has been observed that the principle of general movement is from the left to the right, while the prisoners brought to the top of the king are opposite in the scene. In addition, another highlight of the relief is the figure of the goddess, which is similar to the head of the Egyptian Pharaohs, with two naked figures on his head, the legs of which have been twisted with their legs raised by pressing their feet. At the outermost of these scenes, there are two figures on a river that go boating, which reinforces the idea that the conquered castle may be located on the edge of a river. Excavation work was initiated by the Elazığ Museum Directorate with the discovery of the relief. In the studies conducted, it was determined that the area where the brick was removed had a heavy fire. In addition, the presence of the Middle Bronze Age (BC2500-2000) pottery in this area revealed the presence of a strong political authority in Harput at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. Another important cultural asset of Harput is Harput Ulu Mosque. Today, worship is still open. It is possible to date from 1156-57 / 1165-66 on the way to a tax levy located in the north of the courtyard with no construction book. It is an important artifact with the brick minarets standing still despite the 7 degree angle of inclination and the fact that the open Selcuks of the Great Seljuks are one of the first examples in Anatolia. The unfinished bricks are assembled in various forms, and this structure is seen in the minarets of the minarets and unique ornaments made with a very subtle pleasure in the body. It has been proven by recent research that it is more oblique with a slope ranging from 3.5 to 7 degrees from the famous Pisa tower, which is known all over the world and attracts millions of tourists. Evliya Çelebi wrote about the great mosque in his travels; Ulu Mosque is big and beautiful mosque. There is a minaret of worship and a place of artistic and genre-style. "Famous German traveler and archaeologist Lehman said about this inscription: "There is an inscription written in the mosque's courtyard with a küfi (ancient kufi writing). This inscription is Fahreddin Karaaslan.
Harput has hosted many civilizations for thousands of years, embracing many different dynetics with tolerance. One of the best examples of this is the Virgin Mary Church which is still active today. The Mother Mary's Church, Harput, is located south of the inner road leading to the shrine under the eastern fortification walls. The church is one of the oldest Christian churches in Anatolia, and the year of construction is shown as M.S 179. Before the Mother Mary was built in the neighborhood of Harput, Harput was the center of Katakom's first gathering place of Christianity.The story of the construction of Mary's main church is also really different. Abgar kingdom, Urfa, Diyarbakir, Harput regions have been operating in the geography. This kingdom is surrounded by the Persians in the west, the Roman state in the east, the buffer zone is established and its activities are not obstructed so much that the kingdom is prepared to move in a comfortable manner. The pilgrims, who were pagans in the beginning, moved away from these ideas with the coming of the Prophet Jesus. In 32 BC, Abgar king V. Abgar Hz. He began to correspond with Jesus and wanted to cure him for his illness. This situation caused the Abgars to abandon the paganism completely and accept the Christianity. The first kingdom to accept Christianity is known as the Kingdom of Abgar. M.S. In 179, the Abgar Kingdom assembled in Harput with the Syriac community and founded the Church of the Virgin Mary. Today the church is reached by descending from the main road by stairs. The entrance of the church is a low and small structure which was later added to the northern wall. This small structure contains some reclamation materials. The north wall of the church is partly based on rocks and the western wall is carved into natural rock. The plan lies on the east-west axis. In the east direction there is a 3 divisional aps. The Church of the Virgin Mary is still active today and serves the Assyrian community. Besides, it is known that the doors of everybody who is looking for healing are open because the view that the church is healing some mental health diseases is common. Every year on 15th August Asdvadzadzin (the celestial ascension) celebration is celebrated in the church with a great ceremony.
Criterion (vi): The beginning of Divan poetry in Harput is based on Hasan Burhaneddin-i Cihangiri born in 1563. Another important personality Harput raised is the poet Rahmi. He is also known as Rahmi-i Harputi or Rahmi Hodja. Rahmi, who was born in 1802 in the country village, saw the medrese treasure in Diyarbakir, Antep and Kayseri together with Kaside-i Bürde poet Ömer Naimi Efendi. Among the 47 poetry Divan poets we have found are Kanbalak-zade Hazmi and Rahmi, and Divani have a well-organized Divan. In Harput, we need to relate to the reason for the continuation of the tradition of Divan poetry, to the excess of the cultural level of the people of the region and to the future in the field of science. Because, since ancient times, people who are dependent on the excesses of the masses here are spreading to the Ottoman geography and taking nose that they are working on every side, we come to the conclusion that Harput is a scientific and cultural center. Acting on the fact that the Divan poetry style flourishes in culture, life and science, we find over forty poets in Harput and his airy who bring the poetry of the Divan poetry style and its rules. It is known that these literary and poetry poems which are known as "High Class, Divan, Havas, Classical Literature, Palace Literature" which keep their existence in Turkish Literature in their own way for more than six hundred years and continue to survive in accordance with the rules today, it is a matter. The poets of Harput and Harput, who have an important place in the field of Divan poetry in the eastern side of this literature, have also performed their arts and exhibited their works and continued this tradition in their own fields. Harput is certainly the most unique of traditional folk dances, Çayda Çıra. Çıra çıra folklore; At weddings and henna nights, it is a game played absolutely and in time, completely identified with Elazığ region. Together with the handling of the candles held in the plate, mixed groups of women and men dressed in local costumes perform this game by keeping up with the tempos of music. When the game is played, the Çayda Çıra song is also sung.
In addition to the folk dances, Harput is also a cultural event that is peculiar to Kürsübaşı tradition. Kürsubasi events have created a kind of social environment for the people of Harput in the long winter nights. Housewives gathered around the Kürsübaşı Circle were telling stories, legends, stories, chants and singings in long winter nights. Located in the middle of the living room floor, the lectern heads are 30-60 cm in size. The central part of the structure is hollow and the room is heated with charcoal placed in this pit. Coals burned in the open air or in the cooking hobs are covered with ashes to make them effective for a long time when brought to the Kürsübasi. It is known that the environment is heated in this way for 4-5 hours according to the weather conditions. Households and guests, often gathered on the rostrum, warmed up this way during snowy winter nights. The tradition of Kürsübasi, unique to Harput, entered UNESCO World Abstract Cultural Assets List in October 2010.
Statements of authenticity and/or integrity
Harput Quarter is protected by the Law on Conservation of Cultural and Natural Property No. 2863. Harput Castle and its surrounding were registered as 1st Degree Archaeological Site with the decision of relevant Regional Conservation Board dated 30.05.1985 and numbered 1089. Harput was declared as “Cultural and Tourism Conservation and Development Zone” in 2005. Urban Design Project has been approved by the relevant Regional Conservation Board with the decision dated 19.02.2009 and numbered 2057.
Harput includes all attributes that reflect Outstanding Univeral Value and the nominated property is large enough to sustain its integrity. Harput has preserved its originality till today.
Comparison with other similar properties
The most similar city to the historical Harput City is the old city of Halep (Aleppo). Aleppo, one of the two great cities of Syria, was established at the crossroads of major roads from Anatolia to Mesopotamia and from the Mediterranean to Iran. Due to its geographical location it has become one of the frequent destinations of the Aleppo caravans and has also been occupied by many states throughout history. If this is a similar situation Harput lives. Due to its geographical richness and sheltered high position in Harput, it has been attracted by many states and has become a frequent destination of important caravan roads.
The entrance of Harput into the Ottoman domination took place in 1514 when Yavuz Sultan Selimin Çaldıran expedition, and after this domination the city showed great improvement. In Aleppo, after Yavuz Sultan Selim won the Merc-i Dâbik war in 1516, he passed from the Mamluks to the Ottoman administration. With the Ottoman domination, a great developmental cycle that did not occur in the past of the city began and this period constituted the brightest period of the history of Aleppo in many respects. Around the Aleppo fortress, a similar trench system is located around Harput Castle. Harput Fortress has a fortification system like Aleppo Castle and suitable neighborhoods according to the demographic situation have been established around this fortification. The mosques, water cisterns, dungeons, houses, workshops, palace remnants of the Aleppo interior are also found on the Harput Fortress. Harput, XIX century, is also a cultural and commercial center. Just like old Aleppo City. Aleppo has lived tolerantly with people from different beliefs as they were in Harput when Muslims formed a large part of the people who lived in XIX century. Similar colleges with the same activities as the American, French and German Colleges established in Harput are located in Aleppo City and are in the forefront of education. Harput was one of the major trading centers in the Anatolian period and reputed silk fabrics played an important role in international trade. This situation is similar in Aleppo. It is known that it has a significant place in the geography where it is located as a commercial center in Aleppo and it directs the flow of trade.
Harput and Aleppo also show similarities in terms of civil architecture. Traditional Aleppo houses are located around the inner courtyard separated by high stone walls from the street, which is also seen in the similar traditional Harput houses. Aleppo is surrounded by Adana Province and the Mediterranean in the west, Beyrut and Syria in the South, Diyarbakir in the North, and Elazig and Sivas in the North, and proximity to Harput in the geographical direction is two neighboring geographies is that perhaps the Harput conqueror Belekgazi can be linked to the sovereignty of the region as far as Aleppo. It is known that in 1123 Belek Gazi took a stronghold of Aleppo and placed a strong garrison here. Today, the grave of Belekgazi is also located in the city of Aleppo. While Harput provides a complex unity with the mosques, churches, historical fountains, inner fortresses that it houses in the city, a similar situation applies to the old city of Aleppo. Unfortunately, this complex structure in Aleppo has lost its vitality throughout history as it has turned into an abandoned city suffering great destruction as a result of the civil war in Syria. Having similarities in many respects, Harput may perhaps continue its original structure as a similar in the different geographical areas that can be preserved.