Biogeographically and ecologically, the Sara National Park represents one of the most important protected areas in the C. Balkans. More than 1500 vascular plant species, of which about 20% are endemic and relict Balkan species, are distributed in the Sara National Park. Vegetation and ecosystems are highly diversified; from sub-Mediterranean communities at the foothill of the mountain to the subalpine forests of endemic Balkan pine (Pinus heldfreichii and P. peuce) up to the highest mountain summits covered by various shrubby and grassland communities on siliceous, limestone and serpentine bedrock. Fauna also, especially ornithofauna, is the richest in numerous rare bird. on the whole Balkan peninsula. Biogeographical coordinates: Mt Sara belongs to the transitional zone between the Meaian, east Illyrian and Scardo-Pindian subregions of the Central European region. The high parts of the massif have transitional characteristics of the Alpine and oro-Mediterranean regions.