State of Conservation (SOC)
Okapi Wildlife Reserve
Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger
Benchmarks have yet to be set; discussions are underway with the State Party.
Threats for Which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger
- Impact of conflict: looting of infrastructure, poaching of elephants
- Presence of gold mining sites inside the property
UNESCO Extra-Budgetary Funds
Total amount provided to the property: First phase of the UNF and Belgium funded programme for the Conservation of the DRC World Heritage properties (“DRC programme”). (2001–2005): approximately USD 250,000 for staff allowances, equipment, community conservation, monitoring and training activities. Current phase (2005-2008): USD 300,000 for the implementation of the emergency action plan with funding from Belgium complemented by funding for the inventory and monitoring component by UNF.
International Assistance granted to the property
Requests Approved: 0
Total Amount Ap proved: 28,400USD
|2000||Emergency assistance to World Natural Heritage of the democratic ...||5,400 USD|
|1999||Support to Resident Staff of Garamba, Virunga, Kahuzi Biega ...||20,000 USD|
|1993||Preparatory assistance for the Okapi Wildlife Natural Reserve||3,000 USD|
UNESCO monitoring missions in 1996 and 2006. Several UNESCO missions in the framework of the project.
Factors* affecting the property identified in previous reports
a) Extensive poaching of large mammals, in particular elephants.
b) Mining activities inside the property.
c) Uncontrolled migration into the villages located within the property.
d) Illegal timber exploitation in the Ituri forest, which might affect the property in the near future.
e) Planned rehabilitation of the National Road RN4 crossing the property, for which no proper Environmental Impact Assessment was conducted.
a) Ensure the immediate withdrawal of military personnel of the DRC army involved in poaching, ivory trafficking and illegal mining;
b) Close down and prevent all illegal mining operations inside the property;
c) Suspend the rehabilitation works on the RN4 national road crossing the property, to allow for a proper Environmental Impact Assessment and until proper measures to reduce its expected environmental impact are put in place;
d) Establish a trust fund for the rehabilitation of the DRC World Heritage properties;
e) Establish permanent cooperation between the political and military authorities at provincial level, the United Nations Organization Mission in DRC(MONUC) and the Park authority (ICCN) to eliminate illegal activities in and around the property;
f) In cooperation with the Government of Uganda, stop the illegal trafficking of timber, minerals and ivory across the DRC/Uganda border in north-eastern DRC;
g) Prepare a forest zoning plan for the forest areas adjacent to the property to protect the property from negative impacts resulting from unsustainable forest exploitation;
h) Legalize and scale-up the pilot system put in place by ICCN to regulate and monitor immigration as well as traffic on the RN4 road, including the establishment of a permit system with transit charges;
i) Take measures to reinforce and reinvigorate the guard force and to improve their efficiency.
Current conservation issues
From 12 to 23 May 2006, a UNESCO monitoring mission visited the property. The results of the mission were presented orally to the 30th session of the Committee (Vilnius, 2006). The mission identified three immediate threats to values of the property:
a) the on-going large scale poaching of large mammals in particular elephants, with a clear implication of certain members of the armed forces and the police,
b) illegal mining sites for the extraction of gold, diamonds and colombo-tantalium, under the control of traditional chiefs and involving certain elements of the military,
c) the continued immigration from the densely populated highlands of Kivu, with increased settlement in the immediate vicinity of the property and around the road crossing the reserve.
In addition, the mission identified two issues that were expected to impact the property in the near future, in particular:
d) the on-going rehabilitation of the road RN4 crossing the reserve, with potential direct impacts (such as the disturbance of animals by vehicle traffic) and indirect impacts (such as an increase in bush meat and timber trafficking and an increased immigration into the area) and
e) illegal logging and deforestation to the east of the property, but steadily advancing towards the reserve.
f) The mission also developed a series of recommendations, which were endorsed by the Committee as corrective measures (mentioned above). The mission did not propose clear benchmarks and did not propose a time frame for the corrective measures.
During the 2006 monitoring mission, an emergency action plan was developed by ICCN and its conservation partners to support the implementation of certain recommendations of the mission. A 3 year budget of USD 300,000 is made available through the second phase of DRC programme. Main components of the plan are the reinforcement of the immigration control system put in place by the park authorities, sensitisation of local communities, political and military authorities, strengthening law enforcement and surveillance, finalisation of the post-war survey of large mammals and flagship species and regular aerial surveillance of the property and preparatory work for the development of an updated management plan.
On 12 February 2007,a report of the state of conservation of the five DRC World Heritage properties was submitted by the State Party. The report provides a brief overview of on-going park management activities, but unfortunately does not provide detailed information on the implementation of the corrective measures.
As explained in the Virunga report, the implementation of the corrective measures has been hampered by the organisation of the first multiparty elections in DRC. However, progress was achieved towards some of the set corrective measures:
g) Ensure the immediate withdrawal of military personnel of the DRC army involved in poaching, ivory trafficking and illegal mining
With financial assistance from the World Heritage Fund, a large scale joint operation with the military was organised in April-June 2006, to remove poachers from the insecure parts of the reserve. Through the operation, 6 commercial poaching gangs including 3 led by elements of the army were apprehended and their leaders transferred to the judiciary. So far, 2 of the military were condemned by the military tribunal to 3 years imprisonment. An agreement was also reached with the military, not to station any troops inside the Reserve after the operation. Currently, poaching is estimated to be down by 80% and approximately 90% of the Reserve is under control of ICCN.
h) Close down and prevent all illegal mining operations inside the property
During the 2006 operation, 20 mining sites with more than 1000 miners were closed down. A mission of the provincial authorities was conducted in August, confirming to the local authorities the illegality of mining in the property. However, there is a constant pressure from some military and civil authorities to re-open some of the mines. Therefore, it is important to reinforce sensitization on the need to close mines in the property by the newly instated provincial and national governments.
As mentioned in the report on Kahuzi-Biega, a recent map published by the mapping office of the ministry of mines showed that several exploitation permits were granted inside the reserve. Following an intervention by ICCN with the Minister, this issue is currently being studied by a working group set up between ICCN and the ministry.
i) Suspend the rehabilitation works on the RN4 national road crossing the property
During a mission in October 2006, UNESCO urged ICCN to officially request the Ministry of Public Works and the World Bank to suspend the rehabilitation works until a proper impact study was done. Unfortunately, this was only done early March 2007, when works on the section crossing the reserve had already started. UNESCO immediately contacted the World Bank, which dispatched a mission to the Reserve to look into the issue. This mission is on-going at the time of writing of this report. The potential impact of the road rehabilitation is huge. Since the inscription of the property on the World Heritage List, the road is in such a state of disrepair that traffic is very low. A rehabilitation of this major road will increase the extraction of resources from the reserve, including timber in the Ituri Forest and migration pressures within the property and of the Ituri Forest. Whilst the road clearly is important for the development of the region and the country, it is critically important that adequate mitigating measures are identified to reduce the impact on the property.
j) Establish a trust fund for the rehabilitation of the DRC World Heritage properties
See report Virunga National Park.
k) Establish permanent cooperation between the political and military authorities at provincial level, MONUC and ICCN to eliminate illegal activities in and around the property
No permanent cooperation could be set up so far during the election period. However, following the 2006 joint operation with the military, there exist good and sporadic contacts between the reserve authority and the military regional command in Kisangani.
l) In cooperation with the Government of Uganda, stop the illegal trafficking of timber, minerals and ivory across the DRC/Uganda border in north-eastern DRC
As this measure needs to be discussed on a bilateral basis between the Governments of DRC and Uganda, no progress could be made so far.
m) Prepare a forest zoning plan for the forest areas adjacent to the property to protect the property from negative impacts resulting from unsustainable forest exploitation
No progress made so far. Recent reports about the granting of a forest concession to the east of the Reserve demonstrates the urgency of this measure.
n) Legalize and scale up the pilot system put in place by ICCN to regulate and monitor immigration as well as traffic on the RN4 road.
No progress made so far. This measure will be critical to mitigate the impact of the on-going road rehabilitation. However, an adequate control of the road will be a logistical challenge as traffic on the road will increase manifold.
o) Take measures to reinforce and reinvigorate the guard force and to improve their efficiency.
ICCN recently recruited 15 additional guards to ensure surveillance of the areas cleared from poachers and mines by the 2006 operation. Guard training has also been reinforced through the emergency action plan.
As requested by the Committee, the World Heritage Centre contacted the CITES secretariat requesting their assistance in investigating the trading networks and countries of destination of ivory poached in the Reserve and other DRC properties. The secretariat replied that it did not believe it was appropriate for them to undertake an in-country investigation unless requested by the State Party. However, CITES proposed to highlight this issue during the 14th Conference of the Parties (COP14), which will take place in The Hague in June 2007 and suggested to develop a joint capacity building programme for the region.
So far no benchmarks or timeframe were established. UNESCO in cooperation with IUCN is currently discussing with ICCN the development of benchmarks. It is proposed that these benchmarks will be developed at a workshop in the reserve at the end of 2007, when the evaluation of the emergency action plan will be undertaken.
In relation to the mobilisation of funding for the property, Germany is planning to support conservation activities in RFO through a five year support programme for ICCN funded by the German development bank (KfW). The RFO component has a budget of 2.7 Million Euros.
Analysis and Conclusion
Link to the decision
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Having evaluated the state of conservation reports of the properties of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) presented in Documents WHC-07/31.COM/7A and WHC-07/31.COM/7A.Add,
2. Calls upon the Director-General of UNESCO and the Chairperson of the World Heritage Committee to convene a meeting with the DRC authorities, together with representatives of the African Union and appropriate sub-regional organizations and the President of IUCN, to discuss progress in addressing the deteriorating state of conservation of the DRC World Heritage properties with the assistance of the World Heritage Fund. In this context, the future role of the UN for preserving the natural and cultural World Heritage properties and Biosphere Reserves of the DRC will be reviewed , including the future role of UNESCO in the "One UN" exercise in the DRC;
3. Requests that a comprehensive approach for all the DRC properties in Danger be adopted by the State Party to take the necessary corrective measures, supported by a phased programme, with the active assistance of the World Heritage Centre and IUCN;
4. Calls upon the international community to support the above mentioned initiative;
5. Decides to recommend the application of the reinforced monitoring mechanism subject to the procedures in Document WHC-07/31.COM/5.2 and Decision 31 COM 5.2 in monitoring the state of conservation of the 5 properties in DRC to assist the State Party in achieving these goals.
Link to the decision
The World Heritage Committee,
- Having examined Document WHC-07/31.COM/7A,
- Recalling Decision 30 COM 7A.8, adopted at its 30th session (Vilnius, 2006),
- Expresses its satisfaction with the significant progress made in the implementation of some of the corrective measures set by the Committee at its 30th session (Vilnius, 2006), in particular closing down of illegal mining operations in the property, curbing poaching by uncontrolled military and other organized groups and in securing the property;
- Requests the Government and the protected area agency to implement as soon as possible the other corrective measures;
- Reiterates its request for a proper Environmental Impact Assessment of the rehabilitation of the RN4 road crossing the property to identify necessary mitigating measures to reduce direct and indirect impact, in accordance with paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines;
- Expresses its concern about the map produced by the Ministry of Mines, showing that mining concessions were granted inside the property, calls upon the holders of any concessions to respect international standards with respect to mining in World Heritage properties, as outlined in the International Council on Mining and Metals Position Statement on Mining and Protected Areas (2003), and also urges the State Party to revoke any concessions that might have been granted, as mining operations are incompatible with the World Heritage status of the property;
- Requests the State Party, in consultation with the World Heritage Centre and IUCN, to develop a draft Statement of Outstanding Universal Value for the property, including the conditions of integrity, for examination by the Committee at its 32nd session in 2008;
- Further requests the State Party, in consultation with the World Heritage Centre and IUCN, to develop a draft statement of the desired state of conservation for the property based on its Outstanding Universal Value;
- Further requests the State Party to provide the World Heritage Centre with an updated report by 1 February 2008 on the state of conservation of the property, including an update on the road rehabilitation project and the issue of the mining concessions and on progress with the implementation of the corrective measures set by the Committee at its 30th session (Vilnius, 2006) for examination by the Committee at its 32nd session in 2008;
- Decides to retain Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Democratic Republic of the Congo) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Link to the decision
The World Heritage Committee,
1.Following the examination of the state of conservation reports of properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger (WHC-07/31.COM/7A and WHC-07/31.COM/7A.Add, WHC-07/31.COM/7A.Add.2, WHC-07/31.COM/7A.Add.3),
2.Decides to maintain the following properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger:
- Afghanistan, Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (Decision 31 COM 7A.20)
- Afghanistan, Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley, (Decision 31 COM 7A.21)
- Azerbaijan, Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower (Decision 31 COM 7A.26)
- Central African Republic, Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (Decision 31 COM 7A.1)
- Chile, Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (Decision 31 COM 7A.29)
- Côte d'Ivoire, Comoé National Park (Decision 31 COM 7A.2)
- Côte d'Ivoire / Guinea, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Decision 31 COM 7A.3)
- Democratic Rep. of the Congo Virunga National Park (Decision 31 COM 7A.4)
- Democratic Rep. of the Congo Kahuzi-Biega National Park (Decision 31 COM 7A.5)
- Democratic Rep. of the Congo Garamba National Park (Decision 31 COM 7A.6)
- Democratic Rep. of the Congo Salonga National Park (Decision 31 COM 7A.7)
- Democratic Rep. of the Congo, Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Decision 31 COM 7A.8)
- Egypt, Abu Mena (Decision 31 COM 7A.16)
- Ethiopia, Simien National Park (Decision 31 COM 7A.9)
- Germany, Dresden Elbe Valley (Decision 31 COM 7A.27)
- India, Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (Decision 31 COM 7A.11)
- Islamic Republic of Iran, Bam and its Cultural Landscape (Decision 31 COM 7A.22)
- Iraq, Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Decision 31 COM 7A.17)
- Jerusalem, Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (Decision 31 COM 7A.18)
- Niger, Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Decision 31 COM 7A.10)
- Pakistan, Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore (Decision 31 COM 7A.24)
- Peru, Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (Decision 31 COM 7A.30)
- Philippines, Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras (Decision 31 COM 7A.25)
- Serbia, Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (Decision 31 COM 7A.28)
- United Republic of Tanzania, Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (Decision 31 COM 7A.15)
- Venezuela, Coro and its Port (Decision 31 COM 7A.31)
- Yemen, Historic Town of Zabid (Decision 31 COM 7A.19)
Draft Decision: 31 COM 7A.8
The World Heritage Committee,
1. Having examined Document WHC-07/31.COM/7A,
2. Recalling Decision 30 COM 7A.8, adopted at its 30th session (Vilnius, 2006),
3. Expresses its satisfaction with the significant progress made in the implementation of some of the corrective measures set by the Committee at its 30th session (Vilnius, 2006), in particular closing down of illegal mining operations in the property, curbing poaching by uncontrolled military and other organised groups and in securing the property;
4. Requests the new Government and the protected area agency ICCN to implement as soon as possible the other corrective measures;
5. Strongly regrets that the rehabilitation works on the RN4 national road crossing the property were not suspended as requested by the Committee and reiterates its request for a proper Environmental Impact Assessment to identify necessary mitigating measures to reduce its impact, in accordance with paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines;
6. Expresses its concern about the map produced by the Ministry of mines, showing that mining concessions were granted inside the property and urges the State Party to revoke any concessions that might have been granted, as mining operations are incompatible with the World Heritage status of the property;
7. Also requests the State Party together with the World Heritage Centre and IUCN to develop a clear set of benchmarks based on the Outstanding Universal Value of the property together with a Statement of Outstanding Universal Value for the property;
8. Further requests the State Party to provide the World Heritage Centre with an updated report by 1 February 2008 on the state of conservation of the property, including an update on the road rehabilitation project and the issue of the mining concessions and on progress with the implementation of the corrective measures set by the Committee at its 30th session (Vilnius, 2006) for examination by the Committee at its 32nd session in 2008;
9. Decides to retain Okapi Wildlife Reserve (Democratic Republic of the Congo) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Okapi Wildlife Reserve
- Civil unrest
- Ground transport infrastructure
- Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community
- Illegal activities
Inscription on the Danger List
Threats to the Site:
The Committee inscribed the Okapi Wildlife Reserve on the List of World Heritage in Danger, one year after giving it World Heritage status, due to reports that the armed conflict, which spread to the eastern parts of the country in early 1997, had led to the looting of facilities and the killing of elephants in this site. Most of the staff have fled the Reserve. There have also been reports of gold mining.
Furthermore, they are presented irrespective of the type of threat faced by the property, i.e. with specific and proven imminent danger (“ascertained danger”) or with threats which could have deleterious effects on the property’s Outstanding Universal Value (“potential danger”).