Luther Memorials in Eisleben and Wittenberg
Luther Memorials in Eisleben and Wittenberg
These places in Saxony-Anhalt are all associated with the lives of Martin Luther and his fellow-reformer Melanchthon. They include Melanchthon's house in Wittenberg, the houses in Eisleben where Luther was born in 1483 and died in 1546, his room in Wittenberg, the local church and the castle church where, on 31 October 1517, Luther posted his famous '95 Theses', which launched the Reformation and a new era in the religious and political history of the Western world.
Monuments commémoratifs de Luther à Eisleben et Wittenberg
Cet ensemble regroupe, en Saxe-Anhalt, les lieux liés à la vie de Martin Luther et à celle de son collaborateur Melanchthon : la maison de Melanchthon à Wittenberg ; celle où Luther est né en 1483 et celle où il est mort en 1546, toutes deux à Eisleben ; la chambre de Luther à Wittenberg ; l'église de cette même ville et l'église du château où, le 31 octobre 1517, il afficha ses fameuses Quatre-vingt-quinze thèses , inaugurant ainsi, avec la Réforme, une nouvelle ère dans l'histoire religieuse et politique du monde.
النصب التذكارية للوثر في إيسليبن وفيتنبرغ
تجمع هذه المجموعة الواقعة في "ساكس- أنهالت" أماكن لها صلة بحياة مارتن لوثر وحياة معاونه ميلانشثون: بيت ميلانشثون في فيتنبرغ، والبيت الذي ولد فيه لوثر في العام 1483، والبيت الذي توفي فيه العام 1546-وكلاهما في إيسليبن-. كما وفيها غرفة لوثر في ويتنبرغ، وكنيسة البلدة نفسها، وكنيسة القصر حيث أعلن في 31 تشرين الأول/ أكتوبر من العام 1517 طروحاته الخمس والتسعين الشهيرة، مفتتحاً بذلك، مع ما عرف يومها بالإصلاح، حقبة جديدة في تاريخ الدين والسياسة في العالم.
Памятные места Лютера в городах Айслебен и Виттенберг
Эти места в земле Саксония-Ангальт связаны с жизнью Мартина Лютера и его последователя – реформатора Меланхтона. Они включают дом Меланхтона в Виттенберге, дома в Айслебене, где Лютер родился в 1483 г. и умер в 1546 г., его комнату в Виттенберге, приходскую церковь и церковь в замке, где 31 октября 1517 г. Лютер вывесил свои знаменитые «95 Тезисов», давшие начало Реформации и новой эре в религиозной и политической истории Западного мира.
Monumentos conmemorativos de Lutero en Eisleben y Wittenberg
Este sitio comprende los lugares de Sajonia-Anhalt vinculados a la vida de Martín Lutero y su colaborador Melanchthon: la casa de Melanchthon en Wittenberg; las casas donde Lutero nació (1483) y murió (1546) en Eisleben; la habitación de Lutero en Wittenberg; la iglesia parroquial y la iglesia del castillo de esta misma localidad, en cuya puerta clavó –el 31 de octubre de 1517– sus famosas Noventa y cinco tesis, poniendo así en marcha la Reforma y abriendo una nueva era en la historia religiosa y política del mundo.
Luthergedenkplaatsen in Eisleben en Wittenberg
De plaatsen Eisleben en Wittenberg in Saksen-Anhalt zijn verbonden met het leven van Maarten Luther en zijn collega-hervormer Melanchthon. In Eisleben staan de huizen waar Luther in 1483 werd geboren en in 1546 overleed. In Wittenberg staat het Lutherhuis - waar hij 40 jaar woonde en werkte - en het nauwelijks veranderde huis van Melanchthon. Verder vindt men er de stadskerk en de slotkapel waar Luther op 31 oktober 1517 zijn beroemde 95 stellingen op de deur sloeg. Dit gaf de aanzet tot de Reformatie en was het begin van een nieuw tijdperk in de religieuze en politieke geschiedenis van de westerse wereld.
Outstanding Universal Value
The Luther Memorials in Eisleben and Wittenberg, located in the State of Saxony-Anhalt in the centre of Germany, are associated with the lives of Martin Luther and his fellow-reformer Philipp Melanchthon. They include Melanchthon's house in Wittenberg, the houses in Eisleben where Luther was born (1483) and died (1546), his room in Wittenberg, the local church, and the castle church where, Luther posted his famous '95 Theses' on 31 October 1517, launching the Reformation and a new era in the religious and political history of the Western world.
As authentic settings of decisive events in the Reformation and the life of Martin Luther, the memorials in Eisleben and Wittenberg have an outstanding significance for the political, cultural, and spiritual life of the Western world that extends far beyond German borders.
Criterion (iv): The Luther Memorials in Wittenberg and Eisleben are artistic monuments of high quality, with their furnishings conveying a vivid picture of a historic era of world and ecclesiastical importance.
Criterion (vi): The Luther Memorials in Wittenberg and Eisleben are of Outstanding Universal Value bearing unique testimony to the Protestant Reformation, one of the most significant events in the religious and political history of the world, and constitute exceptional examples of 19th-century historicism.
The Luther Memorials in Wittenberg and Eisleben include all elements necessary to express the Outstanding Universal Value of a faith movement of world importance. The component parts of the serial property are of adequate size to ensure the features and processes of this historic period convey the significance of the property.
The close association of these inscribed buildings with the Lutheran Church and their role as memorials to the Reformation has meant that they have been the object of a variety of restoration and reconstruction projects over more than four centuries. Some of these have resulted in the embellishment of the buildings for the greater glory of the Reformation and its figures, while other projects consciously sought to return the buildings to the state they were in when the great Reformers were alive. ln terms of strict modern conservation practices, some of the past interventions may be considered to have had an adverse effect on the historical authenticity of the buildings. However, it might also be argued that those activities carried out in the 19th and early 20th centuries have a historical value of their own, and the spiritual meaning of this group of buildings must be taken into account. While most of the past interventions would not be practiced today, these actions were carried out for religious motivations rather than the buildings’ historical preservation. However, it is now certain that recent interventions have been – and those in the future shall be – conducted entirely in accordance with the accepted principles and methods of modern conservation.
Protection and management requirements
All the buildings included in this serial property are protected as single monuments under the legislation of State of Saxony-Anhalt, which requires that any work that may affect their status or condition be authorised by the competent provincial authority. Both Eisleben and Wittenberg have management systems and town centre plans that make special provision for the protection of the Luther Memorials and their buffer zones.
The two houses in Eisleben are owned by the Municipality and are in use as museums. Luther Hall and Melanchthon’s House in Wittenberg are owned by State of Saxony-Anhalt and managed by the Municipality of Wittenberg as museums. The Town Church in Wittenberg is owned and managed by the Evangelical town church parish, which uses it for religious services. The Castle Church is owned by the Evangelical church of the union in Berlin and used by the Evangelical seminary of Wittenberg and the Evangelical castle church parish.
These memorials are of outstanding universal value as bearing unique testimony to the Protestant Reformation, which was one of the most significant events in the religious and political history of the world, and as outstanding examples of 19th-century historicism. They are all associated with the lives of Martin Luther and his fellow-reformer Melanchthon.
In the 15th and 16th centuries Eisleben owed its great prosperity to copper and silver mining, Martin Luther was born there on 10 November 1483 at lodgings in a house in a street then known as Lange Gasse. The family moved in the following year to Mansfeld, some 10 km distant from Eisleben. After studying philosophy at Erfurt University, Martin Luther joined the Augustinian Order in 1505. He stayed there until 1510, when he transferred to the newly built Augustinian monastery at Wittenberg, where he also held the chair of Bible studies at the University. Two years later, on 31 October 1517, he launched the Reformation by nailing his 95 Propositions to the north door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg.
Luther developed his views on the authority of Holy Scripture and the doctrine of salvation by faith in publications in the years that followed, actions which led to his being excommunicated and banished from the empire by the imperial Diet of Worms in 1521. Frederick of Saxony extended his protection to Luther, whom he sheltered in his castle of Wartburg, enabling him to begin translating of the Bible into German. He returned to Wittenberg in March 1522, and in 1525 he broke with his monastic vows and married the former nun, Katharina von Bora.His household became the centre for reformists from all over Europe, and the family room that he created on the first floor was the setting for his 'table talks,' which were later to be published.
The following individual sites and monuments are included in the World Heritage site:
- Luther's birthplace (1483), Eisleben : one of the oldest town houses but heavily restored; it is noteworthy for a special mixture of historical importance and 19th-century historicism.
- House in which Luther died (1546), Meben : now used as a museum and offices for the Luther Memorials organization.
- Luther Hall, Wittenberg : a three-storey building housing the Luther Hall, part of the early 16th-century monastery.
- Melanchthon's house, Wittenberg : built in 1536 in typical Renaissance style - a narrow three-storey building crowned by a tripartite round-arched staggered gable. The internal arrangement of rooms is original; unlike the previous houses; it retains much of its 16th-century character.
- Town Church, Wittenberg : located near the Market Place in the centre of the old town;in late Gothic Style, with two massive towers. The most striking feature is the main altar, the work of Lucas Cranach the Elder and the Younger, and strongly influenced by Luther and Melanchthon in its iconography.
- Castle Church, Wittenberg : the castle rises above the medieval town, to the west, and the spire of its church crowns the north-western corner. Much of the original character of the castle has been lost, as a result of its having been reused as a barracks in the 19th century, but the church is largely as it was at the time of Luther. It is a long basilical structure with an eastern apse, a typical example of the German Hallenkirche in very late Gothic style. Access is through the western door; because of its symbolic importance, the second door on the north side, the famous Propositions Portal, is only used on special occasions. Its ogival arch is contemporary with the original construction in 1499, as an inscription testifies. The decoration around the door includes representations of Luther and Melanchthon, and the Latin text of the 95 Propositions is displayed on the bronze doors. The church houses the tombs of Luther and Melanchthon.
In the 15tn and 16th centuries Eisleben owed its great prosperity to copper and Silver mining, and this drew Hans Luder, father of the Reformer, there in 1483, to settle in the Petriviertel district. Martin Luther was born on 10 November 1483 at lodgings in a house in a street then known as Lange Gasse. The family moved in the following year to Mansfeld, some 10 km distant from Eisleben.
After studying philosophy at Erfurt University, Martin Luther joined the Augustinian Order in 1505. He stayed there until1510 when, following a visit to Rome, he transferred to the newly built Augustinian monastery at Wittenberg, where he also held the chair of Bible studies at the university. He lived in a cell in the southwestern part of the monastery, in a tower-like annex projecting over the town wall, and it was here that he began his study of the Epistles of St Paul in 1515. Two years later, on 31 October 1517, he launched the Reformation by nailing his 95 Propositions to the north door of the castle Church in Wittenberg. They were intended as an appeal to scholars to exchange opinions on the vexed question of indulgences, and resulted from his long study of human guilt, repentance, and possible absolution, which had been the subject of numerous sermons over the preceding two years from the pulpit of the Town Church, where he had been the preacher since 1514 (and where he was to remain in the same post for the rest of his life).
Luther developed his views on the authority of Holy scripture and the doctrine of salvation by faith in publications in the years that followed, actions which led to his being excommunicated and banished from the Empire by the Imperial Diet of worms in 1521. Frederick of Saxony extended his protection to Luther, whom he sheltered in his Castle of Wartburg, enabling him to begin his translation of the Bible into German. He returned to Wittenberg in March 1522, where his duties as preacher at the Town Church had been taken over by the radical reformer Andreas Bodenstein, known as Karlstadt. Karlstadt, unlike Luther, did not eschew violence and encouraged the disruption of church services. Luther's leading disciple, Philip Melanchthon, called the Reformer back to Wittenberg, where he restored the policy of non-violence in his famous invocative sermons. He followed these up with a long series of sermons devoted to his beliefs. A crucial event was the installation of Johannes Bugenhagen, one of Luther's supporters, as parish priest of Wittenberg in 1523, elected not by the Chapter of the All Saints' Foundation as was customary, but by the parish and the town council "according to St Paul's evangelical teaching." Luther devoted himself to the replacement of the Latin Mass by a version in the vernacular, and his German Mass, first used in October 1525 in the Town Church, is still in use today.
1525 was also the year of another decisive gesture on Luther's part, when he broke finally with his monastic vows and married the former nun, Katharina von Bora. They continued to live in the monastery, which had been dissolved following an assembly of German Augustinians in 1522 who declared themselves in favour of the principles of Evangelical freedom. Luther's household became the centre for reformists from all over Europe, and the family room that he created on the first floor of the building (now known as Luther's Room) was the setting for his •table talks," which were later to be published.
From this time onwards Luther devoted himself to the organization of the Evangelical parishes and their administration, taking the situation in Wittenberg as a model that has survived to the present day. Visitations were introduced to determine the size and number of parishes and their income. With the abolition of the consecration of priests, a method of examination and inauguration of clergymen was developed, the first ordinations being carried out by Luther in the Town Church in October 1535. He was also tireless in evolving the theology and liturgy for the new institution. The statutes of the Lutheran Church, the so-called Augsburg confession, were published in 1530, edited by Melanchthon.
Luther returned to the town of his birth, Eisleben, on 28 January 1546 to assist in an arbitration, and he took lodgings in the house of his friend Dr Drachstedt. His health deteriorated alarmingly while he was there, but he remained active until the end: only three days before his death on 18 February he preached a sermon at St Andrew's Church and ordained two clergymen. After lying in state in the church throughout the following day, his body was conveyed in solemn procession via Halle to Wittenberg, where it was laid to rest on 22 February
Source: Advisory Body Evaluation
- Message on the Occasion of the Floods Affecting a Number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites Tuesday, August 20, 2002