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Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier

Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier

Trier, which stands on the Moselle River, was a Roman colony from the 1st century AD and then a great trading centre beginning in the next century. It became one of the capitals of the Tetrarchy at the end of the 3rd century, when it was known as the ‘second Rome’. The number and quality of the surviving monuments are an outstanding testimony to Roman civilization.

Trèves – monuments romains, cathédrale Saint-Pierre et église Notre-Dame

Colonie romaine dès le Ier siècle de notre ère, puis grande métropole marchande à partir du siècle suivant, Trèves, au bord de la Moselle, devenue l’une des capitales de la Tétrarchie à la fin du IIIe siècle, fut qualifiée de « seconde Rome ». Elle apporte un témoignage exceptionnel sur la civilisation romaine par la densité et la qualité des monuments conservés.

ترييرنصب رومانية وكاتدرائية القديس بطرس وكنيسة السيدة

إنها مستوطنة رومانية تعود إلى القرن الأول ومن ثم مدينة تجارية كبيرة بدءاً من القرن الثاني. اصبحت تريير الواقعة على ضفاف الموزل إحدى عواصم الحكم الرباعي في نهاية القرن الثالث وقد سمّيت "روما الثانية". إنها شهادة فريدة على الحضارة الرومانية بكثافة النصب المصانة ونوعيتها.

source: UNESCO/ERI

特里尔的古罗马建筑、圣彼得大教堂和圣玛利亚教堂

特里尔位于摩泽尔河畔,在公元1世纪时是罗马殖民地。从公元2世纪开始,逐渐发展成了一个伟大的贸易中心。到了公元3世纪末,这里则成了四帝制(Tetrarchy)的首都之一,称作“第二罗马”。它的保护完好的大量历史遗迹都是罗马文明的有力证据。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Древнеримские памятники, кафедральный собор Св. Петра и церковь Богоматери в городе Трир

Трир, расположенный на реке Мозель, с первого века нашей эры был древнеримской колонией, а начиная со второго века – центром торговли. В конце III в. он стал одной из столиц Тетрархии, и признавался «Вторым Римом». Количество и качество уцелевших здесь памятников представляют собой выдающееся свидетельство древнеримской цивилизации.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Tréveris - Monumentos romanos, catedral de San Pedro e iglesia de Nuestra Señora

Situada a orillas del río Mosela, la ciudad de Tréveris fue colonia romana desde el siglo I a.C. Cien años después se había transformado en una importante metrópoli mercantil. A finales del siglo III fue una de las capitales de la Tetrarquía y se le dio el nombre de “segunda Roma”. La densidad y estado de conservación de sus monumentos hacen de ella testimonio excepcional de la civilización romana.

source: UNESCO/ERI

トリーアのローマ遺跡群、聖ペテロ大聖堂及び聖母マリア教会

source: NFUAJ

Romeinse monumenten, Sint Petersdom en Onze-Lieve-Vrouwe kerk in Trier

Trier ligt aan de Moezel. Het was een Romeinse kolonie uit de eerste eeuw na Christus en vervolgens een groot handelscentrum in de eeuw daarna. Aan het einde van de derde eeuw werd het een van de hoofdsteden van de Tetrarchie en kwam bekend te staan als het ‘tweede Rome’. Het aantal en de kwaliteit van de overgebleven monumenten getuigen op een bijzondere manier van de Romeinse beschaving, zoals de brug, de resten van de versterkte muur, het amfitheater en pakhuizen. Het meest bekend is de overgebleven Romeinse poort, ook wel Porta Nigra (zwarte poort) genoemd. De Sinter Petersdom is de oudste kerk van Duitsland. De bouw in opdracht van de Romeinse keizer Constantijn, begon in 326 na Christus. De Onze-Lieve-Vrouwe kerk was een van de eerste gotische kerken in Duitsland en stamt uit 1260.

Source: unesco.nl

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Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier © Silvan Rehfeld
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Trier, which is located on the Moselle river in the West of Germany, was a Roman colony from the 1st century A.D. and then a great trading centre in the beginning of the next century. It became one of the capitals of the Tetrarchy at the end of the 3rd century, when it was known as the 'second Rome'. The number and quality of the surviving monuments are an outstanding testimony to Roman civilization.

There is no place north of the Alps where so many important Roman buildings and such a concentration of traces of Roman settlement have been preserved as in Trier, the “Rome of the North”. In late classical times, Trier was one of the largest cities in the Roman Empire; it was the seat of the prefects of Gaul, Germania, Britannia and Hispania and after the imperial reforms of the Emperor Diocletian was the seat of the vice-emperor (Caesar) of the Western Empire.

While the structures built during the first and second centuries (the Moselle Bridge, the Barbara Baths, the Porta Nigra and the lgel Column) illustrate the richness of the commercial city, from which the garrison towns and fortresses on the Rhine were supplied, the monumental buildings from the reign of Constantine (Imperial Baths, Aula Palatina, Cathedral) are a visible expression of the immensity of imperial power and the claim to world domination made from the West of the Empire for the last time before the eclipse of the classical era (this claim was taken over in the East by the new capital of the Empire,  Constantinople, which thereby superseded Trier as well as Rome).

Of the buildings preserved from classical times, at least two of those described above are unparalleled. The Porta Nigra, with its state of preservation and its architectural layout (the combination of a fortification with the features of palace architecture) is a unique construction that is unlike any of the other preserved Roman city gates. Its development during the Middle Ages into a (likewise very unusual) double church also makes it a symbol of Western history. The monumental brick structure of the Basilica, with its lapidary form and the vast dimensions of its interior (the largest known interior from classical times) was the embodiment of the seat (sedes imperii) and the power of the Roman Empire.

One of the oldest church buildings in the Western world, the Cathedral has been a witness to the Christian faith since Constantine made Christianity a tolerated and supported religion in his Empire. Its architectural design unites elements of all the periods of classical, medieval and modern times, but has always been marked by the monumental concept that lies at its origins. The series of archbishops’ tombs covers with few interruptions the entire period from the 12th to the late 18th century. The Romanesque parclose, the renaissance pulpit and some of the Baroque marble altars belong to the major works of sculpture of their respective periods.

The Church of Our Lady is the earliest church built in French High Gothic style outside France. Its purity of style (it was completed in only 30 years) and the undeviating implementation of the architect’s plan for a basilica-shaped graduated central area, for which there were partial models, though no entire prototype, in France probably make it the most perfect example of the centralized construction concept in Gothic style.$ 

Criterion (i): The Porta Nigra, which is an enormous fortified gate built of large stones, flanked by two semi-circular four-storey towers,  is a unique achievement of 2nd century Roman architecture. The remains of the choir and the cloister of the two-level church built within its walls by Archbishop Poppo between 1034 and 1042 further enhance the monument.

Criterion (iii): Trier bears exceptional testimony to Roman civilisation due to the density and the quality of the monuments preserved: the bridge, the remains of the fortified wall, thermae, amphitheatre, storehouses etc. Funeral art, as demonstrated by the nomination of the Igel Column, and the craftsmanship of potters, glassworkers and minters flourished particularly.

Criterion (iv): Trier, along with Istanbul, is the example of a large Roman capital after the division of the Empire. The remains of the imperial palace, in addition to the Aula Palatina and the imperial thermae (the largest of the Roman Empire after those of Diocletian and Caracalla in Rome) are impressive in their enormity. Under the north basilica (now the Cathedral), the decoration of a painted ceiling, where members of the imperial family (most probably Helena and Fausta) appear to be identifiable, also bears testimony to the Aulic character of the architecture.

Criterion (vi): Trier is directly and tangibly associated with one of the major events of human history, Constantine's march against Maxence in 312, which was a prelude to the Edict of Milan (313) and which meant the recognition of Christianity.

Integrity

The layout of the city still corresponds to its 2nd century configuration, with the major thoroughfares of the cardo (Simeonstrasse) and the decumanus (Kaiserstrasse). The components of the World Heritage property are partly well-preserved ruins (Barbara Baths, Imperial Baths, Amphitheatre), monuments that regained their Roman appearance in the 19th century by deletion of later additions (Porta Nigra) or reconstruction (Basilica) or incorporate Roman structures (Moselle Bridge, Cathedral). The Igel Column survived unaltered, the Church of Our Lady replaced the south church of the Constantine Cathedral complex in the 13th century. By their layout and dimension, all Roman buildings furnish evidence of importance of the former capital of the Western Empire to this day. All components are treasured main historic monuments.

Authenticity

The efforts concerning the protection and preservation of the Roman monuments in Trier started at the beginning of the 19th century; they are closely connected with the development of monument protection in Prussia. Hence, these monuments are not only authentic documents of the Roman period, but also significant examples of the history of monument preservation in Germany. In World War II, only the Basilica and the Church of Our Lady were damaged by fire and bombs; they were carefully restored between 1954-1956 and 1946-1949 respectively. 

Protection and management requirements

The laws and regulations of the Federal Republic of Germany and the State of Rhineland-Palatinate guarantee the consistent protection of the Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier. They are listed monuments according to the Rhineland-Palatinate Monument Protection Act. Once finalised and approved, a buffer zone will exist for the property.

Conservation and construction issues are dealt with and managed in close cooperation between the owners (Federal State of Rhineland-Palatinate, City of Trier, Diocese of Trier), the responsible conservation authorities and building administrations, the Ministry for Science and Culture and the Trier-Commission, which was founded in 1926. The memorandum “Save the archaeological heritage of Trier” guides the conservation measures undertaken by the owners of the properties. It is presented by an advisory board, the Trier-Commission, which is continuously monitoring the Roman monuments. A Management Plan will be put up in the near future and will consist of a set of maintenance and conservation measures to ensure the further protection of the property, the sustainable use and the interpretation to the public.

Long Description

Trier is an example of a large Roman capital after the division of the empire. The remains of the Imperial Palace, in addition to the Aula Palatina and the Imperial Thermae, are impressive in their dimensions. The city bears exceptional testimony to Roman civilization owing to the density and the quality of the monuments preserved: the bridge, the remains of the fortified wall, thermae, amphitheatre, storehouses, etc. In particular, funerary art and the craftsmanship of potters, glassworkers, and moneyers flourished in the city.

Sometimes referred to as the 'second Rome', Trier had no claim to this title until the division of the empire by Diocletian in 286 and the institution of the Tetrarchy seven years later. However, even before this era, the Roman city was flourishing. The original centre of the colonial town, the regular insulae, for the most part built during the reign of Claudius (41-54), had extended so much by the mid-2nd century that a wall was built, enclosing the industrial quarters and the nearest thermae (baths) to the south, the amphitheatre, which extended beyond the decumanus maximus to the east, and, most likely, a hippodrome. At the same time, a sandstone and basalt bridge was built over the Moselle, extending westward from the decumanus, which replaced an earlier construction, the foundations of which have been found.

It was between 258 and 268, when Postumus took up residence there in order to foil the threats of the Franks and the Alemans on the limes (frontier) that Trier became a capital for the first time. When Constantius Chlorus, the ruler of Brittany and Gaul since the division of 293, moved there, it gave more permanence to this choice.

The reconstruction of the city, the name of which was changed to Treveris, was then undertaken on a large scale by Constantine the Great after 306. The restored amphitheatre and thermae, the Circus maximus, and what remains of an immense imperial palace, construction of which required the destruction of several insulae, reflect a deliberate political choice that grew out of the new balance established by the Tetrarchy. Trier is directly and tangibly associated with one of the major events of human history, Constantine's march against Maxentius in 312, which was a prelude to the Edict of Milan (313) and which signalled the recognition of Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire.

It was in Trier that in 326 Constantine founded the twin basilicas to commemorate his twenty years of power; they live on in the form of the Cathedral and the Church of Our Lady. After the death of the great emperor in 337, Trier was the place of residence of his son, Constantine II, and afterward of Valentinian and Gratian. As well as being the capital of the Empire, Trier was additionally the location of the Prefecture of Gaul, an immense administrative district which stretched from the limes germanicus to the Atlantic and from Hadrian's Wall to Tingitana in Mauritania.

During the reign of Constantine the Great, the primordial role of Trier in the spread of Christianity became manifest. The invasions of the Goths ushered in the decline of Trier. The imperial capital was then moved to Milan, which was the capital of the Gallic Prefecture of Arles. However, the evolution of Trier has been marked by historical continuity. The layout of the city still corresponds to its 2nd-century configuration, with the major thoroughfares of the cardo (Simeonstrasse) and the decumanus (bridge). For a long time, the major monuments were used in their original capacity: for example, the Aula Palatina ,where Constantine gave audiences, became the palatium of the Frankish counts before falling around 1200 into the hands of the Bishops of Trier who, also Prince-Electors, made this great hall a part of their palace between 1615 and 1647. The surviving Roman gate, known as the Porta Nigra, has undergone several changes of use

Others changed in terms of form but not in terms of use, such as Constantine's two basilicas, which were almost completely reconstructed between the 11th and 13th centuries and which fossilize, as it were, the primitive religious centre whose location has endured.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC