English Français

Diyarbakır Fortress and Hevsel Gardens Cultural Landscape

Diyarbakır Fortress and Hevsel Gardens Cultural Landscape

Located on an escarpment of the Upper Tigris River Basin that is part of the so-called Fertile Crescent, the fortified city of Diyarbakır and the landscape around has been an important centre since the Hellenistic period, through the Roman, Sassanid, Byzantine, Islamic and Ottoman times to the present. The site encompasses the Inner castle, known as İçkale and including the Amida Mound, and the 5.8 km-long city walls of Diyarbakır with their numerous towers, gates, buttresses, and 63 inscriptions. The site also includes the Hevsel Gardens, a green link between the city and the Tigris that supplied the city with food and water, the Anzele water source and the Ten-Eyed Bridge.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Paysage culturel de la forteresse de Diyarbakır et des jardins de l’Hevsel

Diyarbakir et son paysage, qui ont été construit sur un plateau rocheux dans la zone du haut bassin du Tigre connue comme la région du croissant fertile, ont été un centre important depuis la période Romaine, Sassanide, Byzantine, Islamique et Ottomane. La zone d'héritage, la zone connu comme İçkale (la citadelle) et le tumulus de Amida s'y trouvant, englobent la muraille de Diyarbakir avec ses tours et portes d'une longueur de 5,8 km et sur laquelle se trouve 63 inscriptions, les jardins du Hevsel qui nourrissent la ville en eau et aliments depuis des siècles et qui forment une liaison verte entre la ville et la rivière du Tigre, la source d'eau de Anzele et qui arrose les jardins du Hevsel ainsi que le pont aux dix arcades.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

قلعة ديار بكر والمشهد الثقافي لحدائق
إن مدينة ديار بكر المحصنة والمشهد الثقافي المحيط بها، الواقعة على جرف من أعالي حوض نهر دجلة، هي جزء من المنطقة المسماة "الهلال الخصيب"، كانت مركزاً مهماً منذ العصر الهيللينستي، وخلال العصور الرومانية والساسانية والبيزنطية والإسلامية والعثمانية حتى الوقت الحاضر. ويضم الموقع هضبة آمد المعروفة باسم "إيكال" (القلعة الداخلية)، وأسوار مدينة ديار بكر التي يبلغ طولها 5،8 كم، بما تشمله من العديد من الأبراج والبوابات والدعامات، والنقوش البالع عددها 63 نقشاً التي تعود إلى عصور مختلفة، فضلاً عن حدائق "هوسال"، وهي عبارة عن رابطة خضراء بين المدينة ونهر دجلة الذي كان يوفر للمدينة الأغذية والمياه.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

迪亚巴克要塞和哈乌塞尔花园文化景观
城防巩固的迪亚哈克要塞位于底格里斯河上游河谷,即人们所说的“富饶的新月形地带”上,周围地区自古希腊时代起就已经是一个重要的中心区,后经历了古罗老马时期,萨桑王朝时期,拜占庭时期阿拉伯帝国时期、奥斯曼帝国时期一直延续至今。这片文化遗产区包括被称为“艾科力”(Ikale)的亚米达土城(内城),5.8公里长的迪亚巴克城墙,包括城楼、城门以及扶垛,不同时期留下的63处遗址和哈乌塞尔花园,一条把城市和底格里斯河连起来的绿色纽带,为城市提供了水和食品供应。

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Культурный ландшафт «Крепость Диярбакыр и сады Хевсель»
Укрепленный город Диярбакыр расположен в верховьях бассейна реки Тигр на склоне, который является частью так называемого «Плодородного полумесяца». Город и окружающий его ландшафт складывались на протяжении веков под влиянием ряда сменявшихся цивилизаций. Диярбакыр стал важным центром в эллинистический период и оставался им в течение древнеримской эпохи, во время правления династии Сасанидов, в эпоху Византийской и Османской империи, в Исламский период и вплоть до наших дней. Объект включает курган (телль) на месте древнего города Амида, известный как İçkale (что означает «внутренний замок»), крепостную стену города Диярбакыр протяженностью 5 800 метров с многочисленными башнями, воротами, контрфорсами и 63 надписями, сделанными в разные исторические эпохи, а также плодородные сады Хевсель, расположенные между городом и рекой Тигр и снабжавшие население Диярбакыра пищей и водой.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Paisaje cultural de la fortaleza de Diyarbakır y jardines del Hevsel
Situada en un escarpe del curso superior del río Tigris, que forma parte del “Creciente Fértil”, la ciudad fortificada de Diyarbakır y su paisaje asociado han conocido numerosas culturas a lo largo de los siglos. El sitio fue un centro importante desde los periodos helenístico, romano, sasánida y bizantino y, más adelante, otomano e islámico hasta la actualidad. El sitio comprende el tell de Amida, llamado İçkale (castillo interior) , las murallas de Diyarbakır, de 5.800 metros de longitud, numerosas torres, puertas, contrafuertes y 63 inscripciones que datan de diferentes periodos históricos y, por último, los fértiles jardines de Hevsel, que unen la ciudad al río Tigris, que abastecen a la ciudad de víveres y de agua.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

ディヤルバクル城塞とエヴセル庭園の文化的景観
チグリス川上流域に位置するディヤルバルクは、全長5800m、幅5~12mの壮大な外壁に囲まれた城塞都市。外壁には多くの塔や補強のための控え壁、門を備え、都市の内外にはヘレニズムからオスマン朝、そして現在に至るまで重要拠点である町の歴史を刻んだ63の刻銘も見られる。市街とチグリス川を結ぶエヴセル庭園は、水や作物を市民に供給する役目を担ってきた。チグリス川とつながる景観自体も含め、これらの城塞と庭園は、ローマ時代から現在に至る重要な歴史の存在を証明している。

source: NFUAJ

Cultuurlandschap van het Diyarbakır fort en de Hevsel tuinen

De versterkte stad Diyarbakır ligt op een helling aan de oever van het bovenste stroomgebied van de rivier de Tigris, dat deel uitmaakt van een gebied dat bekend staat als de ‘vruchtbare halve maan’. Diyarbakır en het omliggende gebied zijn al sinds de Hellenistische tijd een belangrijk centrum – via de Romeinse, Sassanidische, Byzantijnse, Islamitische en Ottomaanse tijdperken tot het huidige. De site omvat het oude bolwerk Amida, dat lokaal bekend staat als İçkale (het binnenkasteel), de 5.8 kilometer lange stadsmuren van Diyarbakır met hun vele torens, poorten en steunberen en 63 inscripties uit verschillende tijden, evenals de Hevsel tuinen. Deze tuinen vormen een groene verbinding tussen de stad en de rivier de Tigris, die de stad van voedsel en water voorziet.

Source: unesco.nl

  • English
  • French
  • Arabic
  • Chinese
  • Russian
  • Spanish
  • Japanese
  • Dutch
Hevsel Gardens and fortress © Diyarbakır Metropolitan Municipality
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

The Diyarbakır Fortress and Hevsel Gardens Cultural Landscape is located on an escarpment in the Upper Tigris River Basin. The fortified city with its associated landscape has been an important centre and regional capital during the Hellenistic, Roman, Sassanid and Byzantine periods, through the Islamic and Ottoman periods to the present. The property includes the impressive Diyarbakır City Walls of 5800 metres – with its many towers, gates, buttresses and 63 inscriptions from different historical periods; and the fertile Hevsel Gardens that link the city with the Tigris River and supplied the city with food and water. The City Walls, and the evidence of their damage, repair and reinforcement since the Roman period, present a powerful physical and visual testimony of the many periods of the region’s history. The attributes of this property include the İçkale (Inner Castle), Diyarbakır City Walls (known as the Dişkale or Outer Castle), including its towers, gates and inscriptions, the Hevsel Gardens, the Tigris River and Valley, and the Ten-Eyed Bridge. The ability to view the walls within their urban and landscape settings is significant, as are the hydrological and natural resources that support the functional and visual qualities of the property.

Criterion (iv): The rare and impressive Diyarbakır Fortress and the associated Hevsel Gardens illustrate a number of significant historical periods within this region from the Roman period until the present through its extensive masonry city walls and gates (including many repairs and additions), inscriptions, gardens/fields and the landscape setting in relation to the Tigris River.

Integrity

The boundary of the property encloses all the attributes necessary to express the Outstanding Universal Value, including the importance of the landscape setting of the fortress and the proximity to the Tigris River. The City Walls demonstrate many periods of damage, repair and additions. While a section of the City Walls was demolished in 1930, and there are some examples of poorly planned, executed and documented conservation work completed within the past half century, the Walls are otherwise intact and generally in a good state of conservation. The state of conservation of the Hevsel Gardens is adequate, but vulnerable due to unauthorized settlements and businesses that have been established at the base of the citadel, and by blocked drains, water quality issues, and dams on the Tigris River that divert water upstream. Adequate buffer zones have been delineated. Overall, the integrity of the property is considered to be vulnerable due to development pressures in the city centre and in areas surrounding the property and its buffer zones.

Authenticity

Although the functions of the Fortress and gardens have changed over time, it has survived for many centuries and still clearly encircles the innermost core of the historic city. It is still possible to read the importance of these walls, and to recognise their materials, form and design. A substantial part of the 5.8km-long ring consisting of bastion walls, gates and towers of the old city remain, and meet the requirements for authenticity. The Hevsel Gardens have also maintained their historical and functional links to the city. While the authenticity of the attributes of the property is clear, the documentation of restoration work needs to be improved to continue to demonstrate the authenticity of restored sections.

Protection and management requirements

The Fortress walls and towers are protected through designation as an “Urban Site” in accordance with the decision of Regional Board of Cultural Heritage Conservation and the Law No. 2863 on Code of Protection of Cultural and Natural Properties. The İçkale (Inner Castle) is designated as a “1st degree Archaeological Site”, requiring permission from the Diyarbakir Regional Board of Cultural Heritage Conservation before any new construction or physical intervention can occur. While scientific excavations can be permitted, no building or other development activity is allowed. Special provisions for the historical City Walls, towers and wall gates are provided in the Suriçi Urban Site Conservation Plan; and permission from the responsible municipality is required before any new constructions or physical interventions occur in the settlements outside the City Walls and in Hevsel Gardens. All archaeological studies and excavations in these areas are monitored and controlled by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Diyarbakır Museum Directorate. The Law No. 2872 of Environmental Law controls and administers the agricultural activities in the Tigris Valley and Hevsel Gardens. Diyarbakır Provincial Directorate of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, the Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs Diyarbakır Provincial Directorate and State Hydraulic Works are also the responsible institutions. Moreover, the Soil Conservation Board, which is included in decisions about Hevsel Gardens and Tigris Valley, conducts its works in accordance with the “Application Regulations on Soil Conservation and Land Use Law”.

Within the buffer zones, legal permission is required from the responsible municipality before any new constructions and/or physical interventions are carried out. Permit mechanisms are administered by the Diyarbakır Regional Board of Cultural Heritage Conservation for any new construction or physical intervention for registered assets in Historical Suriçi District. Permits should be given in accordance with the provisions of Conservation Plan in Suriçi District, although the town planning regulations are advisory provisions for private owners, and the coordination with the management of the World Heritage property is not established. All archaeological studies or excavations carried out in the buffer zones are monitored and controlled by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Diyarbakır Museum Directorate.

Legal protection is in place for the key attributes of the property, although the coordination of these provisions could be improved, and the protection of the buffer zones could be strengthened.

In order to develop suitable policies for the Diyarbakır Fortress and the Hevsel Gardens management components, seven implementation zones have been established – three of these concern the Diyarbakır Fortress, and the remaining four zones are associated with the Hevsel Gardens. The buffer zone located inside the city walls (Suriçi) has three planning zones based on conservation issues and the ability to directly affect the condition or views to the City Walls. The buffer zone encircling the outside of the property is divided into nine zones based on the area’s social and economic functions.

Most of the proposed management structures are yet to be implemented. The property will be managed by the Management Directorate, led by a Site Manager appointed by the Municipality. Supervision of the implementation of the Management Plan will be done by the Supervision Unit. The Site Manager will be supported by the Advisory Board and the Coordination and Supervision Board. The Advisory Board will be charged with reviewing the plan and making suggestions on the revision of the mid-term strategy and revision of the Management Plan every 5 years. The Coordination and Supervision Board has the authority to make decisions about site management and is responsible for the implementation of the Management Plan in relation to Regulations established in 2005 in accordance with the Protection of Cultural and Natural Properties Law. The Coordination and Supervision Board is supported by the Education Board – responsible for training of personnel; and the Science Board – responsible for all scientific activities arising from the Management Plan.

The management system is not yet fully operating, and a complex range of organisations are involved. As a result, the overall functioning of the management systems is complex and might need further improvement to clarify responsibilities. The Management Plan for the property consists of 6 themes that focus on restructuring economic activities, conservation processes (for tangible and intangible heritage), planning activities, administrative improvements and risk management. The management of the buffer zones (particularly in relation to the Suriçi District) is not yet well coordinated with the management of the property.
Activities (1)